Anole Bibliography

Below is an incomplete collection of Anolis literature we have compiled via searches of manuscript databases and manual curation.  Our hope is that this will become a useful resource for the entire Anolis community. This bibliography is formatted in bibtex format, which can be imported by most modern citation software.

The file used to generate this page can be downloaded, edited, or updated on GitHub. The bibliography is very much a work in progress. Edits, additions, updates, and suggestions are welcome.

2016

  • T. Ingram, A. Harrison, L. D. Mahler, M. R. del Castaneda, R. E. Glor, A. Herrel, Y. E. Stuart, and J. B. Losos, “Comparative tests of the role of dewlap size in anolis lizard speciation,” Proceedings of the royal society b-biological sciences, vol. 283, iss. 1845, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Phenotypic traits may be linked to speciation in two distinct ways: character values may influence the rate of speciation or diversification in the trait may be associated with speciation events. Traits involved in signal transmission, such as the dewlap of Anolis lizards, are often involved in the speciation process. The dewlap is an important visual signal with roles in species recognition and sexual selection, and dewlaps vary among species in relative size as well as colour and pattern. We compile a dataset of relative dewlap size digitized from photographs of 184 anole species from across the genus’ geographical range. We use phylogenetic comparative methods to test two hypotheses: that larger dewlaps are associated with higher speciation rates, and that relative dewlap area diversifies according to a speciational model of evolution. We find no evidence of trait-dependent speciation, indicating that larger signals do not enhance any role the dewlap has in promoting speciation. Instead, we find a signal of mixed speciational and gradual trait evolution, with a particularly strong signal of speciational change in the dewlaps of mainland lineages. This indicates that dewlap size diversifies in association with the speciation process, suggesting that divergent selection may play a role in the macroevolution of this signalling trait.

    @article{ISI:000391104300011,
    Author = {Ingram, Travis and Harrison, Alexis and Mahler, D. Luke and Castaneda, Maria del Rosario and Glor, Richard E. and Herrel, Anthony and Stuart, Yoel E. and Losos, Jonathan B.},
    Title = {Comparative tests of the role of dewlap size in Anolis lizard speciation},
    Journal = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {283},
    Number = {1845},
    Abstract = {Phenotypic traits may be linked to speciation in two distinct ways: character values may influence the rate of speciation or diversification in the trait may be associated with speciation events. Traits involved in signal transmission, such as the dewlap of Anolis lizards, are often involved in the speciation process. The dewlap is an important visual signal with roles in species recognition and sexual selection, and dewlaps vary among species in relative size as well as colour and pattern. We compile a dataset of relative dewlap size digitized from photographs of 184 anole species from across the genus' geographical range. We use phylogenetic comparative methods to test two hypotheses: that larger dewlaps are associated with higher speciation rates, and that relative dewlap area diversifies according to a speciational model of evolution. We find no evidence of trait-dependent speciation, indicating that larger signals do not enhance any role the dewlap has in promoting speciation. Instead, we find a signal of mixed speciational and gradual trait evolution, with a particularly strong signal of speciational change in the dewlaps of mainland lineages. This indicates that dewlap size diversifies in association with the speciation process, suggesting that divergent selection may play a role in the macroevolution of this signalling trait.},
    }

  • S. Boissinot and A. Sookdeo, “The evolution of line-1 in vertebrates,” Genome biology and evolution, vol. 8, iss. 12, pp. 3485-3507, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The abundance and diversity of the LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon differ greatly among vertebrates. Mammalian genomes contain hundreds of thousands L1s that have accumulated since the origin of mammals. A single group of very similar elements is active at a time in mammals, thus a single lineage of active families has evolved in this group. In contrast, non-mammalian genomes (fish, amphibians, reptiles) harbor a large diversity of concurrently transposing families, which are all represented by very small number of recently inserted copies. Why the pattern of diversity and abundance of L1 is so different among vertebrates remains unknown. To address this issue, we performed a detailed analysis of the evolution of active L1 in 14 mammals and in 3 non-mammalian vertebrate model species. We examined the evolution of base composition and codon bias, the general structure, and the evolution of the different domains of L1 (5’UTR, ORF1, ORF2, 3’UTR). L1s differ substantially in length, base composition, and structure among vertebrates. The most variation is found in the 5’UTR, which is longer in amniotes, and in the ORF1, which tend to evolve faster in mammals. The highly divergent L1familiesof lizard, frog, and fish share species-specific features suggesting that they are subjected to the same functional constraints imposed by their host. The relative conservation of the 5’UTR and ORF1 in non-mammalian vertebrates suggests that the repression of transposition by the host does not act in a sequence-specific manner and did not result in an arms race, as is observed in mammals.

    @article{ISI:000395813500002,
    Author = {Boissinot, Stephane and Sookdeo, Akash},
    Title = {The Evolution of LINE-1 in Vertebrates},
    Journal = {GENOME BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {8},
    Number = {12},
    Pages = {3485-3507},
    Abstract = {The abundance and diversity of the LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon differ greatly among vertebrates. Mammalian genomes contain hundreds of thousands L1s that have accumulated since the origin of mammals. A single group of very similar elements is active at a time in mammals, thus a single lineage of active families has evolved in this group. In contrast, non-mammalian genomes (fish, amphibians, reptiles) harbor a large diversity of concurrently transposing families, which are all represented by very small number of recently inserted copies. Why the pattern of diversity and abundance of L1 is so different among vertebrates remains unknown. To address this issue, we performed a detailed analysis of the evolution of active L1 in 14 mammals and in 3 non-mammalian vertebrate model species. We examined the evolution of base composition and codon bias, the general structure, and the evolution of the different domains of L1 (5'UTR, ORF1, ORF2, 3'UTR). L1s differ substantially in length, base composition, and structure among vertebrates. The most variation is found in the 5'UTR, which is longer in amniotes, and in the ORF1, which tend to evolve faster in mammals. The highly divergent L1familiesof lizard, frog, and fish share species-specific features suggesting that they are subjected to the same functional constraints imposed by their host. The relative conservation of the 5'UTR and ORF1 in non-mammalian vertebrates suggests that the repression of transposition by the host does not act in a sequence-specific manner and did not result in an arms race, as is observed in mammals.},
    }

  • R. Marrero, J. Torres, and T. M. Rodriguez-Cabrera, “Winter aggregation in anolis equestris and a. lucius (squamata: dactyloidae), two territorial species from cuba,” Phyllomedusa, vol. 15, iss. 2, pp. 181-186, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000394198800009,
    Author = {Marrero, Ruben and Torres, Javier and Rodriguez-Cabrera, Tomas M.},
    Title = {Winter aggregation in Anolis equestris and A. lucius (Squamata: Dactyloidae), two territorial species from Cuba},
    Journal = {PHYLLOMEDUSA},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {15},
    Number = {2},
    Pages = {181-186},
    }

  • P. Lymberakis, E. D. Valakos, K. Sagonas, and P. Pafilis, “The castaway: characteristic islet features affect the ecology of the most isolated european lizard,” Acta herpetologica, vol. 11, iss. 2, pp. 161-169, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The ecological importance of islet endemics are in the front line of conservation efforts and thus the good knowledge of their biology is required. Podarcis levendis is a lacertid lizard, endemic to two rocky islets in the Cretan Sea, Greece, that was raised to specific level in 2008 and since then no data on its biology are available. Here we present the first ecological information on the species, focusing on population density, tail autotomy and feeding preferences. We recorded regenerated and damaged tails in the field and estimated population density with the transect method. We also dissected museum specimens and analyzed their stomach content. Regenerated tails were common and reached a considerable 71\%. The latter finding could be attributed to the intense intraspecific competition due to high population density but also to the seasonal predation pressure by migratory birds. The diet of P. levendis coincides with that of other insular congenerics, including high percentages of plant material.

    @article{ISI:000392578500007,
    Author = {Lymberakis, Petros and Valakos, Efstratios D. and Sagonas, Kostas and Pafilis, Panayiotis},
    Title = {The castaway: characteristic islet features affect the ecology of the most isolated European lizard},
    Journal = {ACTA HERPETOLOGICA},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {11},
    Number = {2},
    Pages = {161-169},
    Abstract = {The ecological importance of islet endemics are in the front line of conservation efforts and thus the good knowledge of their biology is required. Podarcis levendis is a lacertid lizard, endemic to two rocky islets in the Cretan Sea, Greece, that was raised to specific level in 2008 and since then no data on its biology are available. Here we present the first ecological information on the species, focusing on population density, tail autotomy and feeding preferences. We recorded regenerated and damaged tails in the field and estimated population density with the transect method. We also dissected museum specimens and analyzed their stomach content. Regenerated tails were common and reached a considerable 71\%. The latter finding could be attributed to the intense intraspecific competition due to high population density but also to the seasonal predation pressure by migratory birds. The diet of P. levendis coincides with that of other insular congenerics, including high percentages of plant material.},
    }

  • M. Huska and M. Vingron, “Improved prediction of non-methylated islands in vertebrates highlights different characteristic sequence patterns,” Plos computational biology, vol. 12, iss. 12, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Non-methylated islands (NMIs) of DNA are genomic regions that are important for gene regulation and development. A recent study of genome-wide non-methylation data in vertebrates by Long et al. (eLife 2013;2:e00348) has shown that many experimentally identified non-methylated regions do not overlap with classically defined CpG islands which are computationally predicted using simple DNA sequence features. This is especially true in cold-blooded vertebrates such as Danio rerio (zebrafish). In order to investigate how predictive DNA sequence is of a region’s methylation status, we applied a supervised learning approach using a spectrum kernel support vector machine, to see if a more complex model and supervised learning can be used to improve non-methylated island prediction and to understand the sequence properties of these regions. We demonstrate that DNA sequence is highly predictive of methylation status, and that in contrast to existing CpG island prediction methods our method is able to provide more useful predictions of NMIs genome-wide in all vertebrate organisms that were studied. Our results also show that in cold-blooded vertebrates (Anolis carolinensis, Xenopus tropicalis and Danio rerio) where genome-wide classical CpG island predictions consist primarily of false positives, longer primarily AT-rich DNA sequence features are able to identify these regions much more accurately.

    @article{ISI:000392126000034,
    Author = {Huska, Matthew and Vingron, Martin},
    Title = {Improved Prediction of Non-methylated Islands in Vertebrates Highlights Different Characteristic Sequence Patterns},
    Journal = {PLOS COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {12},
    Number = {12},
    Abstract = {Non-methylated islands (NMIs) of DNA are genomic regions that are important for gene regulation and development. A recent study of genome-wide non-methylation data in vertebrates by Long et al. (eLife 2013;2:e00348) has shown that many experimentally identified non-methylated regions do not overlap with classically defined CpG islands which are computationally predicted using simple DNA sequence features. This is especially true in cold-blooded vertebrates such as Danio rerio (zebrafish). In order to investigate how predictive DNA sequence is of a region's methylation status, we applied a supervised learning approach using a spectrum kernel support vector machine, to see if a more complex model and supervised learning can be used to improve non-methylated island prediction and to understand the sequence properties of these regions. We demonstrate that DNA sequence is highly predictive of methylation status, and that in contrast to existing CpG island prediction methods our method is able to provide more useful predictions of NMIs genome-wide in all vertebrate organisms that were studied. Our results also show that in cold-blooded vertebrates (Anolis carolinensis, Xenopus tropicalis and Danio rerio) where genome-wide classical CpG island predictions consist primarily of false positives, longer primarily AT-rich DNA sequence features are able to identify these regions much more accurately.},
    }

  • H. Hugo Siliceo-Cantero, A. Garcia, and Y. Gao, “Abundance and habitat use of the lizard sceloporus utiformis (squamata: phrynosomatidae) during the seasonal transition in a tropical environment,” Revista mexicana de biodiversidad, vol. 87, iss. 4, pp. 1301-1307, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Several behavioral and ecological studies have focused on the comparison of different variables among seasons. However, little is known about the transitional period between the end of the rainy season and the start of the dry season. To address this transition, we measured the abundance and habitat use of the lizard Sceloporus utiformis from the end of the rainy season to the beginning of the dry season. Two study sites were employed, both located in western Mexico: Chamela Biological Station and Manantlan Biosphere Reserve. These sites vary in elevation and distance from the coast. We compared the 2 environments with respect to ambient temperature, relative humidity and canopy cover in both the drier areas in the surrounding tropical dry forest and in wetter environment in vegetation along banks. Our results indicated that the abundance and habitat use of S. utiformis change gradually with seasonal transition, less abrupt changes in vegetation, followed by the high elevation forest and finally the low elevation forest. The population abundance of S. utiformis increased dining the seasonal transition, and the age structure changed from adult-dominated to juvenile-dominated. During the wet-to-dry transition, the use of herbaceous microhabitat was reduced and the use of leaflitter and trees increased at all sites. (C) 2016 Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Institute de Biologia.

    @article{ISI:000392166500013,
    Author = {Hugo Siliceo-Cantero, Hector and Garcia, Andres and Gao, Yan},
    Title = {Abundance and habitat use of the lizard Sceloporus utiformis (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) during the seasonal transition in a tropical environment},
    Journal = {REVISTA MEXICANA DE BIODIVERSIDAD},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {87},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {1301-1307},
    Abstract = {Several behavioral and ecological studies have focused on the comparison of different variables among seasons. However, little is known about the transitional period between the end of the rainy season and the start of the dry season. To address this transition, we measured the abundance and habitat use of the lizard Sceloporus utiformis from the end of the rainy season to the beginning of the dry season. Two study sites were employed, both located in western Mexico: Chamela Biological Station and Manantlan Biosphere Reserve. These sites vary in elevation and distance from the coast. We compared the 2 environments with respect to ambient temperature, relative humidity and canopy cover in both the drier areas in the surrounding tropical dry forest and in wetter environment in vegetation along banks. Our results indicated that the abundance and habitat use of S. utiformis change gradually with seasonal transition, less abrupt changes in vegetation, followed by the high elevation forest and finally the low elevation forest. The population abundance of S. utiformis increased dining the seasonal transition, and the age structure changed from adult-dominated to juvenile-dominated. During the wet-to-dry transition, the use of herbaceous microhabitat was reduced and the use of leaflitter and trees increased at all sites. (C) 2016 Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Institute de Biologia.},
    }

  • M. de Fuentes-Fernandez, M. Mercedes Suarez-Rancel, and M. Molina-Borja, “Variation in body size and morphometric traits of males and females of the wall gecko, tarentola delalandii (phyllodactylidae) from different environments on tenerife,” African journal of herpetology, vol. 65, iss. 2, pp. 83-98, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    We analysed sexual dimorphism in body size and several other morphological traits of two populations of Tarentola delalandii on the island of Tenerife (San Cristobal de La Laguna in the North, and Granadilla de Abona in the South), whose habitats differ in climate and vegetation cover. Sexual size dimorphism was invariant between populations. Males had significantly larger body size (snout-vent length, SVL) than females and SVL was larger in the northern population than in the southern population. Applying a Permutational MANCOVA to the other morphological variables, considering separately head and trunk lengths as covariates, we found a significant effect of population and gender. For the majority of morphological variables (body mass, SVL, width, length and height of the head, trunk length, forelimb and hindlimb, height and width of the tail) studied (eight in each analysis), there were significant differences, males having larger values than females and northern individuals larger values than those of the southern population. Therefore, we confirmed quantitatively a significant male biased sexual dimorphism in body size in the two populations and have shown sexual dimorphism in the characteristics mentioned previously. However, most of the shape-adjusted traits were significantly larger in females than in males. Results are discussed of possible evolutionary, ontogenetic and ecological factors affecting the expression of sexual dimorphism in the species studied.

    @article{ISI:000391477000002,
    Author = {de Fuentes-Fernandez, Maria and Mercedes Suarez-Rancel, Maria and Molina-Borja, Miguel},
    Title = {Variation in body size and morphometric traits of males and females of the wall gecko, Tarentola delalandii (Phyllodactylidae) from different environments on Tenerife},
    Journal = {AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HERPETOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {65},
    Number = {2},
    Pages = {83-98},
    Abstract = {We analysed sexual dimorphism in body size and several other morphological traits of two populations of Tarentola delalandii on the island of Tenerife (San Cristobal de La Laguna in the North, and Granadilla de Abona in the South), whose habitats differ in climate and vegetation cover. Sexual size dimorphism was invariant between populations. Males had significantly larger body size (snout-vent length, SVL) than females and SVL was larger in the northern population than in the southern population. Applying a Permutational MANCOVA to the other morphological variables, considering separately head and trunk lengths as covariates, we found a significant effect of population and gender. For the majority of morphological variables (body mass, SVL, width, length and height of the head, trunk length, forelimb and hindlimb, height and width of the tail) studied (eight in each analysis), there were significant differences, males having larger values than females and northern individuals larger values than those of the southern population. Therefore, we confirmed quantitatively a significant male biased sexual dimorphism in body size in the two populations and have shown sexual dimorphism in the characteristics mentioned previously. However, most of the shape-adjusted traits were significantly larger in females than in males. Results are discussed of possible evolutionary, ontogenetic and ecological factors affecting the expression of sexual dimorphism in the species studied.},
    }

  • U. Hernandez-Salinas, A. Ramirez-Bautista, and R. Cruz-Elizalde, “Variation in feeding habits of the arboreal lizard anolis nebulosus (squamata: dactyloidae) from island and mainland populations in mexican pacific,” Copeia, vol. 104, iss. 4, pp. 831-837, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Previous studies have shown that diet varies among seasons and age classes of lizard species inhabiting contrasting environments. The purpose of our study was to compare feeding habits between seasons (wet and dry), sexes (males and females), and age classes (juvenile and adult) of the arboreal lizard Anolis nebulosus from two different environments: a Pacific island (San Pancho Island) and the mainland Pacific Coast (Biological Field Station Chamela) of Mexico. Anolis nebulosus from island and mainland were generalist insectivores. During the dry season, the prey number consumed by lizards from island was lower than for lizards from mainland. With respect to numerical and volumetric data of prey items consumed by females and males for both age classes (adults and juveniles) in both populations (island and mainland), adult beetles, ants, orthopterans (grasshopper and crickets), and spiders were most frequently preyed upon. These results suggest that there are no ontogenetic changes in the diet of A. nebulosus and there is high dietary overlap of all groups (sexes and age classes) within both populations. Selection of this kind of prey by lizards from both age classes may be an overall trend in most species of Anolis, an opportunistic behavior toward the most abundant prey types that occur among seasons and years.

