Category Archives: Natural History Observations

Dragons from the Old World

The Neotropical and Oriental realms both were once a part of Gondwanaland. Interestingly, both of these realms exhibit same ‘type’ of lineages occupying equivalent niches. Boas dominate the Neotropical zone whereas pythons flourish in the Oriental. Similarly, in the Old World (or Oriental or Indo-Malayan realm), there are lizards belonging to family Agamidae which exhibit uncanny parallels to Anolis sp. in their natural history.

CSC_5284One example is from Yelagiri Hills in the Eastern Ghats region of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. This is Psammophilus dorsalisDuring the breeding season, males of this species turn their drab and dull dorsal region to bright yellow or red to impress conspecific females. The brighter the male, the more chance he has to win over females. Males display such behavior for the entire day; at night these lizards hide under rocks.

When equally bright males encounter each other, competition is settled by ‘ducking’ heads and throwing off the opponent from the rock.

Anolis punctatus Mating and Feeding

Now for another story from the rainforests of eastern Ecuador. While I was passing through camp on my way to lunch at the Tiputini Biodiversity Station, I stumbled across this pair of Anolis punctatus mating only about five and a half feet above the ground on a small tree. I don’t know when they began, but they disbanded about five minutes after I found them. I probably had something to do with this as the male displayed immediately after separating from the female which you can see below.

Interestingly, the male seems to have a piece of debris stuck in his eye, which he eventually flicks out of his eye at the 40 second mark after mating. Another interesting note is that I spotted the same female (identified by dorsal spot patterning) in the same tree one day earlier where it was perched much higher on a thin branch covered with leaves.

Before I could contemplate what misstep I took in my life that brought me to sit and record the act of two lizards copulating on video, I was preoccupied with watching what this pair would do next. The male split after two hours when he was disturbed by a passing scientist. Prior to disappearing into the canopy he displayed a few times and ate an unidentified insect.

Post-coital "Anolis punctatus" malePost-coital "Anolis punctatus" female

A photoshoot took place after the act. The piece of debris is still visible on the male’s face.

The female stuck around longer and quite low to the ground the entire time. After a few hours she started foraging by perching on Heliconia stems, running into a small patch of leaf litter to retrieve an insect and then returning to another stalk to eat her meal and then stake out the next. I can’t make out what arthropods she was eating, but notice how she gives a few slight head motions throughout (notably at 0:42 and 1:09). This may have been a motion to aid in swallowing food, but I’ve also seen the same female and one other perform this movement outside of the foraging contexts  which leads me to believe it’s a headbob.

Thanks for watching!

Bark Anole Battle Scars in Miami, FL

As it starts to heat up here in Miami, anole interactions are at the highest while males try to stake their claim for the most attractive territories in town. Earlier during an afternoon stroll around South Miami I came across this bark anole (Anolis distichus) that looks like it’s had a pretty rough time recently!

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I assume this injury to his nape is probably from another lizard, likely another male A. distichus, incurred during a territorial dispute, and not a predation attempt. Either way, it looks like it didn’t dent his confidence too much!

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Great Egret Eating a Crested Anole in Miami, FL

Here is a video taken by University of Miami PhD student Joanna Weremijewicz at the Fairchild Tropical Botanical Gardens in Miami, FL last Friday (20th March 2015). There have been lots of posts talking about the predation potential of egrets (and other wading birds) on anoles here on AA similar to this (1,2,3,4), but I think this could be the first one recording predation of A. cristatellus? Cool video!

Amazonian Anole Displays

The last time I was on Anole Annals, I posted about the peculiar display of Anolis ortonii from the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in eastern Ecuador. Nearly two years later, I was lucky enough to return to the area for another month and bring back some more videos of Amazonian anoles. Unfortunately I never saw Anolis trachyderma or A.chrysolepis show off their dewlaps, but here are three other species.

First up is Anolis fuscoauratus. I didn’t encounter many individuals of this species compared to my first trip, perhaps the differences in seasonality are to blame. I luckily shot this footage only a few days before leaving.

Next is Anolis punctatus, which was surprisingly abundant. I’ll be posting more videos of A. punctatus later as I was lucky enough to observe many other behaviors, but here is the display of at least three different individuals. All of these lizards were found high up in the canopy except for the second to last clip.

Finally, while not as visibly abundant as its cousin, I was fortunate to come across Anolis transversalis. I was photographing some Plica plica on a large ficus, when this lizard descended and scampered across the buttress roots. Eventually it jumped onto an adjacent thin tree and displayed a few times before climbing higher into the canopy.

