Recent Anole Literature

Alföldi, J., Di Palma F., Grabherr, M., Williams C., Kong L., Mauceli E., Russell P., Lowe C.B., Glor, R.E., Jaffe J.D., Ray D.A., Boissinot S., Shedlock A.M., Botka C., Castoe T.A., Colbourne J.K., Fujita M.K., Moreno, R.G., Hallers B.F.T., Haussler D., Heger A., Heiman D., Janes D.E., Johnson J., de Jong, P.J., Koriabine M.Y., Sanger T.J., Searle S., Smith J.D., Smith Z., Swofford R., Turner-Maier J., Wade J., Young S., Zadissa A., Edwards S.V., Glenn T.C., Schneider C.J., Losos J.B., Lander E.S., Breen M., Pontig C.P., Lindblad-Toh, K. 2011. The genome of the green anole lizard and a comparative analysis with birds and mammals. Nature 477: 587-591.

Andrés Velasco, J., Gutiérrez-Cárdenas, P.D.A., and A. Quintero-Angel. 2011. A new species of Anolis of the aequatorialis group (Squamata: Iguania) from the central Andes of Colombia. Herpetological Journal 20: 231-236.

Ascher, J., Bates, W., and N. Julienne. 2012. Assessment of Xylazine for Euthanasia of Anoles (Anolis carolinensis and Anolis distichus).  Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 51: 1–5.

Ávila, R.W., Cardoso, M.W., Oda, F.H., and R.J. Da Silva. 2011. Helminths from Lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) at the Cerrado of Goias State, Brazil. Comparative Parasitology 78: 120-128.

Ayala-Varela, F.P. and O. Torres-Carvajal. 2010. A new species of dactyloid anole (Iguanidae, Polychrotinae, Anolis) from the southeastern slopes of the Andes of Ecuador. ZooKeys 53:59-73.

Ayala-Varela. F.P. and J.A. Velasco. 2010. A new species of dactyloid anole (SQUAMATA: IGUANIDAE) from the western Andes of Ecuador. Zootaxa 2577:46-56.

Bienentreu, J. F., Hertz, A., Köhler, G., and S. Lotzkat. 2013. Distribution extension for Anolis salvini Boulenger, 1885 (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae), in western Panama. Check List 9: 169–174.

Bock, B.C., Zapata, A.M., and V.P. Páez. 2010. Survivorship rates of adult Anolis mariarum (Squamata: Polychrotidae) in two populations with differing mean and asymptotic body sizes. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 50:43-50.

Bursey, C.R., Goldberg, S.R., Telford, S.R.J., and L.J. Vitt. 2012. Metazoan Endoparasites of 13 Species of Central American Anoles (Sarnia: Polychrotidae: Anolis) with a Review of the Helminth Communities of Caribbean, Mexican, North American, and South American Anoles. Comparative Parasitology 791: 75–132.

Cabrera-Guzman, E., and V.H. Reynoso. 2010. Use of sleeping perches by the lizard Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae) in the fragmented tropical rainforest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 81: 921-924.

Calderón-Espinosa, M.L., and A.B. Forero. 2011. Morphological Diversification in Solitary Endemic Anoles: Anolis concolor and Anolis pinchoti from San Andrés and Providence Islands, Colombia, South American Journal of Herpetology 6: 205–210.

Calsbeek, R. and R.M. Cox. 2012. An experimental test of the role of predators in the maintenance of a genetically based polymorphism.  Journal of Evolutionary Biology. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2012.02589.x

Campbell-Staton S.C., R.M. Goodman, N. Backstrom, S.V. Edwards, J.B. Losos and J.J. Kolbe. 2012. Out of Florida: mtDNA reveals patterns of migration and Pleistocene range expansion of the Green Anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis). Ecology and Evolution 2: 2274-2284.

Charles, G.K., and T.J. Ord. 2012. Factors leading to the evolution and maintenance of a male ornament in territorial species. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 66: 231–239. doi:10.1007/s00265-011-1271-6

Chiu, P-K., Norval, G., Chu, H-P., and J-J. Mao. 2011. Two records of brown shrikes (Lanius cristatus Linnaeus, 1758) preying on brown anoles (Anolis sagrei Duméril & Bibron, 1836) in Taiwan. Herpetology Notes 4:87-89.

Cohen, R.E., and J. Wade. 2011. Aromatase mRNA in the Brain of Adult Green Anole Lizards: Effects of Sex and Season. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 23: 254-260.

Cohen, R.E., and J. Wade. 2012. Aromatase and 5α-reductase type 2 mRNA in the green anole forebrain: An investigation of the effects of sex, season and testosterone manipulation. Gen Comp Endocr 176: 377–384. 10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.01.018

Cox, R.M. and R. Calsbeek. 2011. An experimental test for alternative reproductive strategies underlying a female-limited polymorphism. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24: 343-353.

Cox, R.M., M.C. Duryea, M. Najarro, and R. Calsbeek. 2011. Paternal Condition Drives Progeny Sex-Ratio Bias in a Lizard That Lacks Parental Care. Evolution 65: 220-230.