    @article{ISI:000391678500005,
    Author = {Hernandez-Salinas, Uriel and Ramirez-Bautista, Aurelio and Cruz-Elizalde, Raciel},
    Title = {Variation in Feeding Habits of the Arboreal Lizard Anolis nebulosus (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from Island and Mainland Populations in Mexican Pacific},
    Journal = {COPEIA},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {104},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {831-837},
    Abstract = {Previous studies have shown that diet varies among seasons and age classes of lizard species inhabiting contrasting environments. The purpose of our study was to compare feeding habits between seasons (wet and dry), sexes (males and females), and age classes (juvenile and adult) of the arboreal lizard Anolis nebulosus from two different environments: a Pacific island (San Pancho Island) and the mainland Pacific Coast (Biological Field Station Chamela) of Mexico. Anolis nebulosus from island and mainland were generalist insectivores. During the dry season, the prey number consumed by lizards from island was lower than for lizards from mainland. With respect to numerical and volumetric data of prey items consumed by females and males for both age classes (adults and juveniles) in both populations (island and mainland), adult beetles, ants, orthopterans (grasshopper and crickets), and spiders were most frequently preyed upon. These results suggest that there are no ontogenetic changes in the diet of A. nebulosus and there is high dietary overlap of all groups (sexes and age classes) within both populations. Selection of this kind of prey by lizards from both age classes may be an overall trend in most species of Anolis, an opportunistic behavior toward the most abundant prey types that occur among seasons and years.},
    }

  • E. Davis, J. C. Beane, and J. R. Flowers, “Helminth parasites of pit vipers from north carolina,” Southeastern naturalist, vol. 15, iss. 4, pp. 729-741, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    We surveyed for helminth parasites salvaged specimens of 27 Agkistrodon contortrix (Copperhead), 4 Agkistrodon piscivorus (Cottonmouth), and 7 Crotalus horridus (Timber Rattlesnake) collected between 2003 and 2010 from various locations in North Carolina. We detected 10 previously described helminths (2 trematodes: Ochetosoma kansensis, Travtrema stenocotyle; 1 cestode: Proteocephalus sp.; 6 nematodes: Kalicephalus inermis coronellae, Kalicephalus costatus parvus, Physalopterid larvae, Physaloptera squamatae, Capillaria colubra, Strongyloides serpentis; and 1 acanthocephalan: Macracanthorhynchid cystacanths). Herein, we report 7 new host records and 7 new geographic-distribution records with notes on host-parasite biology.

    @article{ISI:000391451600017,
    Author = {Davis, Elijah and Beane, Jeffrey C. and Flowers, James R.},
    Title = {Helminth Parasites of Pit Vipers from North Carolina},
    Journal = {SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {15},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {729-741},
    Abstract = {We surveyed for helminth parasites salvaged specimens of 27 Agkistrodon contortrix (Copperhead), 4 Agkistrodon piscivorus (Cottonmouth), and 7 Crotalus horridus (Timber Rattlesnake) collected between 2003 and 2010 from various locations in North Carolina. We detected 10 previously described helminths (2 trematodes: Ochetosoma kansensis, Travtrema stenocotyle; 1 cestode: Proteocephalus sp.; 6 nematodes: Kalicephalus inermis coronellae, Kalicephalus costatus parvus, Physalopterid larvae, Physaloptera squamatae, Capillaria colubra, Strongyloides serpentis; and 1 acanthocephalan: Macracanthorhynchid cystacanths). Herein, we report 7 new host records and 7 new geographic-distribution records with notes on host-parasite biology.},
    }

  • C. Alfonso Gallego-Carmona, J. Alejandra Castro-Arango, and M. Hernando Bernal-Bautista, “Effect of habitat disturbance on the body condition index of the colombian endemic lizard anolis antonii (squamata: dactyloidae),” South american journal of herpetology, vol. 11, iss. 3, pp. 183-187, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Anthropogenic effects on ecosystems are one of the main causes of reduction in the planet’s biodiversity. The present study aimed to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on the body condition of the Colombian endemic lizard Anolis antonii. Two populations from the department of Tolima (Colombia) were chosen for this work, one located in a secondary forest and the other in an agricultural area. Between January-June 2014, visual encounter surveys were simultaneously performed from 7: 00-18: 00 h in both habitats. Individuals were captured manually and sex, snout-vent length (SVL) and body mass (BM) were recorded for each. The Body Condition Index (BCI) was calculated from the residuals of the linear regression between BM and SVL, which was compared between the two populations (60 adults in the secondary forest and 52 in the agricultural area). No significant variation in SVL or BM was recorded in the inter-and intra-population comparisons, but the BM of lizards was closely related to SVL and the BCI of the population from the agricultural area was significantly lower than that of the secondary forest population. These results indicate that habitat disturbance as a consequence of agricultural practices has a negative impact on the body condition of A. antonii, which could reduce its abilities to compete and survive.

    @article{ISI:000390682100004,
    Author = {Alfonso Gallego-Carmona, Cristian and Alejandra Castro-Arango, Johana and Hernando Bernal-Bautista, Manuel},
    Title = {Effect of Habitat Disturbance on the Body Condition Index of the Colombian Endemic Lizard Anolis antonii (Squamata: Dactyloidae)},
    Journal = {SOUTH AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HERPETOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {11},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {183-187},
    Abstract = {Anthropogenic effects on ecosystems are one of the main causes of reduction in the planet's biodiversity. The present study aimed to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on the body condition of the Colombian endemic lizard Anolis antonii. Two populations from the department of Tolima (Colombia) were chosen for this work, one located in a secondary forest and the other in an agricultural area. Between January-June 2014, visual encounter surveys were simultaneously performed from 7: 00-18: 00 h in both habitats. Individuals were captured manually and sex, snout-vent length (SVL) and body mass (BM) were recorded for each. The Body Condition Index (BCI) was calculated from the residuals of the linear regression between BM and SVL, which was compared between the two populations (60 adults in the secondary forest and 52 in the agricultural area). No significant variation in SVL or BM was recorded in the inter-and intra-population comparisons, but the BM of lizards was closely related to SVL and the BCI of the population from the agricultural area was significantly lower than that of the secondary forest population. These results indicate that habitat disturbance as a consequence of agricultural practices has a negative impact on the body condition of A. antonii, which could reduce its abilities to compete and survive.},
    }

  • I. Prates, L. Hernandez, R. R. Samelo, and A. C. Carnaval, “Molecular identification and geographic origin of an exotic anole lizard introduced to brazil, with remarks on its natural history,” South american journal of herpetology, vol. 11, iss. 3, pp. 220-227, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Introduced species are major drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. Several squamate taxa have become established outside of their native ranges after human-mediated transportation, becoming a conservation concern. We report on the occurrence of an exotic anole lizard in the Baixada Santista region in coastal Brazil. To clarify the species’ identity and examine the geographic source of its introduction, we generated sequences of one mitochondrial DNA marker. The anole is genetically closest to species in the Anolis carolinensis group (Dactyloidae), which does not occur naturally in South America. Phylogenetic analyses found that samples from Brazil nest within A. porcatus, a Cuban species that has also been introduced into Florida and the Dominican Republic. Results indicate that Brazilian A. porcatus are nested among samples from La Habana, Matanzas, and Pinar del Ro, which may suggest a western Cuban source of introduction. Nevertheless, Brazilian samples also cluster closely with a sample from Florida, which may suggest that the Brazilian population originated from lizards exotic elsewhere. High densities of adults and juveniles suggest that it comprises a well-established reproductive population in Brazil, thriving in urban and industrial areas. Introduction of A. porcatus may be related to the presence of a major seaport in the study region. Further assessments are needed to uncover whether this species will be able to expand into the surrounding Atlantic Rainforest, and whether it will impact the local communities, including native anoles. This study demonstrates the usefulness of molecular approaches for proper species identification in a group of aggressive invaders characterized by morphological conservatism, hybridization, and convoluted taxonomy.

    @article{ISI:000390682100007,
    Author = {Prates, Ivan and Hernandez, Leyla and Samelo, Ricardo R. and Carnaval, Ana C.},
    Title = {Molecular Identification and Geographic Origin of an Exotic Anole Lizard Introduced to Brazil, with Remarks on Its Natural History},
    Journal = {SOUTH AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HERPETOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {11},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {220-227},
    Abstract = {Introduced species are major drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. Several squamate taxa have become established outside of their native ranges after human-mediated transportation, becoming a conservation concern. We report on the occurrence of an exotic anole lizard in the Baixada Santista region in coastal Brazil. To clarify the species' identity and examine the geographic source of its introduction, we generated sequences of one mitochondrial DNA marker. The anole is genetically closest to species in the Anolis carolinensis group (Dactyloidae), which does not occur naturally in South America. Phylogenetic analyses found that samples from Brazil nest within A. porcatus, a Cuban species that has also been introduced into Florida and the Dominican Republic. Results indicate that Brazilian A. porcatus are nested among samples from La Habana, Matanzas, and Pinar del Ro, which may suggest a western Cuban source of introduction. Nevertheless, Brazilian samples also cluster closely with a sample from Florida, which may suggest that the Brazilian population originated from lizards exotic elsewhere. High densities of adults and juveniles suggest that it comprises a well-established reproductive population in Brazil, thriving in urban and industrial areas. Introduction of A. porcatus may be related to the presence of a major seaport in the study region. Further assessments are needed to uncover whether this species will be able to expand into the surrounding Atlantic Rainforest, and whether it will impact the local communities, including native anoles. This study demonstrates the usefulness of molecular approaches for proper species identification in a group of aggressive invaders characterized by morphological conservatism, hybridization, and convoluted taxonomy.},
    }

  • R. R. Schaefer, R. R. Fleet, C. D. Rudolph, and N. E. Koerth, “Relationships between green anoles (anolis carolinensis) and shrub-level vegetation in fire-maintained longleaf pine (pinus palustris) forests of eastern texas,” Southeastern naturalist, vol. 15, iss. 9, pp. 134-150, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    We examined habitat use by Anolis carolinensis (Green Anole) at perch heights <= 5 m, particularly in relation to woody shrub-level vegetation, in fire-maintained Pinus palustris (Longleaf Pine) forest stands on the Angelina National Forest in eastern Texas. We surveyed Green Anoles in 2 stands, within 20 established plots per stand with varying shrub densities, during June (breeding season) and August (post-breeding season) for 3 years. An unforeseen prescribed fire in 1 stand provided an opportunity to examine the effects of fire on anoles and their habitat. Only adults were found during June. Adult detections decreased substantially, and juveniles predominated during August. The number of Green Anole detections was positively correlated with the number and volume (m(3)) of shrub-level plants. Also, anoles selected shrub-level plants with greater than average width, height, and volume. Larger shrubs provide more display perches and escape routes as well as greater protective cover from predators, and perhaps greater availability of arthropod prey.

    @article{ISI:000390677200012,
    Author = {Schaefer, Richard R. and Fleet, Robert R. and Rudolph, D. Craig and Koerth, Nancy E.},
    Title = {Relationships Between Green Anoles (Anolis carolinensis) and Shrub-level Vegetation in Fire-maintained Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Forests of Eastern Texas},
    Journal = {SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {15},
    Number = {9},
    Pages = {134-150},
    Abstract = {We examined habitat use by Anolis carolinensis (Green Anole) at perch heights <= 5 m, particularly in relation to woody shrub-level vegetation, in fire-maintained Pinus palustris (Longleaf Pine) forest stands on the Angelina National Forest in eastern Texas. We surveyed Green Anoles in 2 stands, within 20 established plots per stand with varying shrub densities, during June (breeding season) and August (post-breeding season) for 3 years. An unforeseen prescribed fire in 1 stand provided an opportunity to examine the effects of fire on anoles and their habitat. Only adults were found during June. Adult detections decreased substantially, and juveniles predominated during August. The number of Green Anole detections was positively correlated with the number and volume (m(3)) of shrub-level plants. Also, anoles selected shrub-level plants with greater than average width, height, and volume. Larger shrubs provide more display perches and escape routes as well as greater protective cover from predators, and perhaps greater availability of arthropod prey.},
    }

  • K. A. Jackson, “Prevalence of klebsiella oxytoca in anolis carolensis of louisiana,” Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, vol. 16, iss. 12, pp. 800-801, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Klebsiella oxytoca is a gram-negative bacterium that can be found throughout the environment as well as on mucosal membranes of mammals including humans. This bacterium is responsible for a variety of infections in humans including nosocomial infections resulting in hospital outbreaks. Reptiles including snakes, tuataras, and turtles have been shown to harbor this bacterium, and previous studies have shown that pet reptiles are a potential source for dissemination of pathogenic bacteria. Green anoles (Anolis carolensis) are a common lizard found in the southeastern part of the United States. For this study, the prevalence of K. oxytoca in free-living green anoles from Louisiana was tested to determine whether anoles are a possible source of pathogenic bacteria. Of the 42 green anoles tested, 7 (17\%) were positive for K. oxytoca, demonstrating that anoles are a potential source for human infection from this bacterium.

    @article{ISI:000390243200011,
    Author = {Jackson, KathyJo Ann},
    Title = {Prevalence of Klebsiella oxytoca in Anolis carolensis of Louisiana},
    Journal = {VECTOR-BORNE AND ZOONOTIC DISEASES},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {16},
    Number = {12},
    Pages = {800-801},
    Abstract = {Klebsiella oxytoca is a gram-negative bacterium that can be found throughout the environment as well as on mucosal membranes of mammals including humans. This bacterium is responsible for a variety of infections in humans including nosocomial infections resulting in hospital outbreaks. Reptiles including snakes, tuataras, and turtles have been shown to harbor this bacterium, and previous studies have shown that pet reptiles are a potential source for dissemination of pathogenic bacteria. Green anoles (Anolis carolensis) are a common lizard found in the southeastern part of the United States. For this study, the prevalence of K. oxytoca in free-living green anoles from Louisiana was tested to determine whether anoles are a possible source of pathogenic bacteria. Of the 42 green anoles tested, 7 (17\%) were positive for K. oxytoca, demonstrating that anoles are a potential source for human infection from this bacterium.},
    }

  • A. M. Ivancevic, D. R. Kortschak, T. Bertozzi, and D. L. Adelson, “Lines between species: evolutionary dynamics of line-1 retrotransposons across the eukaryotic tree of life,” Genome biology and evolution, vol. 8, iss. 11, pp. 3301-3322, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are dynamic elements. They have the potential to cause great genomic change because of their ability to `jump’ around the genome and amplify themselves, resulting in the duplication and rearrangement of regulatory DNA. Active L1, in particular, are often thought of as tightly constrained, homologous and ubiquitous elements with well-characterized domain organization. For the past 30 years, model organisms have been used to define L1s as 6-8 kb sequences containing a 50-UTR, two open reading frames working harmoniously in cis, and a 3′-UTR with a polyA tail. In this study, we demonstrate the remarkable and overlooked diversity of L1s via a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of elements from over 500 species from widely divergent branches of the tree of life. The rapid and recent growth of L1 elements in mammalian species is juxtaposed against the diverse lineages found in other metazoans and plants. In fact, some of these previously unexplored mammalian species (e.g. snub-nosed monkey, minke whale) exhibit L1 retrotranspositional `hyperactivity’ far surpassing that of human or mouse. In contrast, non-mammalian L1s have become so varied that the current classification system seems to inadequately capture their structural characteristics. Our findings illustrate how both long-term inherited evolutionary patterns and random bursts of activity in individual species can significantly alter genomes, highlighting the importance of L1 dynamics in eukaryotes.

    @article{ISI:000393815300006,
    Author = {Ivancevic, Atma M. and Kortschak, R. Daniel and Bertozzi, Terry and Adelson, David L.},
    Title = {LINEs between Species: Evolutionary Dynamics of LINE-1 Retrotransposons across the Eukaryotic Tree of Life},
    Journal = {GENOME BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {8},
    Number = {11},
    Pages = {3301-3322},
    Abstract = {LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are dynamic elements. They have the potential to cause great genomic change because of their ability to `jump' around the genome and amplify themselves, resulting in the duplication and rearrangement of regulatory DNA. Active L1, in particular, are often thought of as tightly constrained, homologous and ubiquitous elements with well-characterized domain organization. For the past 30 years, model organisms have been used to define L1s as 6-8 kb sequences containing a 50-UTR, two open reading frames working harmoniously in cis, and a 3'-UTR with a polyA tail. In this study, we demonstrate the remarkable and overlooked diversity of L1s via a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of elements from over 500 species from widely divergent branches of the tree of life. The rapid and recent growth of L1 elements in mammalian species is juxtaposed against the diverse lineages found in other metazoans and plants. In fact, some of these previously unexplored mammalian species (e.g. snub-nosed monkey, minke whale) exhibit L1 retrotranspositional `hyperactivity' far surpassing that of human or mouse. In contrast, non-mammalian L1s have become so varied that the current classification system seems to inadequately capture their structural characteristics. Our findings illustrate how both long-term inherited evolutionary patterns and random bursts of activity in individual species can significantly alter genomes, highlighting the importance of L1 dynamics in eukaryotes.},
    }

  • D. A. Warner, M. S. Johnson, and T. R. Nagy, “Validation of body condition indices and quantitative magnetic resonance in estimating body composition in a small lizard,” Journal of experimental zoology part a-ecological genetics and physiology, vol. 325, iss. 9, pp. 588-597, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Measurements of body condition are typically used to assess an individual’s quality, health, or energetic state. Most indices of body condition are based on linear relationships between body length and mass. Although these indices are simple to obtain, nonlethal, and useful indications of energetic state, their accuracy at predicting constituents of body condition (e.g., fat and lean mass) are often unknown. The objectives of this research were to (1) validate the accuracy of another simple and noninvasive method, quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), at estimating body composition in a small-bodied lizard, Anolis sagrei, and (2) evaluate the accuracy of two indices of body condition (based on length-mass relationships) at predicting body fat, lean, and water mass. Comparisons of results from QMR scans to those from chemical carcass analysis reveal that QMR measures body fat, lean, and water mass with excellent accuracy in male and female lizards. With minor calibration from regression equations, QMR will be a reliable method of estimating body composition of A. sagrei. Body condition indices were positively related to absolute estimates of each constituent of body composition, but these relationships showed considerable variation around regression lines. In addition, condition indices did not predict fat, lean, or water mass when adjusted for body mass. Thus, our results emphasize the need for caution when interpreting body condition based upon linear measurements of animals. Overall, QMR provides an alternative noninvasive method for accurately measuring fat, lean, and water mass in these small-bodied animals.

    @article{ISI:000392808700003,
    Author = {Warner, Daniel A. and Johnson, Maria S. and Nagy, Tim R.},
    Title = {Validation of Body Condition Indices and Quantitative Magnetic Resonance in Estimating Body Composition in a Small Lizard},
    Journal = {Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A-Ecological Genetics and Physiology},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {325},
    Number = {9},
    Pages = {588-597},
    Abstract = {Measurements of body condition are typically used to assess an individual's quality, health, or energetic state. Most indices of body condition are based on linear relationships between body length and mass. Although these indices are simple to obtain, nonlethal, and useful indications of energetic state, their accuracy at predicting constituents of body condition (e.g., fat and lean mass) are often unknown. The objectives of this research were to (1) validate the accuracy of another simple and noninvasive method, quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), at estimating body composition in a small-bodied lizard, Anolis sagrei, and (2) evaluate the accuracy of two indices of body condition (based on length-mass relationships) at predicting body fat, lean, and water mass. Comparisons of results from QMR scans to those from chemical carcass analysis reveal that QMR measures body fat, lean, and water mass with excellent accuracy in male and female lizards. With minor calibration from regression equations, QMR will be a reliable method of estimating body composition of A. sagrei. Body condition indices were positively related to absolute estimates of each constituent of body composition, but these relationships showed considerable variation around regression lines. In addition, condition indices did not predict fat, lean, or water mass when adjusted for body mass. Thus, our results emphasize the need for caution when interpreting body condition based upon linear measurements of animals. Overall, QMR provides an alternative noninvasive method for accurately measuring fat, lean, and water mass in these small-bodied animals.},
    }

  • A. G. Ossip-Drahos, J. O. R. Morales, C. Vital-Garcia, J. Jaime Zuniga-Vega, D. K. Hews, and E. P. Martins, “Shaping communicative colour signals over evolutionary time,” Royal society open science, vol. 3, iss. 11, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Many evolutionary forces can shape the evolution of communicative signals, and the long-term impact of each force may depend on relative timing and magnitude. We use a phylogenetic analysis to infer the history of blue belly patches of Sceloporus lizards, and a detailed spectrophotometric analysis of four species to explore the specific forces shaping evolutionary change. We find that the ancestor of Sceloporus had blue patches. We then focus on four species; the first evolutionary shift (captured by comparison of S. merriami and S. siniferus) represents an ancient loss of the belly patch by S. siniferus, and the second evolutionary shift, bounded by S. undulatus and S. virgatus, represents a more recent loss of blue belly patch by S. virgatus. Conspicuousness measurements suggest that the species with the recent loss (S. virgatus) is the least conspicuous. Results for two other species (S. siniferus and S. merriami) suggest that over longer periods of evolutionary time, new signal colours have arisen which minimize absolute contrast with the habitat while maximizing conspicuousness to a lizard receiver. Specifically, males of the species representing an ancient loss of blue patch (S. siniferus) are more conspicuous than are females in the UV, whereas S. merriami males have evolved a green element that makes their belly patches highly sexually dimorphic but no more conspicuous than the white bellies of S. merriami females. Thus, our results suggest that natural selection may act more immediately to reduce conspicuousness, whereas sexual selection may have a more complex impact on communicative signals through the introduction of new colours.