But this story ends on a sad note. Four days later I was around the same tree when an anole ran down the trunk with an insect in its mouth.

I assume it was the same individual from the other day given the same location, but I can’t be sure. This time he was displaying more vigorously before his arrogance got the best of him. While I was adjusting my camera to get closer a bird swooped in and when I looked up there was no lizard. I never saw A. transversalis on that tree again.

(Anolis transversalis)

Rest In Peace

Postura de Anolis huilae: Communal Nesting!

En el marco de mi investigación sobre la Eco-fisiología térmica de Anolis huilae, me encontré (en mi finca) con un par de posturas, una con cuatro huevos y otra con 22 huevos. Este hallazgo me sorprendió, al encontrar diferentes tamaños en los huevos.

Postura de Anolis huilae, Juntas (Ibagué-Tolima-Colombia)

Postura de Anolis huilae, Juntas (Ibagué-Tolima-Colombia)

En mi curiosidad por determinar si efectivamente se trataba de huevos de la especie en mención, me di a la tarea de abrir uno para corroborar, encontrando un individuo en un estadío de su formación (el ejemplar fue donado al Laboratorio de Herpetología de la Universida del Tolima).

Embrión de Anolis huilae.

Embrión de Anolis huilae.

He comenzado hacerle el seguimiento a esa postura, in situ, midiendo y pesando cada uno de los huevos.

Considero que este hallazgo aportará detalles acerca de la historia de vida de Anolis huilae, aún desconocida.

Updates on Anolis lividus from Montserrat’s Volcanic Exclusion Zone

Image of the 1995 eruption of the Soufrière Hills volcano on Montserrat.

Image of the 1995 eruption of the Soufrière Hills volcano on Montserrat. Photo from Wikipedia.

On July 18, 1995 something big happened on a tiny little island in the Lesser Antilles. The Soufrière Hills volcano erupted on Montserrat, an island only about 40 square miles in size that is nestled between Nevis, Antigua, and Guadeloupe. The eruption buried the (then) capital city of Plymouth under several meters of ash and pyroclastic flow. More than a dozen nearby towns were also destroyed. Residents in the south of the island had to evacuate, leaving their homes and land behind. Since then, Montserrat has experienced considerable volcanic activity. In fact, when I was on the island in 2010, I witnessed a major dome collapse, an event that was magnificent to see on the ground, and was even observable from space. I’ve spent some time trying to find Anolis lividus, Montserrat’s endemic anole, across the island, with particular focus on finding it in the south, where volcanic impact has been greatest. Montserrat is basically divided in half by the Belham River Valley, a barren bed of ash that effectively separates the habitable north of the island from the more inhospitable south. I’ve spent many hours in the south of the island searching for A. lividus over a few years. In my experience, the lizards were not abundant (if to be found at all) south of the Belham. Granted, access to this region was very restricted, so I didn’t get to spend a whole lot of time there, but I only ever saw two lizards (a mating pair) on a tree in Richmond Hill, a part of the southern half that’s in Zone C. Towns in Zone C are close to the Belham River Valley and are occasionally opened up for visitors when the volcano has been quiet for a while. Currently, Zone C has ‘unrestricted access’, meaning people can visit day and night without an escort. There is also a relatively unexplored portion of Montserrat southeast of the volcano (the South Soufrière Hills) that has plenty of good habitat and is isolated by the rest of the island by the volcano. There have been a few focused expeditions to that part of the island (for example, to collect individuals of Leptodactylus fallax, the ‘mountain chicken’ frog, for a breeding program), but I haven’t been able to get there.

My interest in A. lividus lay mostly in understanding how recolonization works. Can the lizards cross the Belham River Valley, or is it too hot and inhospitable? As access to inner zones increases, will humans mediate transport into the south of the island? If they get there, will they persist? Although I haven’t been to the island in a few years, I remain very interested in the system. I recently received news on Anolis lividus from Nicolas Tirard, a new resident on the island. He had visited Zone C (which is currently open to daytime visitors) and found an individual of A. lividus. Nicolas informed me that he spotted the lizard (a male) on the terrace of an abandoned home in Richmond Hill, which is the same neighborhood where I found lizards almost six years earlier. Nicolas spent about 30 minutes canvassing this area and only found one lizard. For anyone with experience finding anoles in the Caribbean, particularly in the Lesser Antilles, we know that they are generally much more abundant than that. So I would reckon that lizards in Zone C are probably still pretty scant. I wonder if the lizard Nicolas did find descended from previous inhabitants in that area (for example, from the mating pair I observed earlier), or whether there have been more recent dispersal events. He went back on another occasion to St. George’s Hill, which he says is more densely forested than Richmond Hill, and saw three lizards there. When I visited St. George’s Hill a few years ago it was pretty barren, so clearly the habitat is recovering there.