D’Angiolella, A.B., Gamble, T., Avila-Pires, T.C.S., Colli, G.R., Noonan, B.P., and L.J. Vitt. 2011. Anolis chrysolepis Duméril and Bibron, 1837 (Squamata: Iguanidae), Revisited: Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the Anolis chrysolepis species group. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 160: 35–63.

DaCosta-Cottam, M., Godbeer, K.D., and T. Austin. 2010. Knight Anoles (Anolis equestris) on Grand Cayman Island. IRCF Reptiles and Amphibians 17:122.

Domínguez, M., Sanz, A., Chavez, J., and N. Almaguer. 2010. Cyclical Reproduction in Females of the Cuban Lizard Anolis lucius (Polychrotidae). Herpetologica 66:443-450.

Edwards, J.R., and S.P. Lailvaux. 2012. Display Behavior and Habitat Use in Single and Mixed Populations of Anolis carolinensis and Anolis sagrei Lizards. Ethology 118: 494–502.

Eifler, D.A. and M.A. Eifler. 2010. Use of Habitat by the Semiaquatic Lizard, Norops AquaticusSouthwestern Naturalist 55: 466-469.

Fläschendräger, A. 2010. Cuban Brown Anoles (Anolis sagrei) in St. Maarten. IRCF Reptiles and Amphibians 17: 121-122.

Foster, K.L., and T.E. Higham. 2012. How forelimb and hindlimb function changes with incline and perch diameter in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis. The Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 2288–2300.

Garcia, M.J. et al. 2012. Assessment Strategies and the Effects of Fighting Experience on Future Contest Performance in the Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis). Ethology 118: 821–834.

García-Padilla, E., and H. Luna-Alcántara. 2011. Imantodes cenchoa (Blunt-headed Treesnake). Herpetological Review 42: 4-5.

Gilman, C.A., M.D. Bartlett, G.B. Gillis, and D.J. Irschick. 2012. Total recoil: perch compliance alters jumping performance and kinematics in green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis). Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 220-226.

Glor, R. and R. Laport. 2012. Are subspecies of Anolis lizards that differ in dewlap color and pattern also genetically distinct? A mitochondrial analysis. Mol Phylogenet Evol 64: 255–260.

Gunderson, A.R., Siegel, J., and M. Leal. 2011. Tests of the contribution of acclimation to geographic variation in water loss rates of the West Indian lizard Anolis cristatellus. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology DOI 10.1007/s00360-011-0576-0.

Hahn, M. and G. Kohler. 2010. Morphological variation in Anolis cristatellus.  Salamandra 46(2):117-120.

Holáňová, V., Rehák, I., and D. Frynta. 2012. Anolis sierramaestrae sp. nov. (Squamata: Polychrotidae) of the “chamaeleolis” species group from Eastern Cuba. Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem 76:45-52.

Herrel, A., DaCosta Cottam, M., Godbeer, K., Sanger, T., and J.B. Losos. 2011. An ecomorphological analysis of native and introduced populations of the endemic lizard Anolis maynardi of the Cayman Islands. Breviora 522: 1-10.

Huang, B., Lubarsky, K., Teng, T., and D.T. Blumstein. 2011. Take only pictures, leave only…fear? The effects of photography on the West Indian anole Anolis cristatellus. Current Zoology 57: 77-82.

Janes. D.E., Chapus, C., Gondo, Y., Clayton, D.F., Sinha, S., Blatti, C.A., Organ, C.L., Fujita, M.K., Balakrishnan, C.N., and S.V. Edwards. 2011. Reptiles and Mammals Have Differentially Retained Long Conserved Noncoding Sequences from the Amniote Ancestor. Genome Biology and Evolution 3: 102-113.

Jenssen, T.A., S. Garrett, W.J. Sydor. 2012. Complex signal usage by advertising male green anoles (Anolis carolinensis): a test of assumptions.  Herpetologica 68: 345-357.

Johnson, M.A. and J. Wade. 2010. Behavioural display systems across nine Anolis lizard species: sexual dimorphisms in structure and function. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 277(1688):1711-1719

Johnson, M.A., Caton, J.L., Cohen, R.E., Vandecar, J.R. and J. Wade. 2010. The Burden of Motherhood: The Effect of Reproductive Load on Female Lizard Locomotor, Foraging, and Social Behavior. Ethology 116, 1217-1225, doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2010.01840.x.

Jones, Z., and B.C. Jayne. 2012. The Effects of Sound on the Escape Locomotor Performance of Anole Lizards. Journal of Herpetology 46: 51–55.

Karube, H. 2010. Endemic insects in the Ogasawara Islands: Negative impacts of alien species and a potential mitigation strategy. Pages 133-137 in Kawakami K, Okochi I, eds. Restoring the Oceanic Island Ecosystem. Tokyo: Springer. Translated from the Japanese original, Karube, H., 2009. Global Environmental Research, 14:33–38. With permission of the Association of International Research Initiatives.

Kessler, A.G.O. 2010. Status of the Culebra Island Giant Anole (Anolis roosevelti). Herpetological Conservation and Biology 5:223-232.

Kilburn, V.L., R. Ibáñez, and D.M. Green. 2011. Reptiles as potential vectors and hosts of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Panama. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 97: 127-134.