    @article{ISI:000389244400053,
    Author = {Ossip-Drahos, Alison G. and Morales, Jose R. Oyola and Vital-Garcia, Cuauhcihuatl and Jaime Zuniga-Vega, J. and Hews, Diana K. and Martins, Emilia P.},
    Title = {Shaping communicative colour signals over evolutionary time},
    Journal = {Royal Society Open Science},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {3},
    Number = {11},
    Abstract = {Many evolutionary forces can shape the evolution of communicative signals, and the long-term impact of each force may depend on relative timing and magnitude. We use a phylogenetic analysis to infer the history of blue belly patches of Sceloporus lizards, and a detailed spectrophotometric analysis of four species to explore the specific forces shaping evolutionary change. We find that the ancestor of Sceloporus had blue patches. We then focus on four species; the first evolutionary shift (captured by comparison of S. merriami and S. siniferus) represents an ancient loss of the belly patch by S. siniferus, and the second evolutionary shift, bounded by S. undulatus and S. virgatus, represents a more recent loss of blue belly patch by S. virgatus. Conspicuousness measurements suggest that the species with the recent loss (S. virgatus) is the least conspicuous. Results for two other species (S. siniferus and S. merriami) suggest that over longer periods of evolutionary time, new signal colours have arisen which minimize absolute contrast with the habitat while maximizing conspicuousness to a lizard receiver. Specifically, males of the species representing an ancient loss of blue patch (S. siniferus) are more conspicuous than are females in the UV, whereas S. merriami males have evolved a green element that makes their belly patches highly sexually dimorphic but no more conspicuous than the white bellies of S. merriami females. Thus, our results suggest that natural selection may act more immediately to reduce conspicuousness, whereas sexual selection may have a more complex impact on communicative signals through the introduction of new colours.},
    }

  • M. J. Tulli, F. B. Cruz, T. Kohlsdorf, and V. Abdala, “When a general morphology allows many habitat uses,” Integrative zoology, vol. 11, iss. 6, pp. 483-499, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    During the last decades the study of functional morphology received more attention incorporating more detailed data corresponding to the internal anatomy that together contribute for a better understanding of the functional basis in locomotion. Here we focus on 2 lizard families, Tropiduridae and Liolaemidae, and use information related to muscle-tendinous and external morphology traits of hind legs. We investigate whether the value of the traits analyzed tend to exhibit a reduced phenotypic variation produced by stabilizing selection, and whether species showing specialization in their habitat use will also exhibit special morphological features related to it. As a result, we identified that evolution of hind limb traits is mainly explained by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model, suggesting stabilizing selection. Liolaemids and tropidurids show clear ecomorphological trends in the variables considered, with sand lizards presenting the most specialized morphological traits. Some ecomorphological trends differ between the 2 lineages, and traits of internal morphology tend to be more flexible than those of external morphology, restricting the ability to identify ecomorphs shared between these 2 lineages. Conservative traits of external morphology likely explain such restriction, as ecomorphs have been historically defined in other lizard clades based on variation of external morphology.

    @article{ISI:000387798200010,
    Author = {Tulli, Maria J. and Cruz, Felix B. and Kohlsdorf, Tiana and Abdala, Virginia},
    Title = {When a general morphology allows many habitat uses},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE ZOOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {11},
    Number = {6},
    Pages = {483-499},
    Abstract = {During the last decades the study of functional morphology received more attention incorporating more detailed data corresponding to the internal anatomy that together contribute for a better understanding of the functional basis in locomotion. Here we focus on 2 lizard families, Tropiduridae and Liolaemidae, and use information related to muscle-tendinous and external morphology traits of hind legs. We investigate whether the value of the traits analyzed tend to exhibit a reduced phenotypic variation produced by stabilizing selection, and whether species showing specialization in their habitat use will also exhibit special morphological features related to it. As a result, we identified that evolution of hind limb traits is mainly explained by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model, suggesting stabilizing selection. Liolaemids and tropidurids show clear ecomorphological trends in the variables considered, with sand lizards presenting the most specialized morphological traits. Some ecomorphological trends differ between the 2 lineages, and traits of internal morphology tend to be more flexible than those of external morphology, restricting the ability to identify ecomorphs shared between these 2 lineages. Conservative traits of external morphology likely explain such restriction, as ecomorphs have been historically defined in other lizard clades based on variation of external morphology.},
    }

  • S. C. Campbell-Staton, S. V. Edwards, and J. B. Losos, “Climate-mediated adaptation after mainland colonization of an ancestrally subtropical island lizard, anolis carolinensis,” Journal of evolutionary biology, vol. 29, iss. 11, pp. 2168-2180, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Climate-mediated evolution plays an integral role in species migration and range expansion. Gaining a clearer understanding of how climate affects demographic history and adaptation provides fundamental insight into the generation of intra-and interspecific diversity. In this study, we used the natural colonization of the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) from the island of Cuba to mainland North America to investigate the role of evolution at the niche, phenotypic and genetic levels after long-term establishment in a novel environment. The North American green anole occupies a broader range of thermal habitats than its Cuban sister species. We documented niche expansion in the mainland green anole, mediated primarily through adaptation to winter temperatures. Common garden experiments strongly suggest a genetic component to differences in thermal performance found between populations in different temperature regimes. Analysis of geographic variation in population structure based on 53 486 single nucleotide variants from RAD loci revealed increased genetic isolation between populations in different vs. similar thermal environments. Selection scans for environment-allele correlations reveal 19 genomic loci of known function that may have played a role in the physiological adaptation of A. carolinensis to temperate environments on the mainland.

    @article{ISI:000388312300006,
    Author = {Campbell-Staton, S. C. and Edwards, S. V. and Losos, J. B.},
    Title = {Climate-mediated adaptation after mainland colonization of an ancestrally subtropical island lizard, Anolis carolinensis},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {29},
    Number = {11},
    Pages = {2168-2180},
    Abstract = {Climate-mediated evolution plays an integral role in species migration and range expansion. Gaining a clearer understanding of how climate affects demographic history and adaptation provides fundamental insight into the generation of intra-and interspecific diversity. In this study, we used the natural colonization of the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) from the island of Cuba to mainland North America to investigate the role of evolution at the niche, phenotypic and genetic levels after long-term establishment in a novel environment. The North American green anole occupies a broader range of thermal habitats than its Cuban sister species. We documented niche expansion in the mainland green anole, mediated primarily through adaptation to winter temperatures. Common garden experiments strongly suggest a genetic component to differences in thermal performance found between populations in different temperature regimes. Analysis of geographic variation in population structure based on 53 486 single nucleotide variants from RAD loci revealed increased genetic isolation between populations in different vs. similar thermal environments. Selection scans for environment-allele correlations reveal 19 genomic loci of known function that may have played a role in the physiological adaptation of A. carolinensis to temperate environments on the mainland.},
    }

  • J. D. Manthey, M. Tollis, A. R. Lemmon, E. M. Lemmon, and S. Boissinot, “Diversification in wild populations of the model organism anolis carolinensis: a genome-wide phylogeographic investigation,” Ecology and evolution, vol. 6, iss. 22, pp. 8115-8125, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The green anole (Anolis carolinensis) is a lizard widespread throughout the southeastern United States and is a model organism for the study of reproductive behavior, physiology, neural biology, and genomics. Previous phylogeographic studies of A. carolinensis using mitochondrial DNA and small numbers of nuclear loci identified conflicting and poorly supported relationships among geographically structured clades; these inconsistencies preclude confident use of A. carolinensis evolutionary history in association with morphological, physiological, or reproductive biology studies among sampling localities and necessitate increased effort to resolve evolutionary relationships among natural populations. Here, we used anchored hybrid enrichment of hundreds of genetic markers across the genome of A. carolinensis and identified five strongly supported phylogeographic groups. Using multiple analyses, we produced a fully resolved species tree, investigated relative support for each lineage across all gene trees, and identified mito-nuclear discordance when comparing our results to previous studies. We found fixed differences in only one clade-southern Florida restricted to the Everglades region-while most polymorphisms were shared between lineages. The southern Florida group likely diverged from other populations during the Pliocene, with all other diversification during the Pleistocene. Multiple lines of support, including phylogenetic relationships, a latitudinal gradient in genetic diversity, and relatively more stable long-term population sizes in southern phylogeographic groups, indicate that diversification in A. carolinensis occurred northward from southern Florida.

    @article{ISI:000387664500017,
    Author = {Manthey, Joseph D. and Tollis, Marc and Lemmon, Alan R. and Lemmon, Emily Moriarty and Boissinot, Stephane},
    Title = {Diversification in wild populations of the model organism Anolis carolinensis: A genome-wide phylogeographic investigation},
    Journal = {ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {6},
    Number = {22},
    Pages = {8115-8125},
    Abstract = {The green anole (Anolis carolinensis) is a lizard widespread throughout the southeastern United States and is a model organism for the study of reproductive behavior, physiology, neural biology, and genomics. Previous phylogeographic studies of A. carolinensis using mitochondrial DNA and small numbers of nuclear loci identified conflicting and poorly supported relationships among geographically structured clades; these inconsistencies preclude confident use of A. carolinensis evolutionary history in association with morphological, physiological, or reproductive biology studies among sampling localities and necessitate increased effort to resolve evolutionary relationships among natural populations. Here, we used anchored hybrid enrichment of hundreds of genetic markers across the genome of A. carolinensis and identified five strongly supported phylogeographic groups. Using multiple analyses, we produced a fully resolved species tree, investigated relative support for each lineage across all gene trees, and identified mito-nuclear discordance when comparing our results to previous studies. We found fixed differences in only one clade-southern Florida restricted to the Everglades region-while most polymorphisms were shared between lineages. The southern Florida group likely diverged from other populations during the Pliocene, with all other diversification during the Pleistocene. Multiple lines of support, including phylogenetic relationships, a latitudinal gradient in genetic diversity, and relatively more stable long-term population sizes in southern phylogeographic groups, indicate that diversification in A. carolinensis occurred northward from southern Florida.},
    }

  • L. Alibardi, “Review: mapping epidermal beta-protein distribution in the lizard anolis carolinensis shows a specific localization for the formation of scales, pads, and claws,” Protoplasma, vol. 253, iss. 6, pp. 1405-1420, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The epidermis of lizards is made of multiple alpha- and beta-layers with different characteristics comprising alpha-keratins and corneous beta-proteins (formerly beta-keratins). Three main modifications of body scales are present in the lizard Anolis carolinensis: gular scales, adhesive pad lamellae, and claws. The 40 corneous beta-proteins present in this specie comprise glycine-rich and glycine-cysteine-rich subfamilies, while the 41 alpha-keratins comprise cysteine-poor and cysteine-rich subfamilies, the latter showing homology to hair keratins. Other genes for corneous proteins are present in the epidermal differentiation complex, the locus where corneous protein genes are located. The review summarizes the main sites of immunolocalization of beta-proteins in different scales and their derivatives producing a unique map of body distribution for these structural proteins. Small glycine-rich beta-proteins participate in the formation of the mechanically resistant beta-layer of most scales. Small glycine-cysteine beta-proteins have a more varied localization in different scales and are also present in the pliable alpha-layer. In claws, cysteine-rich alpha-keratins prevail over cysteine-poor alpha-keratins and mix to glycine-cysteine-rich beta-proteins. The larger beta-proteins with a molecular mass similar to that of alpha-keratins participate in the formation of the fibrous meshwork present in differentiating beta-cells and likely interact with alpha-keratins. The diverse localization of alpha-keratins, beta-proteins, and other proteins of the epidermal differentiation complex gives rise to variably pliable, elastic, or hard corneous layers in different body scales. The corneous layers formed in the softer or harder scales, in the elastic pad lamellae, or in the resistant claws possess peculiar properties depending on the ratio of specific corneous proteins.

    @article{ISI:000386509400003,
    Author = {Alibardi, Lorenzo},
    Title = {Review: mapping epidermal beta-protein distribution in the lizard Anolis carolinensis shows a specific localization for the formation of scales, pads, and claws},
    Journal = {PROTOPLASMA},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {253},
    Number = {6},
    Pages = {1405-1420},
    Abstract = {The epidermis of lizards is made of multiple alpha- and beta-layers with different characteristics comprising alpha-keratins and corneous beta-proteins (formerly beta-keratins). Three main modifications of body scales are present in the lizard Anolis carolinensis: gular scales, adhesive pad lamellae, and claws. The 40 corneous beta-proteins present in this specie comprise glycine-rich and glycine-cysteine-rich subfamilies, while the 41 alpha-keratins comprise cysteine-poor and cysteine-rich subfamilies, the latter showing homology to hair keratins. Other genes for corneous proteins are present in the epidermal differentiation complex, the locus where corneous protein genes are located. The review summarizes the main sites of immunolocalization of beta-proteins in different scales and their derivatives producing a unique map of body distribution for these structural proteins. Small glycine-rich beta-proteins participate in the formation of the mechanically resistant beta-layer of most scales. Small glycine-cysteine beta-proteins have a more varied localization in different scales and are also present in the pliable alpha-layer. In claws, cysteine-rich alpha-keratins prevail over cysteine-poor alpha-keratins and mix to glycine-cysteine-rich beta-proteins. The larger beta-proteins with a molecular mass similar to that of alpha-keratins participate in the formation of the fibrous meshwork present in differentiating beta-cells and likely interact with alpha-keratins. The diverse localization of alpha-keratins, beta-proteins, and other proteins of the epidermal differentiation complex gives rise to variably pliable, elastic, or hard corneous layers in different body scales. The corneous layers formed in the softer or harder scales, in the elastic pad lamellae, or in the resistant claws possess peculiar properties depending on the ratio of specific corneous proteins.},
    }

  • D. S. Steinberg and M. Leal, “Visual motion detection and habitat preference in anolis lizards,” Journal of comparative physiology a-neuroethology sensory neural and behavioral physiology, vol. 202, iss. 11, pp. 783-790, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The perception of visual stimuli has been a major area of inquiry in sensory ecology, and much of this work has focused on coloration. However, for visually oriented organisms, the process of visual motion detection is often equally crucial to survival and reproduction. Despite the importance of motion detection to many organisms’ daily activities, the degree of interspecific variation in the perception of visual motion remains largely unexplored. Furthermore, the factors driving this potential variation (e.g., ecology or evolutionary history) along with the effects of such variation on behavior are unknown. We used a behavioral assay under laboratory conditions to quantify the visual motion detection systems of three species of Puerto Rican Anolis lizard that prefer distinct structural habitat types. We then compared our results to data previously collected for anoles from Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Central America. Our findings indicate that general visual motion detection parameters are similar across species, regardless of habitat preference or evolutionary history. We argue that these conserved sensory properties may drive the evolution of visual communication behavior in this clade.

    @article{ISI:000386065000003,
    Author = {Steinberg, David S. and Leal, Manuel},
    Title = {Visual motion detection and habitat preference in Anolis lizards},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY A-NEUROETHOLOGY SENSORY NEURAL AND BEHAVIORAL PHYSIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {202},
    Number = {11},
    Pages = {783-790},
    Abstract = {The perception of visual stimuli has been a major area of inquiry in sensory ecology, and much of this work has focused on coloration. However, for visually oriented organisms, the process of visual motion detection is often equally crucial to survival and reproduction. Despite the importance of motion detection to many organisms' daily activities, the degree of interspecific variation in the perception of visual motion remains largely unexplored. Furthermore, the factors driving this potential variation (e.g., ecology or evolutionary history) along with the effects of such variation on behavior are unknown. We used a behavioral assay under laboratory conditions to quantify the visual motion detection systems of three species of Puerto Rican Anolis lizard that prefer distinct structural habitat types. We then compared our results to data previously collected for anoles from Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Central America. Our findings indicate that general visual motion detection parameters are similar across species, regardless of habitat preference or evolutionary history. We argue that these conserved sensory properties may drive the evolution of visual communication behavior in this clade.},
    }

  • J. P. Maia, D. James Harris, S. Carranza, and E. Gomez-Diaz, “Assessing the diversity, host-specificity and infection patterns of apicomplexan parasites in reptiles from oman, arabia,” Parasitology, vol. 143, iss. 13, pp. 1730-1747, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Understanding the processes that shape parasite diversification, their distribution and abundance provides valuable information on the dynamics and evolution of disease. In this study, we assessed the diversity, distribution, host-specificity and infection patterns of apicomplexan parasites in amphibians and reptiles from Oman, Arabia. Using a quantitative PCR approach we detected three apicomplexan parasites (haemogregarines, lankesterellids and sarcocystids). A total of 13 haemogregarine haplotypes were identified, which fell into four main clades in a phylogenetic framework. Phylogenetic analysis of six new lankesterellid haplotypes revealed that these parasites were distinct from, but phylogenetically related to, known Lankesterella species and might represent new taxa. The percentage of infected hosts (prevalence) and the number of haemogregarines in the blood (parasitaemia) varied significantly between gecko species. We also found significant differences in parasitaemia between haemogregarine parasite lineages (defined by phylogenetic clustering of haplotypes), suggesting differences in host-parasite compatibility between these lineages. For Pristurus rupestris, we found significant differences in haemogregarine prevalence between geographical areas. Our results suggest that host ecology and host relatedness may influence haemogregarine distributions and, more generally, highlight the importance of screening wild hosts from remote regions to provide new insights into parasite diversity.