Anolis lividus from Richmond Hill, Montserrat.

Anolis lividus from Richmond Hill, Montserrat. Photo by Nicolas Tirard.

I asked Nicolas if he thought that humans were transporting the lizards (accidentally or otherwise) to Zone C through increased transit. Nicolas reckons the lizards can get there on their own right now. He says, “I don’t think it is a human-mediated recolonization, even if there is traffic going back and forth, because the vegetation has grown again in the Belham river, and it is probable that anole can now cross it by themselves.” The finding that the Belham is vegetated is interesting – during my visits there it was a hot, barren bed of ash. The only herps I saw there were enterprising iguanas, boldly basking on piles of hot ash. I also saw an iguana on the roof of a house once in Richmond Hill. As the exclusion zone becomes more accessible, I hope that people will try to find A. lividus (and other organisms) there and, hopefully, share their observations with the Anole Annals.

Nicholas shares his observations on his blog. He has also seen a blind snake (Typhlops) and several iguanas in the exclusion zone. Check out his blog for more.

Another image of the male Anolis lividus spotted in Richmond Hill.

Another image of the male Anolis lividus spotted in Richmond Hill. Photo by Nicolas Tirard.

A Failed Anole Predation Attempt

In the wake of the distressing news that even monkeys eat anoles with abandon, it’s a relief to see that there are at least some creatures that try to eat anoles, but fail. A 1979 report in The Wilson Bulletin by van Riper et al.  describing the the habits of the Red-Whiskered Bulbul in Hawaii, says this about these birds’ attempts at saurophagy:

On August 3rd 1977, a bulbul was observed chasing a large (ca. 20 cm in length) chamelion (Anolis sp.) in a circular pattern down an octopus tree; it was unsuccessful in capturing the reptile.

Such a vivid image, one that’s noteworthy for two reasons. First, while data on successful predation events are rare, descriptions of failed predation attempts are even rarer.  As bulbuls are mostly frugivorous, it isn’t too surprising that this lizard got away.

Second, like the battle between anoles and day geckos that we’re all eagerly anticipating, this interaction between two invasives, a New World lizard and an Old World bird, epitomizes the Anthropocene.

Red Whiskered Bulbul in southern India. Photo by adrashajoisa on Wikimedia.

Red Whiskered Bulbul in southern India. Photo by adrashajoisa on Wikimedia.

Communal Nesting in Anolis angusticeps

Previous posts have discussed communal nesting behavior among a number of anole species, whereby females deposit eggs in the same cavity. A new paper by AA‘s own Michele Johnson and friends extends this growing body of observations, stretching all the way back to Stan Rand’s 1967 work. This behavior has been previously reported for the Cuban Twig Anole (Anolis angusticeps) in Cuba, though apparently not in the Bahamas. According to Robinson et al. (2014), at least nine West Indian anole species are now known to engage in communal nesting, with others potentially to be added. AA has also called attention to a tenth mainland species (A. lionotus), described in Montgomery et al. (2011). So these observations bring to mind some questions: what intrinsic factors of a nest cavity draw multiple females to oviposit there? Are female offspring returning to the site in subsequent years to lay their own eggs? Does this behavior vary individually or regionally? Let us know if you have some of your own observations.

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Communal nest of Anolis angusticeps on South Bimini. Figure 2 from Robinson et al. 2014, photo by B. Kircher.

 

Finding the “Rare” Anolis duellmani

Like many quests to find rare herps, this is a story of courage, persistence, and strength. Just kidding; it was a piece of cake.

Anolis duellmani was described by Fitch and Henderson (1973) based on four specimens from the southern slope of the Volcán San Martín Tuxtla, Veracruz, Mexico. Even though the phylogenetic position of A. duellmani is uncertain, no additional morphological variation had been described for the species. As part of a major effort led by Dr. Adrián Nieto-Montes de Oca and Dr. Steven Poe to untangle the systematics of Mesoamerican anoles, Israel Solano-Zavaleta, Levi N. Gray, and I went to Los Tuxtlas to search for the elusive species.