Köhler, G. 2010. A revision of the Central American species related to Anolis pentaprion with the resurrection of A. beckeri and the description of a new species (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Zootaxa (2354):1-18

Köhler, G., Dehling, D.M., and J. Köhler. 2010. Cryptic species and hybridization in the Anolis polylepis complex, with the description of a new species from the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Zootaxa 2718: 23-38.

Köhler, G. 2012. Taxonomic status of two enigmatic Mexican anoles: Anolis cumingii Peters 1863 and Anolis guentherii Bocourt 1873 (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3551: 82-88.

Köhler, J., Hahn, M., and G. Köhler. 2012. Divergent evolution of hemipenial morphology in two cryptic species of mainland anoles related to Anolis polylepis. Salamandra 48: 1–11. PDF

Kolbe, J.J., P.S. VanMiddlesworth, N. Losin, N. Dappen and J.B. Losos. 2012. Climatic niche shift predicts thermal trait response in one but not both introductions of the Puerto Rican lizard Anolis cristatellus to Miami, Florida, USA. Ecology and Evolution 2: 1503–1516.

Krysko, K.L. 2012. Anolis sagrei (Brown Anole). Saurophagy. Herpetological Review 43: 477–478.

Kuo, C.Y., G.B. Gillis, and D.J. Irschick. 2011. Loading effects on jump performance in green anole lizards, Anolis carolinensis. Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 2073-2079.

Kuo, C.Y., G.B. Gillis, and D.J. Irschick. 2012. Take this broken tail and learn to jump: the ability to recover from reduced in‐air stability in tailless green anole lizards [Anolis carolinensis (Squamata: Dactyloidae)]. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society.

Kusumi, K., R.J. Kulathinal, A. Abzhanov, S. Boissinot, N.G. Crawford, B.C. Faircloth, T.C. Glenn, D.E. Janes, J.B. Losos, D.B. Menke, S. Poe, T.J. Sanger, C.J. Schneider, J. Stapley, J. Wade, and J. Wilson-Rawls. 2011. Developing a community-based genetic nomenclature for anole lizards. BMC Genomics 12: 554.

Lailvaux, S., Gilbert, R., and J.R. Edwards. 2012. A performance-based cost to honest signalling in male green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis). Proceedings of the Royal Society B. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.2577

Lattanzio, M. 2009. Escape tactic plasticity of two sympatric Norops (Beta Anolis) species in Northeast Costa Rica.  Amph-Rep. 30: 1-6.

Leal, M. and B.J. Powell. 2011. Behavioural flexibility and problem-solving in a tropical lizard.  Biology letters doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0480

Legreneur, P., Homberger, D.G., and V. Bels. 2012. Assessment of the mass, length, center of mass, and principal moment of inertia of body segments in adult males of the brown anole (Anolis sagrei) and green, or Carolina, anole (Anolis carolinensis). Journal of Morphology doi:10.1002/jmor.20022

Legreneur, P., Laurin, M., and K. Monteil. 2012. Convergent exaptation of leap up for escape in distantly related arboreal amniotes. Adaptive Behavior 20: 67–77.

Logan, M.L., Montgomery, C.E., Boback, S.M., Reed, R.N., and J.A. Campbell. 2012. Divergence in morphology, but not habitat use, despite low genetic differentiation among insular populations of the lizard Anolis lemurinus in Honduras. Journal of Tropical Ecology 28: 215–222. doi:10.1017/S0266467411000745

Losos, J.B. 2010. A Tale of two radiations: similarities and differences in the evolutionary diversification of Darwin’s finches and Greater Antillean Anolis lizards.  Pp. 309-331 in P.R. Grant and B.R. Grant, Eds., In search of the Causes of Evolution. From Field Observations to Mechanisms. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.

Losos, J.B. and R.M. Pringle. 2011. Competition, predation and natural selection in island lizards. Nature 475: E1-2.

Losos, J.B., M.L. Woolley, D.L. Mahler, O. Torres-Carvajal, K.E. Crandell, E.W. Schaad, A.E. Narváez, F. Ayala-Varela, and A. Herrel. 2012. Notes on the natural history of the little known Ecuadorian horned anole, Anolis proboscisBreviora 531: 1-17 PDF Supplemental Material

Lotzkat, S., Bienentreu, J.-F., Hertz, A., and G. Köhler. 2011. A new species of Anolis (Squamata: Iguania: Dactyloidae) formerly referred to as A. pachypus from the Cordillera de Talamanca of western Panama and adjacent Costa Rica. Zootaxa 3125: 1–21.

Lotzkat, S., Hertz, A., Bienentreu, J.-F., and G. Köhler. 2013. Distribution and variation of the giant alpha anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) of the genus Dactyloa in the highlands of western Panama, with the description of a new species formerly referred to as D. microtus. Zootaxa 3626: 1–54.

Lotzkat, S., Kohler, J., Hertz, A., and G. Kohler. 2010. Morphology and colouration of male Anolis datzorum (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Salamandra 46: 48-52.

Mautz, W.J. and H.B. Shaffer. 2011. Colonization of Hawaii Island by the Brown Anole (Anolis sagrei). Herpetological Review 42: 508-509.