    @article{ISI:000385715300006,
    Author = {Maia, Joao P. and James Harris, D. and Carranza, Salvador and Gomez-Diaz, Elena},
    Title = {Assessing the diversity, host-specificity and infection patterns of apicomplexan parasites in reptiles from Oman, Arabia},
    Journal = {PARASITOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {143},
    Number = {13},
    Pages = {1730-1747},
    Abstract = {Understanding the processes that shape parasite diversification, their distribution and abundance provides valuable information on the dynamics and evolution of disease. In this study, we assessed the diversity, distribution, host-specificity and infection patterns of apicomplexan parasites in amphibians and reptiles from Oman, Arabia. Using a quantitative PCR approach we detected three apicomplexan parasites (haemogregarines, lankesterellids and sarcocystids). A total of 13 haemogregarine haplotypes were identified, which fell into four main clades in a phylogenetic framework. Phylogenetic analysis of six new lankesterellid haplotypes revealed that these parasites were distinct from, but phylogenetically related to, known Lankesterella species and might represent new taxa. The percentage of infected hosts (prevalence) and the number of haemogregarines in the blood (parasitaemia) varied significantly between gecko species. We also found significant differences in parasitaemia between haemogregarine parasite lineages (defined by phylogenetic clustering of haplotypes), suggesting differences in host-parasite compatibility between these lineages. For Pristurus rupestris, we found significant differences in haemogregarine prevalence between geographical areas. Our results suggest that host ecology and host relatedness may influence haemogregarine distributions and, more generally, highlight the importance of screening wild hosts from remote regions to provide new insights into parasite diversity.},
    }

  • N. Feiner, “Accumulation of transposable elements in hox gene clusters during adaptive radiation of anolis lizards,” Proceedings of the royal society b-biological sciences, vol. 283, iss. 1840, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that can insert elsewhere in the genome and modify genome structure and gene regulation. The role of TEs in evolution is contentious. One hypothesis posits that TE activity generates genomic incompatibilities that can cause reproductive isolation between incipient species. This predicts that TEs will accumulate during speciation events. Here, I tested the prediction that extant lineages with a relatively high rate of speciation have a high number of TEs in their genomes. I sequenced and analysed the TE content of a marker genomic region (Hox clusters) in Anolis lizards, a classic case of an adaptive radiation. Unlike other vertebrates, including closely related lizards, Anolis lizards have high numbers of TEs in their Hox clusters, genomic regions that regulate development of the morphological adaptations that characterize habitat specialists in these lizards. Following a burst of TE activity in the lineage leading to extant Anolis, TEs have continued to accumulate during or after speciation events, resulting in a positive relationship between TE density and lineage speciation rate. These results are consistent with the prediction that TE activity contributes to adaptive radiation by promoting speciation. Although there was no evidence that TE density per se is associated with ecological morphology, the activity of TEs in Hox clusters could have been a rich source for phenotypic variation that may have facilitated the rapid parallel morphological adaptation to microhabitats seen in extant Anolis lizards.

    @article{ISI:000386490000010,
    Author = {Feiner, Nathalie},
    Title = {Accumulation of transposable elements in Hox gene clusters during adaptive radiation of Anolis lizards},
    Journal = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {283},
    Number = {1840},
    Abstract = {Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that can insert elsewhere in the genome and modify genome structure and gene regulation. The role of TEs in evolution is contentious. One hypothesis posits that TE activity generates genomic incompatibilities that can cause reproductive isolation between incipient species. This predicts that TEs will accumulate during speciation events. Here, I tested the prediction that extant lineages with a relatively high rate of speciation have a high number of TEs in their genomes. I sequenced and analysed the TE content of a marker genomic region (Hox clusters) in Anolis lizards, a classic case of an adaptive radiation. Unlike other vertebrates, including closely related lizards, Anolis lizards have high numbers of TEs in their Hox clusters, genomic regions that regulate development of the morphological adaptations that characterize habitat specialists in these lizards. Following a burst of TE activity in the lineage leading to extant Anolis, TEs have continued to accumulate during or after speciation events, resulting in a positive relationship between TE density and lineage speciation rate. These results are consistent with the prediction that TE activity contributes to adaptive radiation by promoting speciation. Although there was no evidence that TE density per se is associated with ecological morphology, the activity of TEs in Hox clusters could have been a rich source for phenotypic variation that may have facilitated the rapid parallel morphological adaptation to microhabitats seen in extant Anolis lizards.},
    }

  • J. Melville, S. Hunjan, F. McLean, G. Mantziou, K. Boysen, and L. J. Parry, “Expression of a hindlimb-determining factor pitx1 in the forelimb of the lizard pogona vitticeps during morphogenesis,” Open biology, vol. 6, iss. 10, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    With over 9000 species, squamates, which include lizards and snakes, are the largest group of reptiles and second-largest order of vertebrates, spanning a vast array of appendicular skeletal morphology. As such, they provide a promising system for examining developmental and molecular processes underlying limb morphology. Using the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) as the primary study model, we examined limb morphometry throughout embryonic development and characterized the expression of three known developmental genes (GHR, Pitx1 and Shh) from early embryonic stage through to hatchling stage via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In this study, all genes were found to be transcribed in both the forelimbs and hindlimbs of P. vitticeps. While the highest level of GHR expression occurred at the hatchling stage, Pitx1 and Shh expression was greatest earlier during embryogenesis, which coincides with the onset of the differentiation between forelimb and hindlimb length. We compared our finding of Pitx1 expression-a hindlimb-determining gene-in the forelimbs of P. vitticeps to that in a closely related Australian agamid lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, where we found Pitx1 expression to be more highly expressed in the hindlimb compared with the forelimb during early and late morphogenesis-a result consistent with that found across other tetrapods. Expression of Pitx1 in forelimbs has only rarely been documented, including via in situ hybridization in a chicken and a frog. Our findings from both RT-qPCR and IHC indicate that further research across a wider range of tetrapods is needed to more fully understand evolutionary variation in molecular processes underlying limb morphology.

    @article{ISI:000393874600007,
    Author = {Melville, Jane and Hunjan, Sumitha and McLean, Felicity and Mantziou, Georgia and Boysen, Katja and Parry, Laura J.},
    Title = {Expression of a hindlimb-determining factor Pitx1 in the forelimb of the lizard Pogona vitticeps during morphogenesis},
    Journal = {OPEN BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {6},
    Number = {10},
    Abstract = {With over 9000 species, squamates, which include lizards and snakes, are the largest group of reptiles and second-largest order of vertebrates, spanning a vast array of appendicular skeletal morphology. As such, they provide a promising system for examining developmental and molecular processes underlying limb morphology. Using the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) as the primary study model, we examined limb morphometry throughout embryonic development and characterized the expression of three known developmental genes (GHR, Pitx1 and Shh) from early embryonic stage through to hatchling stage via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In this study, all genes were found to be transcribed in both the forelimbs and hindlimbs of P. vitticeps. While the highest level of GHR expression occurred at the hatchling stage, Pitx1 and Shh expression was greatest earlier during embryogenesis, which coincides with the onset of the differentiation between forelimb and hindlimb length. We compared our finding of Pitx1 expression-a hindlimb-determining gene-in the forelimbs of P. vitticeps to that in a closely related Australian agamid lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, where we found Pitx1 expression to be more highly expressed in the hindlimb compared with the forelimb during early and late morphogenesis-a result consistent with that found across other tetrapods. Expression of Pitx1 in forelimbs has only rarely been documented, including via in situ hybridization in a chicken and a frog. Our findings from both RT-qPCR and IHC indicate that further research across a wider range of tetrapods is needed to more fully understand evolutionary variation in molecular processes underlying limb morphology.},
    }

  • L. Gray, R. Meza-Lazaro, S. Poe, and A. Nieto-Montes de Oca, “A new species of semiaquatic anolis (squamata: dactyloidae) from oaxaca and veracruz, mexico,” Herpetological journal, vol. 26, iss. 4, pp. 253-262, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    We describe a new species of semiaquatic Anolis (A. purpuronectes) from the Chimalapas region of eastern Oaxaca and adjacent Veracruz, Mexico, and investigate its phylogenetic relationships with the closely related species A. barkeri to which the populations under investigation have previously been assigned to. Anolis barkeri and the new species appear to be allopatric, and differ primarily in male dewlap colour (red and orange in A. barkeri, pale purple in A. purpuronectes). A partitioned Bayesian analysis of the mitochondrial genes encoding ND1 (part), ND2, and the intervening tRNAs revealed that A. barkeri and A. purpuronectes are genetically distinct (uncorrected genetic distance between them=11.5\%), nested within the A. schiedii group as sister species, and most closely related to a clade composed of A. cymbops, A. milleri, and A. parvicirculatus.

    @article{ISI:000392326900001,
    Author = {Gray, Levi and Meza-Lazaro, Rubi and Poe, Steven and Nieto-Montes de Oca, Adrian},
    Title = {A new species of semiaquatic Anolis (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from Oaxaca and Veracruz, Mexico},
    Journal = {HERPETOLOGICAL JOURNAL},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {26},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {253-262},
    Abstract = {We describe a new species of semiaquatic Anolis (A. purpuronectes) from the Chimalapas region of eastern Oaxaca and adjacent Veracruz, Mexico, and investigate its phylogenetic relationships with the closely related species A. barkeri to which the populations under investigation have previously been assigned to. Anolis barkeri and the new species appear to be allopatric, and differ primarily in male dewlap colour (red and orange in A. barkeri, pale purple in A. purpuronectes). A partitioned Bayesian analysis of the mitochondrial genes encoding ND1 (part), ND2, and the intervening tRNAs revealed that A. barkeri and A. purpuronectes are genetically distinct (uncorrected genetic distance between them=11.5\%), nested within the A. schiedii group as sister species, and most closely related to a clade composed of A. cymbops, A. milleri, and A. parvicirculatus.},
    }

  • P. R. Pearson and D. A. Warner, “Habitat- and season-specific temperatures affect phenotypic development of hatchling lizards,” Biology letters, vol. 12, iss. 10, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Embryonic environments influence phenotypic development, but relatively few experiments have explored the effects of natural environmental variation. We incubated eggs of the lizard Anolis sagrei under conditions that mimicked natural spatial and temporal thermal variation to determine their effects on offspring morphology and performance. Incubation temperatures mimicked two microhabitats (open, shade) at two different times of the incubation season (April, July). Egg survival, incubation duration and offspring size were influenced by interactions between habitat-and season-specific nest temperatures, and locomotor performance was influenced primarily by temporal factors. These findings highlight the importance of spatial and temporal environmental variation in generating variation in fitness-related phenotypes.

    @article{ISI:000389636800015,
    Author = {Pearson, P. R. and Warner, D. A.},
    Title = {Habitat- and season-specific temperatures affect phenotypic development of hatchling lizards},
    Journal = {BIOLOGY LETTERS},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {12},
    Number = {10},
    Abstract = {Embryonic environments influence phenotypic development, but relatively few experiments have explored the effects of natural environmental variation. We incubated eggs of the lizard Anolis sagrei under conditions that mimicked natural spatial and temporal thermal variation to determine their effects on offspring morphology and performance. Incubation temperatures mimicked two microhabitats (open, shade) at two different times of the incubation season (April, July). Egg survival, incubation duration and offspring size were influenced by interactions between habitat-and season-specific nest temperatures, and locomotor performance was influenced primarily by temporal factors. These findings highlight the importance of spatial and temporal environmental variation in generating variation in fitness-related phenotypes.},
    }

  • D. A. Spiller, T. W. Schoener, and J. Piovia-Scott, “Predators suppress herbivore outbreaks and enhance plant recovery following hurricanes,” Ecology, vol. 97, iss. 10, pp. 2540-2546, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Understanding processes that may stabilize ecological systems confronted with rapidly changing environmental conditions is a key issue in ecology. We studied a system of highly fluctuating populations, the moth Achyra rantalis feeding on the plant Sesuvium portulacastrum in a group of small subtropical islands of the Bahamas. The plant is a prostrate inhabitant of shorelines, and consequently moths are highly vulnerable to being consumed by the ground-foraging lizard Anolis sagrei. We measured the percent ground cover of Sesuvium and abundance of Achyra on 11 islands with lizards present and 21 islands without lizards annually for 10 consecutive years. Overall abundance of Achyra was 4.6 times higher on no-lizard islands than on lizard islands. The percent cover of Sesuvium exhibited lower temporal variability on lizard islands when the study site was undisturbed by hurricanes, and higher recovery rate on lizard islands following hurricanes. We suggest that both of these stabilizing phenomena are linked to a trophic cascade in which predatory lizards control herbivore populations, thereby suppressing outbreaks and enhancing plant recovery following physical disturbance.

    @article{ISI:000386088000002,
    Author = {Spiller, David A. and Schoener, Thomas W. and Piovia-Scott, Jonah},
    Title = {Predators suppress herbivore outbreaks and enhance plant recovery following hurricanes},
    Journal = {ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {97},
    Number = {10},
    Pages = {2540-2546},
    Abstract = {Understanding processes that may stabilize ecological systems confronted with rapidly changing environmental conditions is a key issue in ecology. We studied a system of highly fluctuating populations, the moth Achyra rantalis feeding on the plant Sesuvium portulacastrum in a group of small subtropical islands of the Bahamas. The plant is a prostrate inhabitant of shorelines, and consequently moths are highly vulnerable to being consumed by the ground-foraging lizard Anolis sagrei. We measured the percent ground cover of Sesuvium and abundance of Achyra on 11 islands with lizards present and 21 islands without lizards annually for 10 consecutive years. Overall abundance of Achyra was 4.6 times higher on no-lizard islands than on lizard islands. The percent cover of Sesuvium exhibited lower temporal variability on lizard islands when the study site was undisturbed by hurricanes, and higher recovery rate on lizard islands following hurricanes. We suggest that both of these stabilizing phenomena are linked to a trophic cascade in which predatory lizards control herbivore populations, thereby suppressing outbreaks and enhancing plant recovery following physical disturbance.},
    }

  • M. C. Duryea, P. Bergeron, Z. Clare-Salzler, and R. Calsbeek, “Field estimates of parentage reveal sexually antagonistic selection on body size in a population of anolis lizards,” Ecology and evolution, vol. 6, iss. 19, pp. 7024-7031, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Sexual dimorphism evolves when selection favors different phenotypic optima between the sexes. Such sexually antagonistic selection creates intralocus sexual conflict when traits are genetically correlated between the sexes and have sex-specific optima. Brown anoles are highly sexually dimorphic: Males are on average 30\% longer than females and 150\% heavier in our study population. Viability selection on body size is known to be sexually antagonistic, and directional selection favors large male size whereas stabilizing selection constrains females to remain small. We build on previous studies of viability selection by measuring sexually antagonistic selection using reproductive components of fitness over three generations in a natural population of brown anoles. We estimated the number of offspring produced by an individual that survived to sexual maturity (termed RSV), a measure of individual fitness that includes aspects of both individual reproductive success and offspring survival. We found directional selection on male body size, consistent with previous studies of viability selection. However, selection on female body size varied among years, and included periods of positive directional selection, quadratic stabilizing selection, and no selection. Selection acts differently in the sexes based on both survival and reproduction and sexual conflict appears to be a persistent force in this species.

    @article{ISI:000385626100023,
    Author = {Duryea, Mary C. and Bergeron, Patrick and Clare-Salzler, Zachary and Calsbeek, Ryan},
    Title = {Field estimates of parentage reveal sexually antagonistic selection on body size in a population of Anolis lizards},
    Journal = {ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {6},
    Number = {19},
    Pages = {7024-7031},
    Abstract = {Sexual dimorphism evolves when selection favors different phenotypic optima between the sexes. Such sexually antagonistic selection creates intralocus sexual conflict when traits are genetically correlated between the sexes and have sex-specific optima. Brown anoles are highly sexually dimorphic: Males are on average 30\% longer than females and 150\% heavier in our study population. Viability selection on body size is known to be sexually antagonistic, and directional selection favors large male size whereas stabilizing selection constrains females to remain small. We build on previous studies of viability selection by measuring sexually antagonistic selection using reproductive components of fitness over three generations in a natural population of brown anoles. We estimated the number of offspring produced by an individual that survived to sexual maturity (termed RSV), a measure of individual fitness that includes aspects of both individual reproductive success and offspring survival. We found directional selection on male body size, consistent with previous studies of viability selection. However, selection on female body size varied among years, and included periods of positive directional selection, quadratic stabilizing selection, and no selection. Selection acts differently in the sexes based on both survival and reproduction and sexual conflict appears to be a persistent force in this species.},
    }

  • M. L. Logan, M. C. Duryea, O. R. Molnar, B. J. Kessler, and R. Calsbeek, “Spatial variation in climate mediates gene flow across an island archipelago,” Evolution, vol. 70, iss. 10, pp. 2395-2403, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    High levels of gene flow among partially isolated populations can overwhelm selection and limit local adaptation. This process, known as “gene swamping,{”} can homogenize genetic diversity among populations and reduce the capacity of a species to withstand rapid environmental change. We studied brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) distributed across seven islands in The Bahamas. We used microsatellite markers to estimate gene flow among islands and then examined the correlation between thermal performance and island temperature. The thermal optimum for sprint performance was correlated with both mean and maximum island temperature, whereas performance breadth was not correlated with any measure of temperature variation. Gene flow between islands decreased as the difference between mean island temperatures increased, even when those islands were adjacent to one another. These data suggest that phenotypic variation is the result of either (1) local genetic adaptation with selection against immigrants maintaining variation in the thermal optimum, (2) irreversible forms of adaptive plasticity such that immigrants have reduced fitness, or (3) an interaction between fixed genetic differences and plasticity. In general, the patterns of gene flow we observed suggest that local thermal environments represent important ecological filters that can mediate gene flow on relatively fine geographic scales.

    @article{ISI:000385550700017,
    Author = {Logan, Michael L. and Duryea, M. C. and Molnar, Orsolya R. and Kessler, Benji J. and Calsbeek, Ryan},
    Title = {Spatial variation in climate mediates gene flow across an island archipelago},
    Journal = {EVOLUTION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {70},
    Number = {10},
    Pages = {2395-2403},
    Abstract = {High levels of gene flow among partially isolated populations can overwhelm selection and limit local adaptation. This process, known as ``gene swamping,{''} can homogenize genetic diversity among populations and reduce the capacity of a species to withstand rapid environmental change. We studied brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) distributed across seven islands in The Bahamas. We used microsatellite markers to estimate gene flow among islands and then examined the correlation between thermal performance and island temperature. The thermal optimum for sprint performance was correlated with both mean and maximum island temperature, whereas performance breadth was not correlated with any measure of temperature variation. Gene flow between islands decreased as the difference between mean island temperatures increased, even when those islands were adjacent to one another. These data suggest that phenotypic variation is the result of either (1) local genetic adaptation with selection against immigrants maintaining variation in the thermal optimum, (2) irreversible forms of adaptive plasticity such that immigrants have reduced fitness, or (3) an interaction between fixed genetic differences and plasticity. In general, the patterns of gene flow we observed suggest that local thermal environments represent important ecological filters that can mediate gene flow on relatively fine geographic scales.},
    }

  • C. Condon and S. P. Lailvaux, “Losing reduces maximum bite performance in house cricket contests,” Functional ecology, vol. 30, iss. 10, pp. 1660-1664, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Whole-organism performance capacities influence male combat outcomes in many animal species. However, several species also exhibit winner and loser effects, and current theory predicts that losers are more likely to lose again due to a decrease in aggression following defeat, not because of any change in underlying maximum performance capacity. To test the effect of fight experience on performance, we measured the maximum bite force of male Acheta domesticus crickets that were pitted against size-matched opponents in staged fights. Winners then fought a second contest against other winners while losers fought other losers, after which we measured the change in bite force in all contest crickets and in a control group that did not take part in any contests. Bite force predicted fight outcomes in the first round, and losing the first fight had a significant effect on bite force, leading to a 20\% decrease in relative bite force compared to crickets that won both rounds. However, winning did not increase performance as there was no difference between those that won the first round and those that never experienced a loss, nor did winning a second bout alleviate the negative effects on realized bite performance of losing an initial bout. Past defeats can therefore alter the realized short-term maximal performance of traits thatcontribute to contest outcomes independent of maximum performance limits set by morphology.