Continue reading Finding the “Rare” Anolis duellmani

Registro de Copula de Anolis huilae

Copula de Anolis huilae en Ibagué (Colombia).

Copula de Anolis huilae.

En el marco de mi tesis de maestría sobre la Ecofisiología térmica de Anolis huilae tuve la oportunidad de observar, creería que sería el primer registro, una pareja de ésta especie copulando en el tronco de un árbol. Evento que lo considero relevante por la falta de información acerca de ésta especie.

El estudio lo estoy desarrollando en el Corregimiento de Juntas, Ibagué (Colombia). Mi objetivo es conocer aspectos de la fisiología térmica de A. huilae y relacionarla con las temperaturas ambientales y microambietales de su hábitat.  Para la colecta de datos me estoy apoyando con una cámara termográfica infrarroja (metodología no invasiva) y modelos de cobre con data loggers insertos en ellos.

Imagen termográfica de copula de Anolis huilae.

Imagen termográfica de copula de Anolis huilae.

En una primera etapa del estudio estoy averiguando si A. huilae es una especie heliotérmica o tigmotérmica; como también, si es termoconformadora activa o termoconformadora pasiva. Datos que próximamente los compartiré.

Observaciones comportamentales, no registradas,  ayudarán a conocer más aspectos de la biología y ecología de ésta especie, de la que aún falta mucho por descubrir. Así mismo, he observado en esta localidad la simpatría con otro anolis, Anolis antonii.

*****

English translation via the internet:

Record of Copulation of Anolis Huilae

In the framework of my master’s thesis on the thermal ecophysiology of Anolis huilae, I had the opportunity to observe, you would not believe that would be the first record, a couple of this species copulating in the trunk of a tree. Event that is considered relevant by the lack of information about this species.

The study, I am developing in the Corregimiento of seals, Ibagué (Colombia). My goal is to understand aspects of the thermal physiology of A. huilae and relate it to the ambient temperatures and microenvironments of its habitat. For the collection of data I am supporting with a infrared thermal imager (non-invasive methods) and copper models with data loggers inserts in them.

In the first stage of the study, I am enquiring whether A. huilae thermoregulation is a species or is thigmothermic; also, whether it is an active or passive thermoregulator. I will share the data soon.

Behavioral observations, unregistered, help you learn more aspects of the biology and ecology of this species, which still lack much to discover. Also, I’ve seen in this locality the sympatry with another anole, Anolis antonii.

More Morphological Oddities in Anolis sagrei

A few months ago, I shared with you some of the odder morphological variations my field assistants and I encountered while measuring Anolis sagrei in Gainesville, FL. We went on to measure quite a few more lizards, and saw quite a few more oddities, as well as some fairly gruesome injuries. Here are some of my favourite examples:

1. A far better picture of a doubly-regenerated tail.

double regeneration

2. A jaw injury that resulted in the left and right sides of the jaws being dissociated from each other.

jaw injury

3. A cut hyoid. I imagine this lizard was no longer able to extend his dewlap.

hyoid

4. A nasty head injury. We saw this lizard three or four more times after we measured him, and his wound seemed to have healed up completely.

head injury

5. A brutal leg injury.

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6. A male with not only an impressive tail crest but also some nice red tail coloration.

tail crest

 

The Dewlap of Cophosaurus texanus

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Here at Anole Annals, we can appreciate a good dewlap. In particular, a pair of agamid clades, namely the genera Draco and Sitana + Otocryptis, arguably do extensible throat fans even better than Anolis. But dewlaps are actually found in many other iguanian lizards, covered by AA posts here and here.

Today I thought I’d share a lesser-known dewlap, that of Cophosaurus texanus, known as the greater (greatest?) earless lizard, and a legitimate candidate for best lizard coloration if you ask me. In my experience, these lizards don’t often dewlap, but will occasionally hit you with a few push-ups, and reliably wag their striped tails at you before darting away — though they are upstaged in this latter respect by Callisaurus draconoides. On a recent walk in the Rincon mountains near Tucson, Arizona, I encountered a particularly saucy individual, and thought I would share.

Here’s a series of photos showing a pushup/dewlap combo being delivered. By the way, Cophosaurus texanus are known to display at potential predators (see Dial 1986, American Naturalist 127:1).