McMann, S., and A.V. Paterson. 2012. Display behavior of resident brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) during close encounters with neighbors and non-neighbors, Herpetological Conservation and Biology 7: 27–37.

McTaggart, A.L., D.T. Quinn, J.S. Parmerlee Jr., R.W. Henderson, and R. Powell. 2011. A rapid assessment of reptilian diversity on Union Island, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. South American Journal of Herpetology 6: 59-64.

Mahler, D.L. and R.E. Glor. 2011. Natural History Note: Anolis cybotes cybotes (Hispaniolan Stout Anole) and Anolis marron (Jacmel Gracile Anole). Predation/Prey. Herpetological Review 42: 272-273.

Montgomery, C.E., Griffith Rodriguez, E.J., Ross, H.L., and K.R. Lips. 2011. Communal Nesting in the Anoline Lizard Norops lionotus (Polychrotidae) in Central Panama.  The Southwestern Naturalist 56:83-88.

Mora, J.M., Toral, E., and J.C. Calderon. 2012. Anolis capito (Pug-nosed Anole). Diet. Herpetological Review 43: 129–130. PDF

Ng, J., Landeen, E.L., Logsdon, R.M., and R.E. Glor. 2012. Correlation between Anolis lizard dewlap phenotype and environmental variation indicates adaptive divergence of a signal important to sexual selection and species recognition.  Evolution 67: 573–582.

Nicholson, K. E., and P.M. Richards. 2011. Home-range size and overlap within an introduced population of the Cuban Knight Anole, Anolis equestris (Squamata: Iguanidae). Phyllomedusa 10: 65–73.

Norval, G., J.-J. Mao, and K. Slater. 2012. Description of an observed interaction between an elegant skink (Plestiodon elegans) and a brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) in southwestern Taiwan. Herpetology Notes 5: 189–192.

Norval, G., P-K. Chiu, H-P. Chu, and J-J. Mao. 2011. An instance of predation on a brown anole (Anolis sagrei Dumeril & Bibron, 1837) by a Malay night heron (Gorsachius melanolophus Swinhoe, 1865). Herpetology Notes 4:005-007.

Norval, G., W.-F. Hsiao, C.-C. Lin, and S.-C. Huang. 2011. Ambushing the supply line: a report on Anolis sagrei predation on ants in Chiayi County, Taiwan. Russian Journal of Herpetology 18: 39-46.

Norval, G., W.-F. Hsiao, S.-C. Huang, and C.-K. Chen. 2010. The diet of an introduced lizard species, the brown anole (Anolis sagrei), in Chiayi Country, Taiwan. Russian Journal of Herpetology 17:131-138.

Norval, G., J.-J. Mao, C.R. Bursey, and S.R. Goldberg. 2009. A deformed hind limb of an invasive free-living brown anole (Anolis sagrei Duméril & Bibron, 1837) from Hualien City, Taiwan. Herpetology Notes 2:219-221.

Okochi, I., Yoshimura, M., Abe, T., and H. Suzuki. 2006. High population densities of an exotic lizard, Anolis carolinensis and its possible role as a pollinator in the Ogasawara Islands. Bulletin of FFPRI 5: 265-269. PDF

Paemelaere, E.A.D., Guyer, C. and F.S. Dobson. 2011. A phylogenetic framework for the evolution of female polymorphism in anoles.  Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 104: 303-317.

Pallus, A.C., Fleishman, L.J., and P.M. Castonguay. 2010. Modeling and measuring the visual detection of ecologically relevant motion by an Anolis lizard.  Journal of Comparative Physiology a-Neuroethology Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 196: 1-13

Partan, S.R., Otovic, P., Price, V.L., and S.E. Brown. 2011. Assessing display variability in wild brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) using a mechanical lizard model. Current Zoology 57: 140-152. PDF

Piovia-Scott, J., D.A. Spiller, and T.W. Schoener. 2011. Effects of experimental seaweed deposition on lizard and ant predation in an island food web. Science 331: 461-463.

Rabosky, D.L. and R.E. Glor. 2010. Equilibrium speciation dynamics in a model adaptive radiation of island lizards. PNAS 107: 22178-22183.

Ray, J.M., A. Hein, A. Gonzalez, S. Goetz, and M. Miller. 2011. Imantodes cenchoa (Blunt-headed Treesnake). Herpetological Review 42: 5.

Reedy, A.M., D. Zaragoza, and D.A. Warner.2012. Maternally chosen nest sites positively affect multiple components of offspring fitness in a lizard. Behav Ecol: doi:10.1093/beheco/ars133.

Rodriguez-Robles, J.A., Jezkova, T., and M. Leal. 2010. Climatic stability and genetic divergence in the tropical insular lizard Anolis krugi, the Puerto Rican ‘Lagartijo Jardinero de la Montana’. Molecular Ecology 19(9):1860-1876.

Rubio-Rocha, LC, Bock, BC, and VP Páez. 2011. Continuous reproduction under a bimodal precipitation regime in a high elevation anole (Anolis mariarum) from Antioquia, Colombia. Caldasia 33: 91–104.