    @article{ISI:000385511500005,
    Author = {Condon, Catriona and Lailvaux, Simon P.},
    Title = {Losing reduces maximum bite performance in house cricket contests},
    Journal = {FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {30},
    Number = {10},
    Pages = {1660-1664},
    Abstract = {Whole-organism performance capacities influence male combat outcomes in many animal species. However, several species also exhibit winner and loser effects, and current theory predicts that losers are more likely to lose again due to a decrease in aggression following defeat, not because of any change in underlying maximum performance capacity. To test the effect of fight experience on performance, we measured the maximum bite force of male Acheta domesticus crickets that were pitted against size-matched opponents in staged fights. Winners then fought a second contest against other winners while losers fought other losers, after which we measured the change in bite force in all contest crickets and in a control group that did not take part in any contests. Bite force predicted fight outcomes in the first round, and losing the first fight had a significant effect on bite force, leading to a 20\% decrease in relative bite force compared to crickets that won both rounds. However, winning did not increase performance as there was no difference between those that won the first round and those that never experienced a loss, nor did winning a second bout alleviate the negative effects on realized bite performance of losing an initial bout. Past defeats can therefore alter the realized short-term maximal performance of traits thatcontribute to contest outcomes independent of maximum performance limits set by morphology.},
    }

  • J. F. Husak, H. A. Ferguson, and M. B. Lovern, “Trade-offs among locomotor performance, reproduction and immunity in lizards,” Functional ecology, vol. 30, iss. 10, pp. 1665-1674, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Life-history theory predicts that investment of acquired energetic resources to a particular trait denies those same resources from being allocated to a different trait, resulting in life-history trade-offs. Dynamic, whole-organism performance traits, including locomotor capacity, are key to fitness and fit within this framework. Such performance traits are typically energetically expensive, but are seldom integrated into life-history studies. We manipulated diet and allocation of resources to performance, via exercise training, to examine trade-offs among endurance capacity, growth, immune function and current reproductive investment. Captive green anole lizards were assigned to one of four treatment combinations across two factors (diet restricted or not and endurance trained or not) over the course of 9weeks. Our results show that both diet restriction and training dramatically suppressed reproduction and immune function, but there were opposing effects of diet restriction and training on growth. Elevated corticosterone from training was associated with suppression of immunity, and decreased fat stores from diet restriction were associated with suppressed reproduction in both sexes. Our results suggest that locomotor performance is an important part of energy allocation decisions and thus a key component of life-history trade-offs.

    @article{ISI:000385511500006,
    Author = {Husak, Jerry F. and Ferguson, Haley A. and Lovern, Matthew B.},
    Title = {Trade-offs among locomotor performance, reproduction and immunity in lizards},
    Journal = {FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {30},
    Number = {10},
    Pages = {1665-1674},
    Abstract = {Life-history theory predicts that investment of acquired energetic resources to a particular trait denies those same resources from being allocated to a different trait, resulting in life-history trade-offs. Dynamic, whole-organism performance traits, including locomotor capacity, are key to fitness and fit within this framework. Such performance traits are typically energetically expensive, but are seldom integrated into life-history studies. We manipulated diet and allocation of resources to performance, via exercise training, to examine trade-offs among endurance capacity, growth, immune function and current reproductive investment. Captive green anole lizards were assigned to one of four treatment combinations across two factors (diet restricted or not and endurance trained or not) over the course of 9weeks. Our results show that both diet restriction and training dramatically suppressed reproduction and immune function, but there were opposing effects of diet restriction and training on growth. Elevated corticosterone from training was associated with suppression of immunity, and decreased fat stores from diet restriction were associated with suppressed reproduction in both sexes. Our results suggest that locomotor performance is an important part of energy allocation decisions and thus a key component of life-history trade-offs.},
    }

  • I. Prates, D. Rivera, M. T. Rodrigues, and A. C. Carnaval, “A mid-pleistocene rainforest corridor enabled synchronous invasions of the atlantic forest by amazonian anole lizards,” Molecular ecology, vol. 25, iss. 20, pp. 5174-5186, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Shifts in the geographic distribution of habitats over time can promote dispersal and vicariance, thereby influencing large-scale biogeographic patterns and ecological processes. An example is that of transient corridors of suitable habitat across disjunct but ecologically similar regions, which have been associated with climate change over time. Such connections likely played a role in the assembly of tropical communities, especially within the highly diverse Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests of South America. Although these forests are presently separated by open and dry ecosystems, paleoclimatic and phylogenetic evidence suggest that they have been transiently connected in the past. However, little is known about the timing, magnitude and the distribution of former forest connections. We employ sequence data at multiple loci from three codistributed arboreal lizards (Anolis punctatus, Anolis ortonii and Polychrus marmoratus) to infer the phylogenetic relationships among Amazonian and Atlantic Forest populations and to test alternative historical demographic scenarios of colonization and vicariance using coalescent simulations and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Data from the better-sampled Anolis species support colonization of the Atlantic Forest from eastern Amazonia. Hierarchical ABC indicates that the three species colonized the Atlantic Forest synchronously during the mid-Pleistocene. We find support of population bottlenecks associated with founder events in the two Anolis, but not in P. marmoratus, consistently with their distinct ecological tolerances. Our findings support that climatic fluctuations provided key opportunities for dispersal and forest colonization in eastern South America through the cessation of environmental barriers. Evidence of species-specific histories strengthens assertions that biological attributes play a role in responses to shared environmental change.

    @article{ISI:000385611300013,
    Author = {Prates, Ivan and Rivera, Danielle and Rodrigues, Miguel T. and Carnaval, Ana C.},
    Title = {A mid-Pleistocene rainforest corridor enabled synchronous invasions of the Atlantic Forest by Amazonian anole lizards},
    Journal = {MOLECULAR ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {25},
    Number = {20},
    Pages = {5174-5186},
    Abstract = {Shifts in the geographic distribution of habitats over time can promote dispersal and vicariance, thereby influencing large-scale biogeographic patterns and ecological processes. An example is that of transient corridors of suitable habitat across disjunct but ecologically similar regions, which have been associated with climate change over time. Such connections likely played a role in the assembly of tropical communities, especially within the highly diverse Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests of South America. Although these forests are presently separated by open and dry ecosystems, paleoclimatic and phylogenetic evidence suggest that they have been transiently connected in the past. However, little is known about the timing, magnitude and the distribution of former forest connections. We employ sequence data at multiple loci from three codistributed arboreal lizards (Anolis punctatus, Anolis ortonii and Polychrus marmoratus) to infer the phylogenetic relationships among Amazonian and Atlantic Forest populations and to test alternative historical demographic scenarios of colonization and vicariance using coalescent simulations and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Data from the better-sampled Anolis species support colonization of the Atlantic Forest from eastern Amazonia. Hierarchical ABC indicates that the three species colonized the Atlantic Forest synchronously during the mid-Pleistocene. We find support of population bottlenecks associated with founder events in the two Anolis, but not in P. marmoratus, consistently with their distinct ecological tolerances. Our findings support that climatic fluctuations provided key opportunities for dispersal and forest colonization in eastern South America through the cessation of environmental barriers. Evidence of species-specific histories strengthens assertions that biological attributes play a role in responses to shared environmental change.},
    }

  • T. Ren, A. F. Kahrl, M. Wu, and R. M. Cox, “Does adaptive radiation of a host lineage promote ecological diversity of its bacterial communities? a test using gut microbiota of anolis lizards,” Molecular ecology, vol. 25, iss. 19, pp. 4793-4804, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Adaptive radiations provide unique opportunities to test whether and how recent ecological and evolutionary diversification of host species structures the composition of entire bacterial communities. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing of faecal samples to test for differences in the gut microbiota of six species of Puerto Rican Anolis lizards characterized by the evolution of distinct ecomorphs’ related to differences in habitat use. We found substantial variation in the composition of the microbiota within each species and ecomorph (trunk-crown, trunk-ground, grass-bush), but no differences in bacterial alpha diversity among species or ecomorphs. Beta diversity analyses revealed subtle but significant differences in bacterial composition related to host phylogeny and species, but these differences were not consistently associated with Anolis ecomorph. Comparison of a trunk-ground species from this clade (A.cristatellus) with a distantly related member of the same ecomorph class (A.sagrei) where the two species have been introduced and are now sympatric in Florida revealed pronounced differences in the alpha diversity and beta diversity of their microbiota despite their ecological similarity. Comparisons of these populations with allopatric conspecifics also revealed geographic differences in bacterial alpha diversity and beta diversity within each species. Finally, we observed high intraindividual variation over time and strong effects of a simplified laboratory diet on the microbiota of A.sagrei. Collectively, our results indicate that bacterial communities are only weakly shaped by the diversification of their lizard hosts due to the strikingly high levels of bacterial diversity and variation observed within Anolis species.

    @article{ISI:000384810000008,
    Author = {Ren, Tiantian and Kahrl, Ariel F. and Wu, Martin and Cox, Robert M.},
    Title = {Does adaptive radiation of a host lineage promote ecological diversity of its bacterial communities? A test using gut microbiota of Anolis lizards},
    Journal = {MOLECULAR ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {25},
    Number = {19},
    Pages = {4793-4804},
    Abstract = {Adaptive radiations provide unique opportunities to test whether and how recent ecological and evolutionary diversification of host species structures the composition of entire bacterial communities. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing of faecal samples to test for differences in the gut microbiota of six species of Puerto Rican Anolis lizards characterized by the evolution of distinct ecomorphs' related to differences in habitat use. We found substantial variation in the composition of the microbiota within each species and ecomorph (trunk-crown, trunk-ground, grass-bush), but no differences in bacterial alpha diversity among species or ecomorphs. Beta diversity analyses revealed subtle but significant differences in bacterial composition related to host phylogeny and species, but these differences were not consistently associated with Anolis ecomorph. Comparison of a trunk-ground species from this clade (A.cristatellus) with a distantly related member of the same ecomorph class (A.sagrei) where the two species have been introduced and are now sympatric in Florida revealed pronounced differences in the alpha diversity and beta diversity of their microbiota despite their ecological similarity. Comparisons of these populations with allopatric conspecifics also revealed geographic differences in bacterial alpha diversity and beta diversity within each species. Finally, we observed high intraindividual variation over time and strong effects of a simplified laboratory diet on the microbiota of A.sagrei. Collectively, our results indicate that bacterial communities are only weakly shaped by the diversification of their lizard hosts due to the strikingly high levels of bacterial diversity and variation observed within Anolis species.},
    }

  • J. J. Kolbe, P. VanMiddlesworth, A. C. Battles, J. T. Stroud, B. Buffum, R. T. T. Forman, and J. B. Losos, “Determinants of spread in an urban landscape by an introduced lizard,” Landscape ecology, vol. 31, iss. 8, pp. 1795-1813, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Urban landscapes are a mixture of built structures, human-altered vegetation, and remnant semi-natural areas. The spatial arrangement of abiotic and biotic conditions resulting from urbanization doubtless influences the establishment and spread of non-native species in a city. We investigated the effects of habitat structure, thermal microclimates, and species coexistence on the spread of a non-native lizard (Anolis cristatellus) in the Miami metropolitan area of South Florida (USA). We used transect surveys to estimate lizard occurrence and abundance on trees and to measure vegetation characteristics, and we assessed forest cover and impervious surface using GIS. We sampled lizard body temperatures, habitat use, and relative abundance at multiple sites. At least one of five Anolis species occupied 79 \% of the 1035 trees surveyed in primarily residential areas, and non-native A. cristatellus occupied 25 \% of trees. Presence and abundance of A. cristatellus were strongly associated with forest patches, dense vegetation, and high canopy cover, which produced cooler microclimates suitable for this species. Presence of A. cristatellus was negatively associated with the ecologically similar non-native A. sagrei, resulting in reduced abundance and a shift in perch use of A. cristatellus. The limited spread of A. cristatellus in Miami over 35 years is due to the patchy, low-density distribution of wooded habitat, which limits dispersal by diffusion. The presence of congeners may also limit spread. Open habitats-some parks, yards and roadsides-contain few if any A. cristatellus, and colonization of isolated forest habitat appears to depend on human-mediated dispersal.

    @article{ISI:000382906600011,
    Author = {Kolbe, Jason J. and VanMiddlesworth, Paul and Battles, Andrew C. and Stroud, James T. and Buffum, Bill and Forman, Richard T. T. and Losos, Jonathan B.},
    Title = {Determinants of spread in an urban landscape by an introduced lizard},
    Journal = {LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {31},
    Number = {8},
    Pages = {1795-1813},
    Abstract = {Urban landscapes are a mixture of built structures, human-altered vegetation, and remnant semi-natural areas. The spatial arrangement of abiotic and biotic conditions resulting from urbanization doubtless influences the establishment and spread of non-native species in a city. We investigated the effects of habitat structure, thermal microclimates, and species coexistence on the spread of a non-native lizard (Anolis cristatellus) in the Miami metropolitan area of South Florida (USA). We used transect surveys to estimate lizard occurrence and abundance on trees and to measure vegetation characteristics, and we assessed forest cover and impervious surface using GIS. We sampled lizard body temperatures, habitat use, and relative abundance at multiple sites. At least one of five Anolis species occupied 79 \% of the 1035 trees surveyed in primarily residential areas, and non-native A. cristatellus occupied 25 \% of trees. Presence and abundance of A. cristatellus were strongly associated with forest patches, dense vegetation, and high canopy cover, which produced cooler microclimates suitable for this species. Presence of A. cristatellus was negatively associated with the ecologically similar non-native A. sagrei, resulting in reduced abundance and a shift in perch use of A. cristatellus. The limited spread of A. cristatellus in Miami over 35 years is due to the patchy, low-density distribution of wooded habitat, which limits dispersal by diffusion. The presence of congeners may also limit spread. Open habitats-some parks, yards and roadsides-contain few if any A. cristatellus, and colonization of isolated forest habitat appears to depend on human-mediated dispersal.},
    }

  • M. Kendall and C. Colijn, “Mapping phylogenetic trees to reveal distinct patterns of evolution,” Molecular biology and evolution, vol. 33, iss. 10, pp. 2735-2743, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Evolutionary relationships are frequently described by phylogenetic trees, but a central barrier in many fields is the difficulty of interpreting data containing conflicting phylogenetic signals. We present a metric-based method for comparing trees which extracts distinct alternative evolutionary relationships embedded in data. We demonstrate detection and resolution of phylogenetic uncertainty in a recent study of anole lizards, leading to alternate hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships. We use our approach to compare trees derived from different genes of Ebolavirus and find that the VP30 gene has a distinct phylogenetic signature composed of three alternatives that differ in the deep branching structure.

    @article{ISI:000384205900022,
    Author = {Kendall, Michelle and Colijn, Caroline},
    Title = {Mapping Phylogenetic Trees to Reveal Distinct Patterns of Evolution},
    Journal = {MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {33},
    Number = {10},
    Pages = {2735-2743},
    Abstract = {Evolutionary relationships are frequently described by phylogenetic trees, but a central barrier in many fields is the difficulty of interpreting data containing conflicting phylogenetic signals. We present a metric-based method for comparing trees which extracts distinct alternative evolutionary relationships embedded in data. We demonstrate detection and resolution of phylogenetic uncertainty in a recent study of anole lizards, leading to alternate hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships. We use our approach to compare trees derived from different genes of Ebolavirus and find that the VP30 gene has a distinct phylogenetic signature composed of three alternatives that differ in the deep branching structure.},
    }

  • I. G. Kichigin, M. Giovannotti, A. I. Makunin, B. L. Ng, M. R. Kabilov, A. E. Tupikin, V. C. Barucchi, A. Splendiani, P. Ruggeri, W. Rens, P. C. M. O’Brien, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, A. S. Graphodatsky, and V. A. Trifonov, “Evolutionary dynamics of anolis sex chromosomes revealed by sequencing of flow sorting-derived microchromosome-specific dna,” Molecular genetics and genomics, vol. 291, iss. 5, pp. 1955-1966, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Squamate reptiles show a striking diversity in modes of sex determination, including both genetic (XY or ZW) and temperature-dependent sex determination systems. The genomes of only a handful of species have been sequenced, analyzed and assembled including the genome of Anolis carolinensis. Despite a high genome coverage, only macrochromosomes of A. carolinensis were assembled whereas the content of most microchromosomes remained unclear. Most of the Anolis species have homomorphic XY sex chromosome system. However, some species have large heteromorphic XY chromosomes (e.g., A. sagrei) and even multiple sex chromosomes systems (e.g. A. pogus), that were shown to be derived from fusions of the ancestral XY with microautosomes. We applied next generation sequencing of flow sorting-derived chromosome-specific DNA pools to characterize the content and composition of microchromosomes in A. carolinensis and A. sagrei. Comparative analysis of sequenced chromosome-specific DNA pools revealed that the A. sagrei XY sex chromosomes contain regions homologous to several microautosomes of A. carolinensis. We suggest that the sex chromosomes of A. sagrei are derived by fusions of the ancestral sex chromosome with three microautosomes and subsequent loss of some genetic content on the Y chromosome.

    @article{ISI:000382145100012,
    Author = {Kichigin, Ilya G. and Giovannotti, Massimo and Makunin, Alex I. and Ng, Bee L. and Kabilov, Marsel R. and Tupikin, Alexey E. and Barucchi, Vincenzo Caputo and Splendiani, Andrea and Ruggeri, Paolo and Rens, Willem and O'Brien, Patricia C. M. and Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A. and Graphodatsky, Alexander S. and Trifonov, Vladimir A.},
    Title = {Evolutionary dynamics of Anolis sex chromosomes revealed by sequencing of flow sorting-derived microchromosome-specific DNA},
    Journal = {MOLECULAR GENETICS AND GENOMICS},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {291},
    Number = {5},
    Pages = {1955-1966},
    Abstract = {Squamate reptiles show a striking diversity in modes of sex determination, including both genetic (XY or ZW) and temperature-dependent sex determination systems. The genomes of only a handful of species have been sequenced, analyzed and assembled including the genome of Anolis carolinensis. Despite a high genome coverage, only macrochromosomes of A. carolinensis were assembled whereas the content of most microchromosomes remained unclear. Most of the Anolis species have homomorphic XY sex chromosome system. However, some species have large heteromorphic XY chromosomes (e.g., A. sagrei) and even multiple sex chromosomes systems (e.g. A. pogus), that were shown to be derived from fusions of the ancestral XY with microautosomes. We applied next generation sequencing of flow sorting-derived chromosome-specific DNA pools to characterize the content and composition of microchromosomes in A. carolinensis and A. sagrei. Comparative analysis of sequenced chromosome-specific DNA pools revealed that the A. sagrei XY sex chromosomes contain regions homologous to several microautosomes of A. carolinensis. We suggest that the sex chromosomes of A. sagrei are derived by fusions of the ancestral sex chromosome with three microautosomes and subsequent loss of some genetic content on the Y chromosome.},
    }

  • J. Llewelyn, S. L. Macdonald, A. Hatcher, C. Moritz, and B. L. Phillips, “Intraspecific variation in climate-relevant traits in a tropical rainforest lizard,” Diversity and distributions, vol. 22, iss. 10, pp. 1000-1012, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Aim The exceptionally rich biodiversity found in tropical rainforest is under threat from anthropogenic climate change. We recognize the threat, yet we have little knowledge of the capacity of tropical species to adjust their climate sensitivity in response to it. One indicator of a species’ capacity to adjust to different climates is the amount of intraspecific variation observed in its climate-relevant traits; if a climate-relevant trait varies, and this variation is correlated with local climates, it suggests the species can adjust the trait to different conditions through either phenotypic plasticity or evolutionary adaptation. Here, we test for intraspecific variation in climate-relevant traits in a rainforest specialist to shed light on the capacity of such species to adjust to different climates. Location The Wet Tropics Bioregion, Australia. Methods We studied 12 populations of a lizard that is a tropical rainforest specialist, the rainforest sunskink (Lampropholis coggeri), testing for intraspecific variation in four traits that are potentially important in determining a species’ climate sensitivity. The measured traits were as follows: critical thermal minimum, critical thermal maximum, thermal optimum for sprinting, and desiccation rate. Results We found substantial variation both through time and across space in the measured traits, suggesting both strong plasticity and substantial geographic variation. Moreover, trait variation was correlated with local climate variables, suggesting variation reflects adjustment to local conditions. Main conclusions If physiological lability similar to that observed in rainforest sunskinks occurs in tropical rainforest species more generally, these taxa may not be as climatically specialized, and so not as vulnerable to climate change, as previously thought.