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Another shot, the dewlap is being retracted here:

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As far as dewlaps go, its not the most impressive, but there certainly looks to be some cartilaginous rod action involved, as in Anolis. But wait – notice anything unusual in the above photos? Yes, there looks to be a parasite peeking out through the lizard’s nostril. Here’s a closer look:

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Pretty gnarly. I’m not sure what the parasite is, it looks to me like it could be a maggot (hey, speaking of maggots, remember anole throat maggots?). Hope I didn’t just ruin anyone’s lunch!

Anyway, if you’re interested in learning more about Cophosaurus, here is an excellent write-up written by Robert Bezy and provided by the Tucson Herp Society.

Dwarf Boa Versus Giant Twig Anole

Figure 1. Sequence of the unsuccessful predation by Tropidophis melanurus on Anolis porcus. See Torres et al. 2014 for the full description. Photos by Carlos Pérez-Penichet.

Snake predation on anoles has been widely documented on this blog (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). Torres and colleagues, writing in Herpetology Notes, add to this collection with stunning pictures of a dusky dwarf boa, Tropidophis melanurus, constricting an Anolis porcus, a member of the Chamaeleolis clade.  While the individuals were found entwined on the ground, they likely fell out of nearby tree since A. porcus is a highly arboreal species. The anole was ultimately spared an unpleasant fate, but it was unclear whether the lizard was too big for the snake to consume or if the snake was disturbed by the observers.

Torres, J., C. Pérez-Penichet, and O. Torres. 2014. Predation attempt by Tropidophis melanurus (Serpentes, Tropidophiidae) on Anolis porcus (Sauria, Dactyloidae). Herpetology Notes 7: 527-529.

Anoles (Sort of) Eat Mice

geckoeatsmouse

After last week’s report about Tokay geckos consuming small rats, readers may be concerned that their favorite lizard is lacking a little in the predator department. Fear no longer! In this recent article, Torres and Acosta describe an Anolis porcatus observed carrying a dead house mouse. While the authors suspect that the mouse was disoriented by venom pellets when it was caught (and that the mouse was probably too big for the lizard to consume), it still goes to show that anoles have plenty of killer instinct. This plucky A. porcatus is especially impressive since almost all previous reports of predation by anoles on small vertebrates feature much larger crown giants.

Torres, J. and M. Acosta. 2014. Predation attempt by Anolis porcatus (Sauria, Dactyloidae) on Mus musculus (Rodentia, Muridae). Herpetology Notes 7:525-526.

New Anole Distribution Records: Do Lizards in Potted Plants at Home Depot Constitute Range Extensions?

As mentioned in the previous post, the journal Herpetological Review is an excellent resource for anole natural history information. A frequent contribution is range extensions, often by county, for both native and introduced species. Range extensions are important pieces of information for biologists, as accurate county-level distributional data is crucial in many important exercises, such as mapping species richness in a region or identifying range boundaries (and then asking why the range ends in certain areas). This quarter’s issue has the following two range extensions.

Christopher Thawley and Fern Graves report a new county record for Anolis carolinensis in Bullock Co., Alabama, just south of Auburn. This apparently fills a hole in the confirmed range of the species in that part of Alabama.

Cory Adams and friends report an extension of Anolis sagrei range in Angelina Co., Texas. Interestingly, this specimen, as well as a specimen from Nacogdoches, Texas, were found in potted plants in Home Depot and Lowe’s garden departments. The authors posit that these animals turning up in East Texas are not range extensions, as in owing to the expansion of individuals from established ranges, but instead are the result of novel introductions facilitated by interstate transport of goods such as potted plants. If this is the case, these animals could have come from anywhere, not just the invasion front along the Gulf states. In other words, if the potted plants are coming from, say, Florida, then these animals would be leapfrogging their established conspecifics to potentially start new colonies and expand the range.

Adams, CK, D. Saenz, and JD Childress. 2014. Anolis sagrei (Brown Anole). Distribution. Herpetological Review 45: 282.

Thawley, CJ and F. Graves. 2014. Anolis carolinensis (Green Anole). Distribution. Herpteological Review 45: 282.