Sanger, T.J., Mahler, D.L., Abzhanov, A., and J.B. Losos. 2012. Roles for modularity and constraint in the evolution of cranial diversity among anolis lizards. Evolution 66: 1525–1542. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01519.x.

Simon, V.B. 2011. Communication Signal Rates Predict Interaction Outcome in the Brown Anole Lizard, Anolis sagrei. Copeia 2011 (1): 38-45.

Spiller, D.A., J. Piovia-Scott, A.N. Wright, L.H. Yang, G. Takimoto, T.W. Schoener, and T. Iwata. 2010. Marine subsidies have multiple effects on coastal food webs. Ecology 91: 1424-1434.

Steffen, J.E., Hill, G.E., and C. Guyer. 2010. Carotenoid Access, Nutritional Stress, and the Dewlap Color of Male Brown Anoles. Copeia (2):239-246.

Storz, J.F., F.G. Hoffmann, J.C. Opazo, T.J. Sanger, and H. Moriyama. 2011. Developmental regulation of hemoglobin synthesis in the green anole lizard Anolis carolinensis. Journal of Experimental Biology 214:575-581.

Tan, H.H., and K.K.P. Lim. 2012 Recent introduction of the brown anole Norops Sagrei (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae) to Singapore. Nature in Singapore 5: 359–362.

Tapley, B., Griffiths, R.A., and I. Bride. 2011. Dynamics of the trade in reptiles and amphibians within the United Kingdom over a ten-year period. Herpetological Journal 21:27-34.

Thorpe, R.S., Surget-Groba, Y., and H. Johansson. 2010. Genetic Tests for Ecological and Allopatric Speciation in Anoles on an Island Archipelago. PLoS Genetics 6(4):-.

Thorpe, R.S., Surget-Groba, Y., and H. Johansson. 2012. Quantitative traits and mode of speciation in Martinique anoles. Mol Ecol 21: 5299–5308. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05737.x.

Tollis, M., G. Ausubel, D. Ghimire, and S. Boissinot. 2012. Multi-Locus Phylogeographic and Population Genetic Analysis of Anolis carolinensis: Historical Demography of a Genomic Model Species. PLoS ONE 7: e38474.

Torres-Carvajal, O., Ayala, F., and A. Carvajal-Campos. 2010. Reptilia, Squamata, Iguanidae, Anolis heterodermus Dumeril, 1851: Distribution extension, first record for Ecuador and notes on color variation. Check List: Journal of species lists and distribution 6:189-190.

Vega-Castillo, S.I., and A.R. Puente-Rolón. 2011. Anolis species. Frugivory. Herpetological Review 42: 598–599.

Wade, J. 2012. Sculpting reproductive circuits: relationships among hormones, morphology and behavior in anole lizards. Gen Comp Endocr 176: 456–460. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.12.011.

Walguarnery, J.W., Goodman R.M., and A.C. Echternacht. 2012. Thermal Biology and Temperature Selection in Juvenile Lizards of Co-occurring Native and Introduced Anolis Species. Journal of Herpetology 46: 620–624.

Wang I.J., R.E. Glor and J.B. Losos. 2012. Quantifying the roles of ecology and geography in spatial genetic divergence. Ecol Lett. doi:10.1111/ele.12025.

Warner, D.A., M.A. Moody, R.S. Telemeco and J. J. Kolbe. 2012. Egg environments have large effects on embryonic development, but have minimal consequences for hatchling phenotypes in an invasive lizard. Biol J Linn Soc 105: 25–41.

Wiens, J.J. 2011. The causes of species richness pattersn across space, time, and clades and the role of “ecological limits”. The Quarterly Review of Biology 86: 75-96.

Yabuta, S., and A. Suzuki-Watanabe. 2011. Function of Body Coloration in Green Anoles (Anolis carolinensis) at the Beginning of the Breeding Season: Advertisement Signaling and Thermoregulation. Current Herpetology 30: 155–158.

Yánez-Muñoz, M.H., Urgilés, M.A., Altamirano, B.M., and S. SR Cáceresm. 2010. Redescripción de Anolis proboscis Peters & Orcés (Reptilia: Polychrotidae), con el descubrimiento de las hembras de la especie y comentarios sobre su distribución y taxonomía. Avances 2: In press.

Yoshimura, M., and I. Okochi. 2005. A decrease in endemic odonates in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Bulletin of FFPRI 4: 45-51. PDF