    @article{ISI:000382493100002,
    Author = {Llewelyn, John and Macdonald, Stewart L. and Hatcher, Amberlee and Moritz, Craig and Phillips, Ben L.},
    Title = {Intraspecific variation in climate-relevant traits in a tropical rainforest lizard},
    Journal = {DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {22},
    Number = {10},
    Pages = {1000-1012},
    Abstract = {Aim The exceptionally rich biodiversity found in tropical rainforest is under threat from anthropogenic climate change. We recognize the threat, yet we have little knowledge of the capacity of tropical species to adjust their climate sensitivity in response to it. One indicator of a species' capacity to adjust to different climates is the amount of intraspecific variation observed in its climate-relevant traits; if a climate-relevant trait varies, and this variation is correlated with local climates, it suggests the species can adjust the trait to different conditions through either phenotypic plasticity or evolutionary adaptation. Here, we test for intraspecific variation in climate-relevant traits in a rainforest specialist to shed light on the capacity of such species to adjust to different climates. Location The Wet Tropics Bioregion, Australia. Methods We studied 12 populations of a lizard that is a tropical rainforest specialist, the rainforest sunskink (Lampropholis coggeri), testing for intraspecific variation in four traits that are potentially important in determining a species' climate sensitivity. The measured traits were as follows: critical thermal minimum, critical thermal maximum, thermal optimum for sprinting, and desiccation rate. Results We found substantial variation both through time and across space in the measured traits, suggesting both strong plasticity and substantial geographic variation. Moreover, trait variation was correlated with local climate variables, suggesting variation reflects adjustment to local conditions. Main conclusions If physiological lability similar to that observed in rainforest sunskinks occurs in tropical rainforest species more generally, these taxa may not be as climatically specialized, and so not as vulnerable to climate change, as previously thought.},
    }

  • G. Norval, J. Mao, K. Slater, and L. R. Brown, “A morphological comparison of anolis sageri dumeril et bibron 1837, from two localities in taiwan,” Russian journal of herpetology, vol. 23, iss. 3, pp. 195-204, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Two populations of the exotic invasive lizard, the brown anole (Anolis sagrei), exist in Taiwan. The localities (Chisintang, eastern Taiwan and Santzepu, southwestern Taiwan) of these two populations are ca. 125 km apart and are divided by the Central Mountain Range. Anolis sagrei specimens, which had been sampled from the Chisintang and Santzepu populations, were used for morphological and meristic comparisons. Only a few intralocality intersexual variations were noted, the most important of which are the sexual size dimorphism and the morphological variations, due to intersexual niche partitioning. Many interlocality intrasexual variations, likely due to interlocality structural habitat differences, and a possible competition and predator induced lifestyle shift of A. sagrei in Chisintang were noted. Still, in spite of the variations found in the comparisons between the A. sagrei collected from Chisintang and Santzepu, because some hypothetical explanations for these variations exist, it is our opinion that the two populations described herein have the same founder population, and that the one is a satellite population of the other.

    @article{ISI:000388317300002,
    Author = {Norval, Gerrut and Mao, Jean-Jay and Slater, Kerry and Brown, Leslie R.},
    Title = {A MORPHOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF Anolis sageri DUMERIL ET BIBRON 1837, FROM TWO LOCALITIES IN TAIWAN},
    Journal = {RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF HERPETOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {23},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {195-204},
    Abstract = {Two populations of the exotic invasive lizard, the brown anole (Anolis sagrei), exist in Taiwan. The localities (Chisintang, eastern Taiwan and Santzepu, southwestern Taiwan) of these two populations are ca. 125 km apart and are divided by the Central Mountain Range. Anolis sagrei specimens, which had been sampled from the Chisintang and Santzepu populations, were used for morphological and meristic comparisons. Only a few intralocality intersexual variations were noted, the most important of which are the sexual size dimorphism and the morphological variations, due to intersexual niche partitioning. Many interlocality intrasexual variations, likely due to interlocality structural habitat differences, and a possible competition and predator induced lifestyle shift of A. sagrei in Chisintang were noted. Still, in spite of the variations found in the comparisons between the A. sagrei collected from Chisintang and Santzepu, because some hypothetical explanations for these variations exist, it is our opinion that the two populations described herein have the same founder population, and that the one is a satellite population of the other.},
    }

  • J. Ng, A. G. Ossip-Klein, and R. E. Glor, “Adaptive signal coloration maintained in the face of gene flow in a hispaniolan anolis lizard,” Bmc evolutionary biology, vol. 16, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Background: Studies of geographic variation can provide insight into the evolutionary processes involved in the early stages of biological diversification. In particular, multiple, replicated cases of geographic trait divergence present a powerful approach to study how patterns of introgression and adaptive divergence can vary with geographic space and time. In this study, we conduct replicated, fine-scaled molecular genetic analyses of striking geographic dewlap color variation of a Hispaniolan Anolis lizard, Anolis distichus, to investigate whether adaptive trait divergence is consistently associated with speciation, whereby genetic divergence is observed with neutral markers, or whether locally adapted traits are maintained in the face of continued gene flow. Results: We find instances where shifts in adaptive dewlap coloration across short geographic distances are associated with reproductive isolation as well as maintained in the face of gene flow, suggesting the importance of both processes in maintaining geographic dewlap variation. Conclusion: Our study suggests that adaptive dewlap color differences are maintained under strong divergent natural selection, but this divergence does not necessarily lead to anole speciation.

    @article{ISI:000384017000001,
    Author = {Ng, Julienne and Ossip-Klein, Alison G. and Glor, Richard E.},
    Title = {Adaptive signal coloration maintained in the face of gene flow in a Hispaniolan Anolis Lizard},
    Journal = {BMC EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {16},
    Abstract = {Background: Studies of geographic variation can provide insight into the evolutionary processes involved in the early stages of biological diversification. In particular, multiple, replicated cases of geographic trait divergence present a powerful approach to study how patterns of introgression and adaptive divergence can vary with geographic space and time. In this study, we conduct replicated, fine-scaled molecular genetic analyses of striking geographic dewlap color variation of a Hispaniolan Anolis lizard, Anolis distichus, to investigate whether adaptive trait divergence is consistently associated with speciation, whereby genetic divergence is observed with neutral markers, or whether locally adapted traits are maintained in the face of continued gene flow. Results: We find instances where shifts in adaptive dewlap coloration across short geographic distances are associated with reproductive isolation as well as maintained in the face of gene flow, suggesting the importance of both processes in maintaining geographic dewlap variation. Conclusion: Our study suggests that adaptive dewlap color differences are maintained under strong divergent natural selection, but this divergence does not necessarily lead to anole speciation.},
    }

  • M. Royer-Carenzi and G. Didier, “A comparison of ancestral state reconstruction methods for quantitative characters,” Journal of theoretical biology, vol. 404, pp. 126-142, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Choosing an ancestral state reconstruction method among the alternatives available for quantitative characters may be puzzling. We present here a comparison of seven of them, namely the maximum likelihood, restricted maximum likelihood, generalized least squares under Brownian, Brownian-with-trend and Orn-stein-Uhlenbeck models, phylogenetic independent contrasts and squared parsimony methods. A review of the relations between these methods shows that the maximum likelihood, the restricted maximum likelihood and the generalized least squares under Brownian model infer the same ancestral states and can only be distinguished by the distributions accounting for the reconstruction uncertainty which they provide. The respective accuracy of the methods is assessed over character evolution simulated under a Brownian motion with (and without) directional or stabilizing selection. We give the general form of ancestral state distributions conditioned on leaf states under the simulation models. Ancestral distributions are used first, to give a theoretical lower bound of the expected reconstruction error, and second, to develop an original evaluation scheme which is more efficient than comparing the reconstructed and the simulated states. Our simulations show that: (i) the distributions of the reconstruction uncertainty provided by the methods generally make sense (some more than others); (ii) it is essential to detect the presence of an evolutionary trend and to choose a reconstruction method accordingly; (iii) all the methods show good performances on characters under stabilizing selection; (iv) without trend or stabilizing selection, the maximum likelihood method is generally the most accurate. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    @article{ISI:000380621300013,
    Author = {Royer-Carenzi, Manuela and Didier, Gilles},
    Title = {A comparison of ancestral state reconstruction methods for quantitative characters},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {404},
    Pages = {126-142},
    Abstract = {Choosing an ancestral state reconstruction method among the alternatives available for quantitative characters may be puzzling. We present here a comparison of seven of them, namely the maximum likelihood, restricted maximum likelihood, generalized least squares under Brownian, Brownian-with-trend and Orn-stein-Uhlenbeck models, phylogenetic independent contrasts and squared parsimony methods. A review of the relations between these methods shows that the maximum likelihood, the restricted maximum likelihood and the generalized least squares under Brownian model infer the same ancestral states and can only be distinguished by the distributions accounting for the reconstruction uncertainty which they provide. The respective accuracy of the methods is assessed over character evolution simulated under a Brownian motion with (and without) directional or stabilizing selection. We give the general form of ancestral state distributions conditioned on leaf states under the simulation models. Ancestral distributions are used first, to give a theoretical lower bound of the expected reconstruction error, and second, to develop an original evaluation scheme which is more efficient than comparing the reconstructed and the simulated states. Our simulations show that: (i) the distributions of the reconstruction uncertainty provided by the methods generally make sense (some more than others); (ii) it is essential to detect the presence of an evolutionary trend and to choose a reconstruction method accordingly; (iii) all the methods show good performances on characters under stabilizing selection; (iv) without trend or stabilizing selection, the maximum likelihood method is generally the most accurate. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
    }

  • J. M. Da Silva, L. Carne, J. G. Measey, A. Herrel, and K. A. Tolley, “The relationship between cranial morphology, bite performance, diet and habitat in a radiation of dwarf chameleon (bradypodion),” Biological journal of the linnean society, vol. 119, iss. 1, pp. 52-67, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Many animals show unique morphological and behavioural adaptations to specific habitats. In particular, variation in cranial morphology is known to influence feeding performance, which in turn influences dietary habits and, ultimately, fitness. Dietary separation is an important means of partitioning ecological niches and avoiding inter-and intraspecific competition. Consequently, differences in dietary resources may help explain phenotypic divergence in closely-related species occupying different habitats, as well as sexual dimorphism. We test this hypothesis on five phenotypic forms of a recent radiation of dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion) that vary extensively in habitat use and cranial morphology. By examining stomach contents, the dietary composition of each phenotypic form is compared to investigate potential differences in feeding strategies. Overall, chameleons in the present study exhibit considerable dietary overlap (at both inter-and intraspecific levels), indicating that diet is not a major driver of variation in cranial morphology within this radiation. However, the stomachs of closed-canopy females were found to contain more prey items than male stomachs, possibly indicating that females require a greater caloric intake than their male counterparts. (C) 2016 The Linnean Society of London

    @article{ISI:000386918500004,
    Author = {Da Silva, Jessica M. and Carne, Liza and Measey, G. John and Herrel, Anthony and Tolley, Krystal A.},
    Title = {The relationship between cranial morphology, bite performance, diet and habitat in a radiation of dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion)},
    Journal = {BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {119},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {52-67},
    Abstract = {Many animals show unique morphological and behavioural adaptations to specific habitats. In particular, variation in cranial morphology is known to influence feeding performance, which in turn influences dietary habits and, ultimately, fitness. Dietary separation is an important means of partitioning ecological niches and avoiding inter-and intraspecific competition. Consequently, differences in dietary resources may help explain phenotypic divergence in closely-related species occupying different habitats, as well as sexual dimorphism. We test this hypothesis on five phenotypic forms of a recent radiation of dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion) that vary extensively in habitat use and cranial morphology. By examining stomach contents, the dietary composition of each phenotypic form is compared to investigate potential differences in feeding strategies. Overall, chameleons in the present study exhibit considerable dietary overlap (at both inter-and intraspecific levels), indicating that diet is not a major driver of variation in cranial morphology within this radiation. However, the stomachs of closed-canopy females were found to contain more prey items than male stomachs, possibly indicating that females require a greater caloric intake than their male counterparts. (C) 2016 The Linnean Society of London},
    }

  • K. R. Tyler, K. M. Winchell, and L. J. Revell, “Tails of the city: caudal autotomy in the tropical lizard, anolis cristatellus, in urban and natural areas of puerto rico,” Journal of herpetology, vol. 50, iss. 3, pp. 435-441, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Urbanization creates drastic changes in habitat and presents considerable challenges and new sources of predation to urban-dwelling herpetofauna. Research on lizards has documented increased rates of mortality in urban areas due to generalist predators such as raccoons, feral cats, and domestic animals. Caudal autotomy (self-amputation of the tail) is a defense mechanism used to escape predation in a wide range and large number of lizard species. The tail is autotomized to evade capture, and in most species with autotomy, the tail is regenerated partially or completely. Caudal autotomy can be used as an indirect measure of predation environment; however, few prior studies have used lizard caudal autotomy to measure the predation environment of urban areas. We compared caudal autotomy rates in the Puerto Rican crested anole, Anolis cristatellus, between urban and natural sites in four Puerto Rican municipalities. Across all municipalities, we found the frequency of caudal autotomy and regeneration to be consistently, significantly higher in urban than in natural areas. Our findings suggest that differences exist in the predation regime experienced by lizards in urban and natural habitats across the island of Puerto Rico. At this time, however, we are not able to identify the specific nature of the difference in predation regime between sites. The difference in autotomy rate that we found may be driven by higher predation pressure in urban areas, differences in the predator assemblage between sites, or simply lower predator efficiency in urban habitats.

    @article{ISI:000386669700014,
    Author = {Tyler, R. Kirsten and Winchell, Kristin M. and Revell, Liam J.},
    Title = {Tails of the City: Caudal Autotomy in the Tropical Lizard, Anolis cristatellus, in Urban and Natural Areas of Puerto Rico},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF HERPETOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {50},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {435-441},
    Abstract = {Urbanization creates drastic changes in habitat and presents considerable challenges and new sources of predation to urban-dwelling herpetofauna. Research on lizards has documented increased rates of mortality in urban areas due to generalist predators such as raccoons, feral cats, and domestic animals. Caudal autotomy (self-amputation of the tail) is a defense mechanism used to escape predation in a wide range and large number of lizard species. The tail is autotomized to evade capture, and in most species with autotomy, the tail is regenerated partially or completely. Caudal autotomy can be used as an indirect measure of predation environment; however, few prior studies have used lizard caudal autotomy to measure the predation environment of urban areas. We compared caudal autotomy rates in the Puerto Rican crested anole, Anolis cristatellus, between urban and natural sites in four Puerto Rican municipalities. Across all municipalities, we found the frequency of caudal autotomy and regeneration to be consistently, significantly higher in urban than in natural areas. Our findings suggest that differences exist in the predation regime experienced by lizards in urban and natural habitats across the island of Puerto Rico. At this time, however, we are not able to identify the specific nature of the difference in predation regime between sites. The difference in autotomy rate that we found may be driven by higher predation pressure in urban areas, differences in the predator assemblage between sites, or simply lower predator efficiency in urban habitats.},
    }

  • J. W. Young, B. M. Stricklen, and B. A. Chadwell, “Effects of support diameter and compliance on common marmoset (callithrix jacchus) gait kinematics,” Journal of experimental biology, vol. 219, iss. 17, pp. 2659-2672, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Locomotion is precarious in an arboreal habitat, where supports can vary in both diameter and level of compliance. Several previous studies have evaluated the influence of substrate diameter on the locomotor performance of arboreal quadrupeds. The influence of substrate compliance, however, has been mostly unexamined. Here, we used a multifactorial experimental design to investigate how perturbations in both diameter and compliance affect the gait kinematics of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus; N=2) moving over simulated arboreal substrates. We used 3D-calibrated video to quantify marmoset locomotion over a horizontal trackway consisting of variably sized poles (5, 2.5 and 1.25 cm in diameter), analyzing a total of 120 strides. The central portion of the trackway was either immobile or mounted on compliant foam blocks, depending on condition. We found that narrowing diameter and increasing compliance were both associated with relatively longer substrate contact durations, though adjustments to diameter were often inconsistent relative to compliance-related adjustments. Marmosets also responded to narrowing diameter by reducing speed, flattening center of mass (CoM) movements and dampening support displacement on the compliant substrate. For the subset of strides on the compliant support, we found that speed, contact duration and CoM amplitude explained >60\% of the variation in substrate displacement over a stride, suggesting a direct performance advantage to these kinematic adjustments. Overall, our results show that compliant substrates can exert a significant influence on gait kinematics. Substrate compliance, and not just support diameter, should be considered a critical environmental variable when evaluating locomotor performance in arboreal quadrupeds.

    @article{ISI:000384249800016,
    Author = {Young, Jesse W. and Stricklen, Bethany M. and Chadwell, Brad A.},
    Title = {Effects of support diameter and compliance on common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) gait kinematics},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {219},
    Number = {17},
    Pages = {2659-2672},
    Abstract = {Locomotion is precarious in an arboreal habitat, where supports can vary in both diameter and level of compliance. Several previous studies have evaluated the influence of substrate diameter on the locomotor performance of arboreal quadrupeds. The influence of substrate compliance, however, has been mostly unexamined. Here, we used a multifactorial experimental design to investigate how perturbations in both diameter and compliance affect the gait kinematics of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus; N=2) moving over simulated arboreal substrates. We used 3D-calibrated video to quantify marmoset locomotion over a horizontal trackway consisting of variably sized poles (5, 2.5 and 1.25 cm in diameter), analyzing a total of 120 strides. The central portion of the trackway was either immobile or mounted on compliant foam blocks, depending on condition. We found that narrowing diameter and increasing compliance were both associated with relatively longer substrate contact durations, though adjustments to diameter were often inconsistent relative to compliance-related adjustments. Marmosets also responded to narrowing diameter by reducing speed, flattening center of mass (CoM) movements and dampening support displacement on the compliant substrate. For the subset of strides on the compliant support, we found that speed, contact duration and CoM amplitude explained >60\% of the variation in substrate displacement over a stride, suggesting a direct performance advantage to these kinematic adjustments. Overall, our results show that compliant substrates can exert a significant influence on gait kinematics. Substrate compliance, and not just support diameter, should be considered a critical environmental variable when evaluating locomotor performance in arboreal quadrupeds.},
    }

  • D. A. Klomp, T. J. Ord, I. Das, A. Diesmos, N. Ahmad, and D. Stuart-Fox, “Ornament size and colour as alternative strategies for effective communication in gliding lizards,” Journal of evolutionary biology, vol. 29, iss. 9, pp. 1689-1700, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Sexual ornamentation needs to be conspicuous to be effective in attracting potential mates and defending territories and indeed, a multitude of ways exists to achieve this. Two principal mechanisms for increasing conspicuousness are to increase the ornament’s colour or brightness contrast against the background and to increase the size of the ornament. We assessed the relationship between the colour and size of the dewlap, a large extendible throat-fan, across a range of species of gliding lizards (Agamidae; genus Draco) from Malaysia and the Philippines. We found a negative relationship across species between colour contrast against the background and dewlap size in males, but not in females, suggesting that males of different species use increasing colour contrast and dewlap size as alternative strategies for effective communication. Male dewlap size also increases with increasing sexual size dimorphism, and dewlap colour and brightness contrast increase with increasing sexual dichromatism in colour and brightness, respectively, suggesting that sexual selection may act on both dewlap size and colour. We further found evidence that relative predation intensity, as measured from predator attacks on models placed in the field, may play a role in the choice of strategy (high chromatic contrast or large dewlap area) a species employs. More broadly, these results highlight that each component in a signal (such as colour or size) may be influenced by different selection pressures and that by assessing components individually, we can gain a greater understanding of the evolution of signal diversity.