Anolis trachyderma Loses a Sleeping-on-Leaf Battle with a Snake

In January 2013 I was in the Amazon rainforest in Peru near Iquitos, looking for herps to photograph. This was my first significant visit to Amazonia and I was surprised at the dearth of anoles. I hadn’t (yet) caught up on enough anole literature to realize that the anole density in that area is so very much smaller than the anole density in the Caribbean or Florida. On a good anole-finding day, I only saw perhaps three or four during the day, and another five or six sleeping at night on leaves and twigs. Most of the anoles I encountered were Anolis trachyderma, such as these two sleepers. Alas, their leafy beds were perhaps not as safe as they might have hoped…

Anolis trachyderma sleeping on a leaf at night near Iquitos, Peru.

Anolis trachyderma sleeping on a leaf at night near Iquitos, Peru. 

Continue reading Anolis trachyderma Loses a Sleeping-on-Leaf Battle with a Snake

Dewlap Plus Tail-wagging in Anolis cristatellus wileyae

Anolis cristatellus wileyae on St. Thomas wagging its tail as it shows its dewlap.

Crack that whip!

This proud Anolis cristatellus wileyae had snuck into the Butterfly Farm a few minutes’ walk from the cruise port in St. Thomas, U.S.V.I. So had a few dozen of its conspecifics, but this was the only one showing off its pretty two-toned dewlap while lashing its tail back and forth dramatically. Perhaps this is a common behavior, but it’s not one that I had seen before. Do other anole species also do this kind of double-showoff?

Japalura – The Many Shades

Northeast India is a rather unexplored place even though it boasts huge biodiversity, mostly due to the numerous rivers and mountains that dot the landscape and form formidable barriers to dispersal. A majority of the taxa found in this region still await valid descriptions. I have been working on amphibians in the state of Arunachal Pradesh (one of the seven states that form the ‘Northeast’) during my undergraduate years and during my field work, I came across some very striking gular color morphs of the genus Japalura. The genus Japalura consists of 26 species which range from Northeast India in the west to Japan and Taiwan in the east, north to Shaanxi province in northern China and south to northern Vietnam. Of these, four species have been so far reported from Northeast India.

From the photographs taken in the field, Ulrich Manthey identified all of them as belonging Japalura andersoniana. If all of them are the same species, the variation in the gular coloration indeed comes across as striking. There was a note in Sauria (Bhosale et al 2013) that listed various morphs, but no speculations on what could be the possible causes. I have seen these lizards in Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary (EWS) and Talley Valley Wildlife Sanctuary (TVWS). The published note has color morphs from another place – Kamlung Wildlife Sanctuary (refer to the map for relative locations of the two places within Arunachal Pradesh)

The locations of Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Talley Valley Wildlife Sanctuary and Kamlung Wildlife Sanctuary

The locations of Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Talley Valley Wildlife Sanctuary and Kamlung Wildlife Sanctuary

The observations for each specimen with the corresponding number from #01- #05 is summarised from my field notes. Note: All the animals were encountered opportunistically; there was no dedicated sampling effort toward lizards whatsoever. Elevation recorded from a Casio altimeter watch.

Fig 2.

The different color morphs of Japalura species – The field notes are listed corresponding to #01-#05

#01 – EWS, June 2012, Adult, It is the most commonly occurring color morph in EWS. I have also seen juveniles with similar throat colors, Seen in the elevation range 1100m – 1600m asl.

#02 – EWS, May 2012, Adult, encountered at an elevation of around 1800m asl. I haven’t come across a second individual resembling this throat coloration.

#03 – EWS, June 2012, Juvenile, encountered at around 1990m asl; I have never encountered an adult with such coloration.

#04 – Juvenile, throat not very well developed, could possibly be a female, encountered at an elevation around 1350m asl where I have encountered larger individuals with no throat color.

#05 – Juvenile, however, an expedition the previous year by a different group found an adult with similar throat color, the only color morph seen in Talley Valley.

Even if they are the same species, it is quite possible that the different throat color morphs are divergent populations breeding in isolation, especially because apart from #01, the other color morphs have been reported from only particular localities. It is also important to survey more of the Northeast to see if the unexplored areas are home to novel throat color morphs. Speculations with just a few records would be rather vague.

Green Anoles Sunning in San Diego

Zookeeper Amber Carney sent these photos of what is likely Anolis carolinensis.  The lizards were spotted in Balboa Park, San Diego, CA, at 3pm on the 19th of April. They’ve been reported in Los Angeles but, to the best of my and Jonathan Losos’s knowledge, never in San Diego. Has anyone else observed wild anoles in San Diego? Range expansion!

This looks like a female to me.

This looks like a female to me.

A male, if I had to guess.

A male, perhaps.