5 thoughts on “Recent Anole Literature

    1. Indeed, anole eggs are long and skinny when they’re laid. But due to their leathery flexible skin, they can expand like a balloon and will grow with age and moisture. I’ve only got experience with Knight anoles, green anoles and probably four or five types of different brown anoles, but they’re all about the same – except that the Knight anoles HATCH at the same size as a green or brown anole. As for hatchlings of green or browns, they’re so tiny it’s just remarkable! My old workplace was “infested” with a few species of geckoes (in Calgary Alberta, Canada – of all places!) and the baby geckoes popped up all over the place, especially in the filing cabinets where they obviously preferred to lay their eggs between pieces of paper, due to their being hidden & protected so well. But yeah, at one point I brought in some house-plants – this was a huge ware-house complex where we ran an aquarium fish and reptile importer supplying Western Canada’s pet-shops, plus an outlet to the public, and a custom tank building shop in the back, quite a lot of space and amounting to more than 700 aquariums all told – and the whole place with 35-40ft ceilings and kept at upwards of 30-degrees Celcius all of the time, naturally humidity was such that it actually RAINED inside of the place on a regular basis – a problem in that it brought down the decades-old asbestos spray-on fire retardant insulation material from the ceilings – but we had some very nice sky-lights as well, if it had been kept up better it would’ve made a fantastic space well I mean really fantastic ’cause I loved it even WITH the dust and cockroaches ha-ha. ANYWAY yeah I brought in some house-plants to liven the place up – should’ve left ’em when I moved on, ’cause they’ve all died since. There was a huge Munstera deliciosa “swiss-cheese plant” which I potted up on top of overhead wooden beams that had been there for decades, as some type of over-head system for a belt-driven power supply back when it was a SWEAT SHOP and then a SLAUGHTER HOUSE for chickens, yuck – we kept the beams for our water supply and oxygen for bagging fish, plus running heated/de-gassed tank-change water, and a master air-line gang-way for running hundreds of little valves off of for all of the little bubblers etc. But yeah what I did with it MYSELF, was to support some house plants. And this one Munstera got HUGE – it sent out aerial roots, if you know Munstera you know the type I mean – but THESE ones got long enough that not only did they hang down the nine-ten feet to drink from a puddle on the ground beneath it (how did it know there was a puddle there?) which pooled on the polished concrete floor, from leaking tanks, over-spills from the automated tank over-flow water-change system (tanks were individual, and what looked like the typical system where everything’s on a loop, was simply a fill line from huge tanks in the back, run with big pumps only during water changes, and the over-flow went directly to the drains. Which were typically blocked up and one such drain which had been permanently blocked by our swimming-pool canister type “Sand-Filter” from our Koi pond system (several ponds ganged together on one filter) had a huge cray-fish living at the bottom of it, as though the building itself were a concrete island with a lake or ocean below it, and drain pipes more like tunnels carved by urchins or other such burrowing creatures … such was the ecosystem of the place!) Anyway yeah, that Munstera plant threw out aerial roots that first reached the puddle on the floor, but then I began to wrap ’em around the wooden beams to keep ’em out of the way, and they kept growing down and down – once they’d got a taste of the mineral-rich water down at the bottom there was no stopping ’em! And I kept looping ’em over and over, they kept growing until this became a semi-daily task, where the roots would grow more than ten inches in one night! INSANE house-plants. But the best of ’em all, was a 30ft Ficus tree. I had been keeping my Knight anoles in ficus trees from the very beginning, and they’d laid their eggs in the pot at the bottom, whereupon they hatched out better than any other time when I tried to incubate ’em artificially. The plant itself came via my then-Girlfriend, who was a horticulturist who worked at the zoo, but in the winter season worked with companies who supplied and maintained house-plants in offices and public spaces all over the city. Which was really neat ’cause I was maintaining and installing big fish-tanks and ponds all over the place, and every now and again we’d bump into each other entirely by chance. (AND we had keys to the janitors’ closets no less – Hubba-hubba!) SO – yes. She had a line on these un-wanted freshly imported Ficus trees – and I mean trees meaning trunks as thick as a man’s leg. BEAUTIFUL trees. I guess somebody had ordered too many. Just to get rid of ’em, the plant people were selling ’em off for fifty-bucks each, so I set up a few friends with ’em, but only a few friends had high ceilings. It’s too bad I couldn’t convince my bosses to buy up the whole lot, ’cause the ONE that I got was such a beautiful focal point. They said “we don’t sell plants” but MY response to that was “Well WHY NOT?” Ha-ha. I mean, we sold extensive selection of aquatic plants, we set people up with terrariums, we had sky-lights and a ton of stray light leaking from flourescents and metal-halide etc tank lighting – a HUGE warehouse complex with several wings to it, perfect temperatures and humidity – I don’t see why we COULDN’T sell house-plants out of that place. BAH! If it were MY shop, everything would’ve been better. But then, I might never have escaped! So yeah – at some point, some green and brown anoles got into the big Ficus tree (SOMEHOW….) This was only after I’d given my Knight anoles some free time in it, but then kinda panicked