    @article{ISI:000384424500004,
    Author = {Klomp, D. A. and Ord, T. J. and Das, I. and Diesmos, A. and Ahmad, N. and Stuart-Fox, D.},
    Title = {Ornament size and colour as alternative strategies for effective communication in gliding lizards},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {29},
    Number = {9},
    Pages = {1689-1700},
    Abstract = {Sexual ornamentation needs to be conspicuous to be effective in attracting potential mates and defending territories and indeed, a multitude of ways exists to achieve this. Two principal mechanisms for increasing conspicuousness are to increase the ornament's colour or brightness contrast against the background and to increase the size of the ornament. We assessed the relationship between the colour and size of the dewlap, a large extendible throat-fan, across a range of species of gliding lizards (Agamidae; genus Draco) from Malaysia and the Philippines. We found a negative relationship across species between colour contrast against the background and dewlap size in males, but not in females, suggesting that males of different species use increasing colour contrast and dewlap size as alternative strategies for effective communication. Male dewlap size also increases with increasing sexual size dimorphism, and dewlap colour and brightness contrast increase with increasing sexual dichromatism in colour and brightness, respectively, suggesting that sexual selection may act on both dewlap size and colour. We further found evidence that relative predation intensity, as measured from predator attacks on models placed in the field, may play a role in the choice of strategy (high chromatic contrast or large dewlap area) a species employs. More broadly, these results highlight that each component in a signal (such as colour or size) may be influenced by different selection pressures and that by assessing components individually, we can gain a greater understanding of the evolution of signal diversity.},
    }

  • M. Mezzasalma, V. Visone, A. Petraccioli, G. Odierna, T. Capriglione, and F. M. Guarino, “Non-random accumulation of line1-like sequences on differentiated snake w chromosomes,” Journal of zoology, vol. 300, iss. 1, pp. 67-75, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Due to their particular phylogenetic position and biological characteristics, squamate reptiles and, in particular, snakes are becoming an increasingly important model for fields such as evolutionary biology, molecular ecology and adaptation. Recently, during a study to analyze the evolutionary history of European whip snakes, we found a LINE1 (L1)-like sequence (GenBank accession no. ), herein called TRL1L, and while there are data on the abundance of L1 in snakes, their genomic and chromosome localization is still largely unexplored. We therefore performed a study to obtain information on TRL1L abundance, distribution and conservation in snake species, belonging to the Colubridae, Lamprophiidae and Viperidae families, using quantitative dot-blot and fluorescence insitu hybridization (FISH). TRL1L showed a high identity with homologous segments of L1s of lizards the Anolis carolinensis and Lacerta agilis and the zebrafish Danio rerio. The discovered sequences are truncated L1 elements which occur with a low copy number, about 0.1\% of the genome of the species studied. This evidence suggests that L1 retroposons have a similar landscape in lizard and snake genomes, probably because similar processes limited L1 distribution in their genomes. TRL1L showed a non-random chromosome distribution pattern. It wasscarcely located on autosomes and on the euchromatic W chromosome of Cerastes vipera, while mostly found on the heterochromatic W chromosome of Hierophis carbonarius and Elaphe quatuorlineata. Our data support the hypothesis that a purifying selection’ against the accumulation of L1 elements takes place in recombining regions and highlight the possible role of these elements in the differentiation processes of the snake heterochromatic W chromosome. Interestingly, the preferential distribution of TRL1L on the heterochromatic W chromosomes of the studied snakes appears to be similar to that observed in mammals for L1 accumulation on differentiated Y chromosomes. This finding suggests that a convergent process may have taken place in the differentiation of vertebrate heterochromatic sex chromosomes.

    @article{ISI:000383679100008,
    Author = {Mezzasalma, M. and Visone, V. and Petraccioli, A. and Odierna, G. and Capriglione, T. and Guarino, F. M.},
    Title = {Non-random accumulation of LINE1-like sequences on differentiated snake W chromosomes},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {300},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {67-75},
    Abstract = {Due to their particular phylogenetic position and biological characteristics, squamate reptiles and, in particular, snakes are becoming an increasingly important model for fields such as evolutionary biology, molecular ecology and adaptation. Recently, during a study to analyze the evolutionary history of European whip snakes, we found a LINE1 (L1)-like sequence (GenBank accession no. ), herein called TRL1L, and while there are data on the abundance of L1 in snakes, their genomic and chromosome localization is still largely unexplored. We therefore performed a study to obtain information on TRL1L abundance, distribution and conservation in snake species, belonging to the Colubridae, Lamprophiidae and Viperidae families, using quantitative dot-blot and fluorescence insitu hybridization (FISH). TRL1L showed a high identity with homologous segments of L1s of lizards the Anolis carolinensis and Lacerta agilis and the zebrafish Danio rerio. The discovered sequences are truncated L1 elements which occur with a low copy number, about 0.1\% of the genome of the species studied. This evidence suggests that L1 retroposons have a similar landscape in lizard and snake genomes, probably because similar processes limited L1 distribution in their genomes. TRL1L showed a non-random chromosome distribution pattern. It wasscarcely located on autosomes and on the euchromatic W chromosome of Cerastes vipera, while mostly found on the heterochromatic W chromosome of Hierophis carbonarius and Elaphe quatuorlineata. Our data support the hypothesis that a purifying selection' against the accumulation of L1 elements takes place in recombining regions and highlight the possible role of these elements in the differentiation processes of the snake heterochromatic W chromosome. Interestingly, the preferential distribution of TRL1L on the heterochromatic W chromosomes of the studied snakes appears to be similar to that observed in mammals for L1 accumulation on differentiated Y chromosomes. This finding suggests that a convergent process may have taken place in the differentiation of vertebrate heterochromatic sex chromosomes.},
    }

  • M. Hagman and T. J. Ord, “Many paths to a common destination: morphological differentiation of a functionally convergent visual signal,” American naturalist, vol. 188, iss. 3, pp. 306-318, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Understanding the interacting outcomes of selection and historical contingency in shaping adaptive evolution remains a challenge in evolutionary biology. While selection can produce convergent outcomes when species occupy similar environments, the unique history of each species can also influence evolutionary trajectories and result in different phenotypic end points. The question is to what extent historical contingency places species on different adaptive pathways and, in turn, the extent to which we can predict evolutionary outcomes. Among lizards there are several distantly related genera that have independently evolved an elaborate extendible dewlap for territorial communication. We conducted a detailed morphological study and employed new phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the evolution of the underlying hyoid that powers the extension of the dewlap. This analysis showed that there appear to have been multiple phenotypic pathways for evolving a functionally convergent dewlap. The biomechanical complexity that underlies this morphological structure implies that adaptation should have been constrained to a narrow phenotypic pathway. However, multiple adaptive solutions have been possible in apparent response to a common selection pressure. Thus, the phenotypic outcome that subsequently evolved in different genera seems to have been contingent on the history of the group in question. This blurs the distinction between convergent and historically contingent adaptation and suggests that adaptive phenotypic diversity can evolve without the need for divergent natural selection.

    @article{ISI:000381286000005,
    Author = {Hagman, Mattias and Ord, Terry J.},
    Title = {Many Paths to a Common Destination: Morphological Differentiation of a Functionally Convergent Visual Signal},
    Journal = {AMERICAN NATURALIST},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {188},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {306-318},
    Abstract = {Understanding the interacting outcomes of selection and historical contingency in shaping adaptive evolution remains a challenge in evolutionary biology. While selection can produce convergent outcomes when species occupy similar environments, the unique history of each species can also influence evolutionary trajectories and result in different phenotypic end points. The question is to what extent historical contingency places species on different adaptive pathways and, in turn, the extent to which we can predict evolutionary outcomes. Among lizards there are several distantly related genera that have independently evolved an elaborate extendible dewlap for territorial communication. We conducted a detailed morphological study and employed new phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the evolution of the underlying hyoid that powers the extension of the dewlap. This analysis showed that there appear to have been multiple phenotypic pathways for evolving a functionally convergent dewlap. The biomechanical complexity that underlies this morphological structure implies that adaptation should have been constrained to a narrow phenotypic pathway. However, multiple adaptive solutions have been possible in apparent response to a common selection pressure. Thus, the phenotypic outcome that subsequently evolved in different genera seems to have been contingent on the history of the group in question. This blurs the distinction between convergent and historically contingent adaptation and suggests that adaptive phenotypic diversity can evolve without the need for divergent natural selection.},
    }

  • L. D. Mahler, S. M. Lambert, A. J. Geneva, J. Ng, B. S. Hedges, J. B. Losos, and R. E. Glor, “Discovery of a giant chameleon-like lizard (anolis) on hispaniola and its significance to understanding replicated adaptive radiations,” American naturalist, vol. 188, iss. 3, pp. 357-364, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    We report a new chameleon-like Anolis species from Hispaniola that is ecomorphologically similar to congeners found only on Cuba. Lizards from both clades possess short limbs and a short tail and utilize relatively narrow perches, leading us to recognize a novel example of ecomorphological matching among islands in the well-known Greater Antillean anole radiation. This discovery supports the hypothesis that the assembly of island faunas can be substantially deterministic and highlights the continued potential for basic discovery to reveal new insights in well-studied groups. Restricted to a threatened band of midelevation transitional forest near the border of the Dominican Republic and Haiti, this new species appears to be highly endangered.

    @article{ISI:000381286000009,
    Author = {Mahler, D. Luke and Lambert, Shea M. and Geneva, Anthony J. and Ng, Julienne and Hedges, S. Blair and Losos, Jonathan B. and Glor, Richard E.},
    Title = {Discovery of a Giant Chameleon-Like Lizard (Anolis) on Hispaniola and Its Significance to Understanding Replicated Adaptive Radiations},
    Journal = {AMERICAN NATURALIST},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {188},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {357-364},
    Abstract = {We report a new chameleon-like Anolis species from Hispaniola that is ecomorphologically similar to congeners found only on Cuba. Lizards from both clades possess short limbs and a short tail and utilize relatively narrow perches, leading us to recognize a novel example of ecomorphological matching among islands in the well-known Greater Antillean anole radiation. This discovery supports the hypothesis that the assembly of island faunas can be substantially deterministic and highlights the continued potential for basic discovery to reveal new insights in well-studied groups. Restricted to a threatened band of midelevation transitional forest near the border of the Dominican Republic and Haiti, this new species appears to be highly endangered.},
    }

  • M. Onorati, G. Sancesario, D. Pastore, S. Bernardini, J. E. Carrion, M. Carosi, L. Vignoli, D. Lauro, and G. Gentile, “Plasma concentrations of progesterone and estradiol and the relation to reproduction in galapagos land iguanas, conolophus marthae and c. subcristatus (squamata, iguanidae),” Animal reproduction science, vol. 172, pp. 105-113, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    In a combined approach, endocrine and ultrasonic analyses were performed to assess reproduction of two syntopic populations of terrestrial Galapagos iguanas the Conolophus marthae (the Galapagos Pink Land Iguana) and C. subcristatus on the Volcan Wolf (Isabela Island). The ELISA methods (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were used to measure plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) from samples collected over the course of three different seasons: July 2010, June 2012-2014. As for C. subcristatus, the large number of females with eggs in 2012 and 2014 were associated with increased plasma P4 concentrations and the corresponding absence of females with eggs in July 2010 when concentrations of both hormones levels were basal indicating reproduction was still ongoing in June and had ended in July. In C. marthae, even though there was a positive relationship between egg-development stages and hormone concentrations, P4 concentrations were basal through the three years that samples were collected, with some females having a lesser number of eggs compared with C. subcristatus. In C marthae P4 and E2 patterns did not allow for defining a specific breeding season. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    @article{ISI:000382411800012,
    Author = {Onorati, Michela and Sancesario, Giulia and Pastore, Donatella and Bernardini, Sergio and Carrion, Jorge E. and Carosi, Monica and Vignoli, Leonardo and Lauro, Davide and Gentile, Gabriele},
    Title = {Plasma concentrations of progesterone and estradiol and the relation to reproduction in Galapagos land iguanas, Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus (Squamata, Iguanidae)},
    Journal = {ANIMAL REPRODUCTION SCIENCE},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {172},
    Pages = {105-113},
    Abstract = {In a combined approach, endocrine and ultrasonic analyses were performed to assess reproduction of two syntopic populations of terrestrial Galapagos iguanas the Conolophus marthae (the Galapagos Pink Land Iguana) and C. subcristatus on the Volcan Wolf (Isabela Island). The ELISA methods (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were used to measure plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) from samples collected over the course of three different seasons: July 2010, June 2012-2014. As for C. subcristatus, the large number of females with eggs in 2012 and 2014 were associated with increased plasma P4 concentrations and the corresponding absence of females with eggs in July 2010 when concentrations of both hormones levels were basal indicating reproduction was still ongoing in June and had ended in July. In C. marthae, even though there was a positive relationship between egg-development stages and hormone concentrations, P4 concentrations were basal through the three years that samples were collected, with some females having a lesser number of eggs compared with C. subcristatus. In C marthae P4 and E2 patterns did not allow for defining a specific breeding season. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
    }

  • A. Herrel, M. Lopez-Darias, B. Vanhooydonck, R. Cornette, T. Kohlsdorf, and R. Brandt, “Do adult phenotypes reflect selection on juvenile performance? a comparative study on performance and morphology in lizards,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 3, pp. 469-478, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    When competing for food or other resources, or when confronted with predators, young animals may be at a disadvantage relative to adults because of their smaller size. Additionally, the ongoing differentiation and growth of tissues may constrain performance during early ontogenetic stages. However, juveniles must feed before they can become reproductively active adults and as such the adult phenotype may be the result of an ontogenetic filter imposing selection on juvenile phenotype and performance. Here we present ontogenetic data on head morphology and bite force for different lizard species. We test whether adults reflect selection on juveniles by comparing slopes of growth trajectories before and after sexual maturity in males and females and by examining the variance in head morphology and bite force in juveniles versus adults. Finally, we also present the first results of a selection study where animals were measured, marked and released, and recaptured the subsequent year to test whether head morphology and bite force impact survival.

    @article{ISI:000381708600010,
    Author = {Herrel, Anthony and Lopez-Darias, Marta and Vanhooydonck, Bieke and Cornette, Raphael and Kohlsdorf, Tiana and Brandt, Renata},
    Title = {Do Adult Phenotypes Reflect Selection on Juvenile Performance? A Comparative Study on Performance and Morphology in Lizards},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {469-478},
    Abstract = {When competing for food or other resources, or when confronted with predators, young animals may be at a disadvantage relative to adults because of their smaller size. Additionally, the ongoing differentiation and growth of tissues may constrain performance during early ontogenetic stages. However, juveniles must feed before they can become reproductively active adults and as such the adult phenotype may be the result of an ontogenetic filter imposing selection on juvenile phenotype and performance. Here we present ontogenetic data on head morphology and bite force for different lizard species. We test whether adults reflect selection on juveniles by comparing slopes of growth trajectories before and after sexual maturity in males and females and by examining the variance in head morphology and bite force in juveniles versus adults. Finally, we also present the first results of a selection study where animals were measured, marked and released, and recaptured the subsequent year to test whether head morphology and bite force impact survival.},
    }

  • J. Keifer and C. H. Summers, “Putting the “biology” back into “neurobiology”: the strength of diversity in animal model systems for neuroscience research,” Frontiers in systems neuroscience, vol. 10, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Current trends in neuroscience research have moved toward a reliance on rodent animal models to study most aspects of brain function. Such laboratory-reared animals are highly inbred, have been disengaged from their natural environments for generations and appear to be of limited predictive value for successful clinical outcomes. In this Perspective article, we argue that research on a rich diversity of animal model systems is fundamental to new discoveries in evolutionarily conserved core physiological and molecular mechanisms that are the foundation of human brain function. Analysis of neural circuits across phyla will reveal general computational solutions that form the basis for adaptive behavioral responses. Further, we stress that development of ethoexperimental approaches to improve our understanding of behavioral nuance will help to realign our research strategies with therapeutic goals and improve the translational validity of specific animal models. Finally, we suggest that neuroscience has a role in environmental conservation of habitat and fauna that will preserve and protect the ecological settings that drive species-specific behavioral adaptations. A rich biodiversity will enhance our understanding of human brain function and lead in unpredicted directions for development of therapeutic treatments for neurological disorders.

    @article{ISI:000381677900001,
    Author = {Keifer, Joyce and Summers, Cliff H.},
    Title = {Putting the ``Biology{''} Back into ``Neurobiology{''}: The Strength of Diversity in Animal Model Systems for Neuroscience Research},
    Journal = {FRONTIERS IN SYSTEMS NEUROSCIENCE},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {10},
    Abstract = {Current trends in neuroscience research have moved toward a reliance on rodent animal models to study most aspects of brain function. Such laboratory-reared animals are highly inbred, have been disengaged from their natural environments for generations and appear to be of limited predictive value for successful clinical outcomes. In this Perspective article, we argue that research on a rich diversity of animal model systems is fundamental to new discoveries in evolutionarily conserved core physiological and molecular mechanisms that are the foundation of human brain function. Analysis of neural circuits across phyla will reveal general computational solutions that form the basis for adaptive behavioral responses. Further, we stress that development of ethoexperimental approaches to improve our understanding of behavioral nuance will help to realign our research strategies with therapeutic goals and improve the translational validity of specific animal models. Finally, we suggest that neuroscience has a role in environmental conservation of habitat and fauna that will preserve and protect the ecological settings that drive species-specific behavioral adaptations. A rich biodiversity will enhance our understanding of human brain function and lead in unpredicted directions for development of therapeutic treatments for neurological disorders.},
    }

  • T. Sugihara, T. Nagata, B. Mason, M. Koyanagi, and A. Terakita, “Absorption characteristics of vertebrate non-visual opsin, opn3,” Plos one, vol. 11, iss. 8, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Most animals possess multiple opsins which sense light for visual and non-visual functions. Here, we show spectral characteristics of non-visual opsins, vertebrate Opn3s, which are widely distributed among vertebrates. We successfully expressed zebrafish Opn3 in mammalian cultured cells and measured its absorption spectrumspectroscopically. When incubated with 11-cis retinal, zebrafish Opn3 formed a blue-sensitive photopigment with an absorption maximum around 465 nm. The Opn3 converts to an all-trans retinal-bearing photoproduct with an absorption spectrum similar to the dark state following brief blue-light irradiation. The photoproduct experienced a remarkable blue-shift, with changes in position of the isosbestic point, during further irradiation. We then used a cAMP-dependent luciferase reporter assay to investigate light-dependent cAMP responses in cultured cells expressing zebrafish, pufferfish, anole and chicken Opn3. The wild type opsins did not produce responses, but cells expressing chimera mutants (WT Opn3s in which the third intracellular loops were replaced with the third intracellular loop of a Gs-coupled jellyfish opsin) displayed light-dependent changes in cAMP. The results suggest that Opn3 is capable of activating G protein(s) in a light-dependent manner. Finally, we used this assay to measure the relative wavelength-dependent response of cells expressing Opn3 chimeras to multiple quantally-matched stimuli. The inferred spectral sensitivity curve of zebrafish Opn3 accurately matched the measured absorption spectrum. We were unable to estimate the spectral sensitivity curve ofmouse or anole Opn3, but, like zebrafish Opn3, the chicken and pufferfish Opn3-JiL3 chimeras also formed blue-sensitive pigments. These findings suggest that vertebrate Opn3s may form blue-sensitive G protein-coupled pigments. Further, we suggest that the method described here, combining a cAMPdependent luciferase reporter assay with chimeric opsins possessing the third intracellular loop of jellyfish opsin, is a versatile approach for estimating absorption spectra of opsins with unknown signaling cascades or for which absorption spectra are difficult to obtain.