when I realized what a hard time it was to get ’em back out, and how easily they could’ve fallen into a fishtank, or been stolen by members of the public who’d been known to steal lizards from the place in the past – I was breeding several pairs of Anolis equestris at home at this point and my “Blue Phase” babies were well known to the city, (I had several lines breeding true, with normal green babies, blue-phase babies which had grown up to enormous healthy adults and then bred back to the green strain and progeny came out blue half of the time, plus some very bright almost yellow phase animals which I called Chartreuse after the female pet they came from – none of this was dietary or environmental, none of it was random, it was genetic ’cause they ALL ate the same and lived in the same rooms & plants & lighting etc – with due care to keep the MALES separate of course) So yeah, a few of ’em had a little “vacation” up in that tree, & people came from all over just to see ’em in the shop, ’cause I was careful never to let the public know where I lived – there had been break-ins and thefts etc. Anyway yeah, I had ’em there at the shop for a brief time, but then thought better of it, and the tree became ripe habitat for whatever green & brown anoles just “happened” to find their way into it! And it wasn’t very long after that, we began to find a whole lot of little tiny green or brown babies hanging around the lower branches. In hindsight, if they were all kept very fat and well fed, I bet it would’ve been possible to keep several species in the one tree all together at once. So let’s say you had a spiral staircase in your home, and it wrapped around the tree on three sides – perhaps even some simple scaffolding could be erected, or a fire-escape type staircase – and one were to feed the biggest species such as Anolis equestris with chop-sticks and dead baby mice, as I had done with several of my pairs. Then the Anolis garmani Jamaican anoles that my buddy had could be fed similarly on grubs or some such – I like to use parrot feeding dishes for mealworms and stuff like that. Maybe keep a whole bunch of flies hatching out of similar containers – maggots from fish-bait shops are always a good standby when you’ve got fully enclosed terrariums with window screen & acrylic all around. I guess you’d have to put up with house-flies if you wanted to supply ’em to the anoles like this, but of course such a house-hold would have a ton of loose geckoes and finches flying all over, like my first “wife” and I used to have (just don’t keep TOKAY geckoes on the loose when you’re trying to breed finches, ’cause they’ll break into the cages and steal the babies from their nests!) But yeah what I’m getting at, is it’s possible to imagine all those species of anoles living peaceably up in one tree, just keeping to their own heights, their own levels. Of course, they’d have to be REALLY well fed! I’ve kept ’em with similarly-sized animals, and my first baby knight anole lived variously with leopard geckoes, tokays, Madagascar day-geckoes (both the usual common type AND the more rare P.m. madagascarensis, with the lesser red colouring but with the addition of a blueish greyish cast/sheen to the midsection – reminds me of the colouring on the Mealy Amazon Parrot who ALSO lived with those animals, my beloved MAX … okay now I’m gonna go and cry! Two divorces, only one thing harder than leaving the parrot behind in the first, was leaving my Ex-Daughter behind in the second. There was a dog, too – in each case. But even that doesn’t compare to the parrot!) several other small to mid-sized lizards sheesh it’s too long a list to compile, especially considering how we took in unwanted animals & found ’em homes, plus sometimes imported shipments of reptiles at work brought in heavily gravid female chamaeleons which due to the abuse of capture & travel simply needed a comfortable place to quietly DIE…. GAWD what a horrible business it all is. Even the captive breeding can turn out horribly wrong, like a puppy mill without the hair but somehow still all of the shit-encrusted MATTS…. Ugh. Anyway yeah, the anoles were always good and peaceful with similarly sized animals … with the exception of that half-grown first baby Knight anole mistaking a fat leopard gecko tail for one enormous GRUB of some sort. Can’t imagine the size of the MOTH which it would’ve turned out to be ha-ha. One rather large leopard gecko tail alright. I guess she only took the tip off of it. The stick in the spokes of this whole idea, is that the anoles would all have to come down to ground level to bury their eggs in the plant pot. Then climb back to the top again – usually with the male watching their every move, presumably so she wouldn’t mate with another male when he looked away. Certain pairs seemed monogamous. Males uninterested in other females. In those couples where the male did “stray”, the females seemed quite miffed about it. Something else which I’ve never read about elsewhere, was the hatchlings making a “pip … pip” vocalization, which their brought the sudden attention of their parents who would listened intently, almost like crocodiles or something. I imagine that when you’re talking about the SMALLER anoles, this sound is so inaudible that nobody’s ever noticed it before – it was barely audible in complete silence when it came from six/seven-inch-long Knight anole hatchlings. And after witnessing that, I even let the parents spend time in direct contact with the freshly hatched neonates, and they were very gentle with them certainly not cannibalistic by any stretch. I think this was because they knew who laid the eggs and where they were laid, watching the spot etc – I guess I saw some instances of cannibalism between siblings, but I suspect that in their natural habitat the parents would at least be non-predatory toward their own young, if not outright protective.

      HA-HA – I just remembered that you had asked one very simple question and I haven’t really answered it properly! Yes, the eggs of all anoles species which I know of are long and thin and leathery upon being laid – because the females do indeed have a very narrow pelvis. When the eggs are in moist soil – and I must add that the females are VERY careful in laying their eggs, to ascertain that the yolk is on the bottom of the egg, they spend a long time in the egg’s “nest” burrow, poking their nose into the flexible egg shell presumably to feel where the egg is more dense etc, and they will roll it around to the correct position. Where birds will roll their eggs around in the nest, it’s important to mark reptile eggs for the position they’re found, to keep the top of the egg upright oftentimes we will mark the egg with a felt pen – though I question the wisdom of that when that poisonous ink is likely to leach solvents in through the shell…. But they DO take on water and expand, which can be a problem if they’re TOO moist they’ll actually swell so large that the shell will split prematurely and the undeveloped baby lizard will die in the shell. Sure would be nice to find some type of antibiotic & antifungal spray or such-not, to treat the surrounding soil, to treat the egg itself, and hope that it will continue developing. Suffice it to say that I’d have had a LOT more baby anoles if I had just left ’em in the pot of the 8ft ficus tree where I kept my first pair. Due to living way up North, and keeping ’em in a room without windows and artificial lighting through the whole winter, one of my females kept laying eggs through the normal summer breeding season and on through the following winter, until even with calcium supplements her bones became brittle and a short fall from her perch broke her back. (Whereupon I kept her alive until the following winter, carrying her everywhere she needed to go, spoon feeding her etc – until one night she’d deteriorated somewhat I carried her inside my coat and shirt, up to the top of a very very high poplar tree in the park, and brought her out into the cold air so she could expire. Probably more than fifty feet up in the air, it was a truly huge tree.) And her mate kept watch over her the whole time – until my sister snuck into my room to use the ‘phone and left my door unlocked, and a CAT got in and killed him – I presume he protected his mate too, ’cause she was in a place where the cat could’ve caught her, and he could easily have climbed right up near the ceiling to safety. He truly loved his mate – you could see his eyes, the pupils contracting and dilating rapidly, just like with Max the parrot “love is in the eyes” so to speak) AHEM yes – if I hadn’t tried to artificially incubate all of those eggs that I found, if they’d been left to the “mother knows best” logic which worked out with her first few babies – every one of something like fifty eggs artificially incubated under every feasible method known at that time, and NONE of ’em worked out, only the ones in the natural plant soil. But keeping in mind, this was a rather large dense Ficus benjamina plant, with a pot at the bottom with at the very least five gallons of soil in it, in addition to roots etc – I think this was instrumental to keeping the soil conditions very steady. I also watered the pot from the bottom, rather than pouring it over the roots, and had conditioned the plant to long intervals between waterings. Any smaller of a Ficus plant, or more to the point plant pot, and it might not have worked out at all. But what was really interesting, was how the female anole laid all of those eggs together in very close proximity without disturbing the others. I found ’em all in a SPIRAL – first the hatched-out egg from the baby I discovered without even realizing they’d been breeding – then next to it a nearly hatched egg, and the next slightly less developed – in a spiral around the roots of the tree she had laid them out clockwise, each laid only a couple of inches from the last, and each buried a good five-six inches deep at that, it’s remarkable that in digging all of those nests she must’ve turned over the entire pot worth of soil, but without disturbing prior egg layings because she came within an inch or two but no closer. I wonder whether she felt the soil conditions, or marked the spot where the last was laid, or watched the spot the entire time without looking away, OR simply from memory? With a pattern which we later observed wherein she laid one egg every two weeks, sometimes two at a time but only rarely, that spiral pattern of nests added up to around a year’s worth of eggs. Heck this is remembering back some 25yrs for me, so hard to recall specific numbers, but I’m pretty sure there were something like three dozen eggs found in that pot? I don’t think I even have the notes anymore, due to a house-fire several years back. But yes – if this were my plan, to breed anoles once again, of ANY species – I’d keep ’em in a tree & let ’em lay eggs in a pot – without disturbing eggs for incubation of any sort. It would be very interesting to bring in some new anoles to captivity, and I’m specifically interested in the bigger types. But I think I’d rather find some way to ride my motorcycle throughout the Caribbean – especially Cuba, being that this is where all of the species reside. I wonder whether some sort of FERRYBOAT service might open up between Cuba and the States some day? Well, a boat from Mexico is probably a reality, though I doubt it’s any kind of ride-on/ride-off ferry. But yeah either way, THAT’S how I wish to see animals now. In the WILD. Not that I ever wish to fly on an airplane ever again. Simply because of the carbon-footprint. One has to wonder what the numbers are really like, but I SUSPECT that I could ride the bike from Alaska to Tierra Del Fuego & back, without burning through as much gas, as the equivalent to one airline passenger’s share of the fuel it takes to fly from Canada to Cuba & back for one single two-week holiday. I dunno how much TIME I’d be allowed for a trip like that, but the whole point would be to take it slow, and wherever one finds some tall trees & ripe anole habitat, to bring out a rope & belay equipment, yank oneself up to the treetops, and commune with the wild anoles for a good photo opportunity each and every day. I’d love to hop around to ALL of the islands – there’s that wonderful book “Caribbean Anoles” maps out some very interesting and beautiful species – but the majority of ’em are on CUBA so that would be destination number one! Well – PERHAPS it would be worthwhile to bring some new species into captivity. But only if it’s worthwhile from the animals’ perspective as well. And that’s so hard to control. Any worthwhile captive breeding effort with the LARGER species would have to involve several interested parties, ’cause you’d need several pairs just to get off the ground, and each pair needs a lot of space! Perhaps the smaller animals then? Sooo much easier to keep ’em happy in captivity. One has to wonder – perhaps with a really good sound-stage, one might record the “pips” of a hatchling less than an inch long…….

  1. Regarding colonisation of the mainland from Caribbean islands: recently published data for weevils for comparison with anole data.

    Zhang, G., Basharat, U., Matzke, N., & Franz, N. M. (2017). Model selection in statistical historical biogeography of Neotropical insects—The Exophthalmus genus complex (Curculionidae: Entiminae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 109, 226-239. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.12.039

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