    @article{ISI:000381487600077,
    Author = {Sugihara, Tomohiro and Nagata, Takashi and Mason, Benjamin and Koyanagi, Mitsumasa and Terakita, Akihisa},
    Title = {Absorption Characteristics of Vertebrate Non-Visual Opsin, Opn3},
    Journal = {PLOS ONE},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {11},
    Number = {8},
    Abstract = {Most animals possess multiple opsins which sense light for visual and non-visual functions. Here, we show spectral characteristics of non-visual opsins, vertebrate Opn3s, which are widely distributed among vertebrates. We successfully expressed zebrafish Opn3 in mammalian cultured cells and measured its absorption spectrumspectroscopically. When incubated with 11-cis retinal, zebrafish Opn3 formed a blue-sensitive photopigment with an absorption maximum around 465 nm. The Opn3 converts to an all-trans retinal-bearing photoproduct with an absorption spectrum similar to the dark state following brief blue-light irradiation. The photoproduct experienced a remarkable blue-shift, with changes in position of the isosbestic point, during further irradiation. We then used a cAMP-dependent luciferase reporter assay to investigate light-dependent cAMP responses in cultured cells expressing zebrafish, pufferfish, anole and chicken Opn3. The wild type opsins did not produce responses, but cells expressing chimera mutants (WT Opn3s in which the third intracellular loops were replaced with the third intracellular loop of a Gs-coupled jellyfish opsin) displayed light-dependent changes in cAMP. The results suggest that Opn3 is capable of activating G protein(s) in a light-dependent manner. Finally, we used this assay to measure the relative wavelength-dependent response of cells expressing Opn3 chimeras to multiple quantally-matched stimuli. The inferred spectral sensitivity curve of zebrafish Opn3 accurately matched the measured absorption spectrum. We were unable to estimate the spectral sensitivity curve ofmouse or anole Opn3, but, like zebrafish Opn3, the chicken and pufferfish Opn3-JiL3 chimeras also formed blue-sensitive pigments. These findings suggest that vertebrate Opn3s may form blue-sensitive G protein-coupled pigments. Further, we suggest that the method described here, combining a cAMPdependent luciferase reporter assay with chimeric opsins possessing the third intracellular loop of jellyfish opsin, is a versatile approach for estimating absorption spectra of opsins with unknown signaling cascades or for which absorption spectra are difficult to obtain.},
    }

  • T. P. Lozito and R. S. Tuan, “Lizard tail skeletal regeneration combines aspects of fracture healing and blastema-based regeneration,” Development, vol. 143, iss. 16, pp. 2946-2957, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Lizards are amniotes with the remarkable ability to regenerate amputated tails. The early regenerated lizard tail forms a blastema, and the regenerated skeleton consists of a cartilage tube (CT) surrounding the regenerated spinal cord. The proximal, but not distal, CT undergoes hypertrophy and ossifies. We hypothesized that differences in cell sources and signaling account for divergent cartilage development between proximal and distal CT regions. Exogenous spinal cord implants induced ectopic CT formation in lizard (Anolis carolinensis) blastemas. Regenerated spinal cords expressed Shh, and cyclopamine inhibited CT induction. Blastemas containing vertebrae with intact spinal cords formed CTs with proximal hypertrophic regions and distal non-hypertrophic regions, whereas removal of spinal cords resulted in formation of proximal CT areas only. In fate-mapping studies, FITC-labeled vertebra periosteal cells were detected in proximal, but not distal, CT areas. Conversely, FITC-labeled blastema cells were restricted to distal CT regions. Proximal cartilage formation was inhibited by removal of periosteum and could be recapitulated in vitro by periosteal cells treated with Ihh and BMP-2. These findings suggest that proximal CTs are directly derived from vertebra periosteal cells in response to BMP and Ihh signaling, whereas distal CTs form from blastema cells in response to Shh signals from regenerated spinal cords.

    @article{ISI:000393450300007,
    Author = {Lozito, Thomas P. and Tuan, Rocky S.},
    Title = {Lizard tail skeletal regeneration combines aspects of fracture healing and blastema-based regeneration},
    Journal = {DEVELOPMENT},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {143},
    Number = {16},
    Pages = {2946-2957},
    Abstract = {Lizards are amniotes with the remarkable ability to regenerate amputated tails. The early regenerated lizard tail forms a blastema, and the regenerated skeleton consists of a cartilage tube (CT) surrounding the regenerated spinal cord. The proximal, but not distal, CT undergoes hypertrophy and ossifies. We hypothesized that differences in cell sources and signaling account for divergent cartilage development between proximal and distal CT regions. Exogenous spinal cord implants induced ectopic CT formation in lizard (Anolis carolinensis) blastemas. Regenerated spinal cords expressed Shh, and cyclopamine inhibited CT induction. Blastemas containing vertebrae with intact spinal cords formed CTs with proximal hypertrophic regions and distal non-hypertrophic regions, whereas removal of spinal cords resulted in formation of proximal CT areas only. In fate-mapping studies, FITC-labeled vertebra periosteal cells were detected in proximal, but not distal, CT areas. Conversely, FITC-labeled blastema cells were restricted to distal CT regions. Proximal cartilage formation was inhibited by removal of periosteum and could be recapitulated in vitro by periosteal cells treated with Ihh and BMP-2. These findings suggest that proximal CTs are directly derived from vertebra periosteal cells in response to BMP and Ihh signaling, whereas distal CTs form from blastema cells in response to Shh signals from regenerated spinal cords.},
    }

  • G. Gillis and T. E. Higham, “Consequences of lost endings: caudal autotomy as a lens for focusing attention on tail function during locomotion,” Journal of experimental biology, vol. 219, iss. 16, pp. 2416-2422, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Autotomy has evolved in many animal lineages as a means of predator escape, and involves the voluntary shedding of body parts. In vertebrates, caudal autotomy (or tail shedding) is the most common form, and it is particularly widespread in lizards. Here, we develop a framework for thinking about how tail loss can have fitness consequences, particularly through its impacts on locomotion. Caudal autotomy is fundamentally an alteration of morphology that affects an animal’s mass and mass distribution. These morphological changes affect balance and stability, along with the performance of a range of locomotor activities, from running and climbing to jumping and swimming. These locomotor effects can impact on activities critical for survival and reproduction, including escaping predators, capturing prey and acquiring mates. In this Commentary, we first review work illustrating the (mostly) negative effects of tail loss on locomotor performance, and highlight what these consequences reveal about tail function during locomotion. We also identify important areas of future study, including the exploration of new behaviors (e.g. prey capture), increased use of biomechanical measurements and the incorporation of more field-based studies to continue to build our understanding of the tail, an ancestral and nearly ubiquitous feature of the vertebrate body plan.

    @article{ISI:000381708300006,
    Author = {Gillis, Gary and Higham, Timothy E.},
    Title = {Consequences of lost endings: caudal autotomy as a lens for focusing attention on tail function during locomotion},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {219},
    Number = {16},
    Pages = {2416-2422},
    Abstract = {Autotomy has evolved in many animal lineages as a means of predator escape, and involves the voluntary shedding of body parts. In vertebrates, caudal autotomy (or tail shedding) is the most common form, and it is particularly widespread in lizards. Here, we develop a framework for thinking about how tail loss can have fitness consequences, particularly through its impacts on locomotion. Caudal autotomy is fundamentally an alteration of morphology that affects an animal's mass and mass distribution. These morphological changes affect balance and stability, along with the performance of a range of locomotor activities, from running and climbing to jumping and swimming. These locomotor effects can impact on activities critical for survival and reproduction, including escaping predators, capturing prey and acquiring mates. In this Commentary, we first review work illustrating the (mostly) negative effects of tail loss on locomotor performance, and highlight what these consequences reveal about tail function during locomotion. We also identify important areas of future study, including the exploration of new behaviors (e.g. prey capture), increased use of biomechanical measurements and the incorporation of more field-based studies to continue to build our understanding of the tail, an ancestral and nearly ubiquitous feature of the vertebrate body plan.},
    }

  • A. P. Lisachov, V. A. Trifonov, M. Giovannotti, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, and P. M. Borodin, “Meiotic synapsis and recombination in two anolis species (dactyloidae, reptilia),” Chromosome research, vol. 24, iss. 1, p. S24-S25, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000393137500046,
    Author = {Lisachov, A. P. and Trifonov, V. A. and Giovannotti, M. and Ferguson-Smith, M. A. and Borodin, P. M.},
    Title = {Meiotic synapsis and recombination in two Anolis species (Dactyloidae, Reptilia)},
    Journal = {CHROMOSOME RESEARCH},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {24},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {S24-S25},
    }

  • A. C. Algar and M. Lopez-Darias, “Sex-specific responses of phenotypic diversity to environmental variation,” Ecography, vol. 39, iss. 8, pp. 715-725, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Identifying the factors generating ecomorphological diversity within species can provide a window into the nascent stages of ecological radiation. Sexual dimorphism is an obvious axis of intraspecific morphological diversity that could affect how environmental variation leads to ecological divergence among populations. In this paper we test for sex-specific responses in how environmental variation generates phenotypic diversity within species, using the generalist lizard Gallotia galloti on Tenerife (Canary Islands). We evaluate two hypotheses: the first proposes that different environments have different phenotypic optima, leading to shifts in the positions of populations in morphospace between environments; the second posits that the strength of trait-filtering differs between environments, predicting changes in the volume of morphospace occupied by populations in different environments. We found that intraspecific morphological diversity, provided it is adaptive, arises from both shifts in populations’ position in morphospace and differences in the strength of environmental filtering among environments, especially at high elevations. However, effects were found only in males; morphological diversity of females responded little to environmental variation. These results within G. galloti suggest natural selection is not the sole source of phenotypic diversity across environments, but rather that variation in the strength of, or response to, sexual selection may play an important role in generating morphological diversity in environmentally diverse settings. More generally, disparities in trait-environment relationships among males and females also suggest that ignoring sex differences in studies of trait dispersion and clustering may produce misleading inferences.

    @article{ISI:000383635500001,
    Author = {Algar, Adam C. and Lopez-Darias, Marta},
    Title = {Sex-specific responses of phenotypic diversity to environmental variation},
    Journal = {ECOGRAPHY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {39},
    Number = {8},
    Pages = {715-725},
    Abstract = {Identifying the factors generating ecomorphological diversity within species can provide a window into the nascent stages of ecological radiation. Sexual dimorphism is an obvious axis of intraspecific morphological diversity that could affect how environmental variation leads to ecological divergence among populations. In this paper we test for sex-specific responses in how environmental variation generates phenotypic diversity within species, using the generalist lizard Gallotia galloti on Tenerife (Canary Islands). We evaluate two hypotheses: the first proposes that different environments have different phenotypic optima, leading to shifts in the positions of populations in morphospace between environments; the second posits that the strength of trait-filtering differs between environments, predicting changes in the volume of morphospace occupied by populations in different environments. We found that intraspecific morphological diversity, provided it is adaptive, arises from both shifts in populations' position in morphospace and differences in the strength of environmental filtering among environments, especially at high elevations. However, effects were found only in males; morphological diversity of females responded little to environmental variation. These results within G. galloti suggest natural selection is not the sole source of phenotypic diversity across environments, but rather that variation in the strength of, or response to, sexual selection may play an important role in generating morphological diversity in environmentally diverse settings. More generally, disparities in trait-environment relationships among males and females also suggest that ignoring sex differences in studies of trait dispersion and clustering may produce misleading inferences.},
    }

  • C. Piantoni, C. A. Navas, and N. R. Ibarguengoytia, “Vulnerability to climate warming of four genera of new world iguanians based on their thermal ecology,” Animal conservation, vol. 19, iss. 4, pp. 391-400, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Climate change and rising global temperatures pose a serious threat to biodiversity. We assessed the vulnerability to global warming of four genera of iguanian lizards whose distributions include a broad range of environments from the Peninsula of Yucatan to southern Patagonia. Original data on body temperatures (T-b), operative temperatures (T-e, `null temperatures’ for non-regulating animals), thermoregulatory set-point range (preferred body temperatures, T-set) and quantitative indices of temperature regulation and quality of the thermal environment (d(b), d(e) and E) for Tropidurus species were compared to published data for Anolis, Liolaemus and Sceloporus. Our results suggest that thermoregulatory behavior typically increases with latitude and altitude (except for two southernmost liolaemids), and that tropical and lowland lizards generally behave as thermoconformers. In a warming scenario, thermoconformity or poor thermoregulation in environments where large proportions of T-b and T-e exceed the population’s T-set will cause a reduction in the hours of activity and a higher risk of overheating. These results identify tropical populations as the most vulnerable to rising temperatures, especially the ones inhabiting open and low elevation sites. This indicates that protection of these environments should be a conservation priority. In contrast, Patagonia and montane environments represent potential future thermal refuges for many equator-ward or lowland lizards that, if capable of dispersion, would eventually be forced to retreat to these environments.

    @article{ISI:000381208400011,
    Author = {Piantoni, C. and Navas, C. A. and Ibarguengoytia, N. R.},
    Title = {Vulnerability to climate warming of four genera of New World iguanians based on their thermal ecology},
    Journal = {ANIMAL CONSERVATION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {19},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {391-400},
    Abstract = {Climate change and rising global temperatures pose a serious threat to biodiversity. We assessed the vulnerability to global warming of four genera of iguanian lizards whose distributions include a broad range of environments from the Peninsula of Yucatan to southern Patagonia. Original data on body temperatures (T-b), operative temperatures (T-e, `null temperatures' for non-regulating animals), thermoregulatory set-point range (preferred body temperatures, T-set) and quantitative indices of temperature regulation and quality of the thermal environment (d(b), d(e) and E) for Tropidurus species were compared to published data for Anolis, Liolaemus and Sceloporus. Our results suggest that thermoregulatory behavior typically increases with latitude and altitude (except for two southernmost liolaemids), and that tropical and lowland lizards generally behave as thermoconformers. In a warming scenario, thermoconformity or poor thermoregulation in environments where large proportions of T-b and T-e exceed the population's T-set will cause a reduction in the hours of activity and a higher risk of overheating. These results identify tropical populations as the most vulnerable to rising temperatures, especially the ones inhabiting open and low elevation sites. This indicates that protection of these environments should be a conservation priority. In contrast, Patagonia and montane environments represent potential future thermal refuges for many equator-ward or lowland lizards that, if capable of dispersion, would eventually be forced to retreat to these environments.},
    }

  • J. J. Kolbe, A. C. Battles, and K. J. Aviles-Rodriguez, “City slickers: poor performance does not deter anolis lizards from using artificial substrates in human-modified habitats,” Functional ecology, vol. 30, iss. 8, pp. 1418-1429, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    As animals move through their environments, they encounter a variety of substrates, which have important effects on their locomotor performance. Habitat modification can alter the types of substrates available for locomotion. In particular, many types of artificial substrates have been added to urban areas, but effects of these novel surfaces on animal locomotion are little known. In this study, we assessed locomotor performance of two Anolis lizard species (A.cristatellus and A.stratulus) on substrates that varied in inclination and surface roughness. Rough substrates represented the tree trunks and branches typically used in natural forest habitats, whereas smooth, vertical substrates captured the qualities of artificial surfaces, such as posts and walls, available in human-modified habitats. We then observed habitat use to test the habitat constraint hypothesis – that lizards should more frequently occupy portions of the habitat in which they perform better. Increased inclination and decreased surface roughness caused lizards to run slower. Both A.cristatellus and A.stratulus ran slowest on the smooth, vertical surface, and A.cristatellus often slipped and fell on this surface. In contrast to predictions, both species frequently used smooth, vertical substrates in the wild. Anolis cristatellus occupied artificial substrates 73\% of the time in human-modified habitats despite performing worse than A.stratulus on the smooth, vertical track. We therefore rejected the habitat constraint hypothesis for anoles in these human-modified habitats. Despite overall poor performance on the smooth, vertical track, A.cristatellus had a significant morphology-performance relationship that supports the prediction that selection should favour smaller lizards with relatively longer limbs in human-modified habitats. The smaller bodied A.stratulus performed better than A.cristatellus on smooth, vertical substrates and therefore may not be exposed to the same selective pressures. We contend that habitat modification by humans may alter morphology-performance-habitat use relationships found in natural habitats. This may lead to changes in selective pressures for some species, which may influence their ability to occupy human-modified habitats such as cities.

    @article{ISI:000382581400015,
    Author = {Kolbe, Jason J. and Battles, Andrew C. and Aviles-Rodriguez, Kevin J.},
    Title = {City slickers: poor performance does not deter Anolis lizards from using artificial substrates in human-modified habitats},
    Journal = {FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {30},
    Number = {8},
    Pages = {1418-1429},
    Abstract = {As animals move through their environments, they encounter a variety of substrates, which have important effects on their locomotor performance. Habitat modification can alter the types of substrates available for locomotion. In particular, many types of artificial substrates have been added to urban areas, but effects of these novel surfaces on animal locomotion are little known. In this study, we assessed locomotor performance of two Anolis lizard species (A.cristatellus and A.stratulus) on substrates that varied in inclination and surface roughness. Rough substrates represented the tree trunks and branches typically used in natural forest habitats, whereas smooth, vertical substrates captured the qualities of artificial surfaces, such as posts and walls, available in human-modified habitats. We then observed habitat use to test the habitat constraint hypothesis - that lizards should more frequently occupy portions of the habitat in which they perform better. Increased inclination and decreased surface roughness caused lizards to run slower. Both A.cristatellus and A.stratulus ran slowest on the smooth, vertical surface, and A.cristatellus often slipped and fell on this surface. In contrast to predictions, both species frequently used smooth, vertical substrates in the wild. Anolis cristatellus occupied artificial substrates 73\% of the time in human-modified habitats despite performing worse than A.stratulus on the smooth, vertical track. We therefore rejected the habitat constraint hypothesis for anoles in these human-modified habitats. Despite overall poor performance on the smooth, vertical track, A.cristatellus had a significant morphology-performance relationship that supports the prediction that selection should favour smaller lizards with relatively longer limbs in human-modified habitats. The smaller bodied A.stratulus performed better than A.cristatellus on smooth, vertical substrates and therefore may not be exposed to the same selective pressures. We contend that habitat modification by humans may alter morphology-performance-habitat use relationships found in natural habitats. This may lead to changes in selective pressures for some species, which may influence their ability to occupy human-modified habitats such as cities.},
    }

  • M. Toni, C. Cioni, F. De Angelis, and M. C. B. di Patti, “Synuclein expression in the lizard anolis carolinensis,” Journal of comparative physiology a-neuroethology sensory neural and behavioral physiology, vol. 202, iss. 8, pp. 577-595, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The synuclein (syn) family comprises three proteins: alpha-, beta- and gamma-syns. In humans, they are involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and in tumors. Members of the syn family were sequenced in representative species of all vertebrates and the comparative analysis of amino acid sequences suggests that syns are evolutionarily conserved, but information about their expression in vertebrate lineages is still scarce and completely lacking in reptiles. In this study, the expression of genes coding for alpha-, beta- and gamma-syns was analyzed in the green lizard Anolis carolinensis by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Results demonstrate good expression levels of the three syns in the lizard nervous system, similarly to human syns. This, together with the high identity between lizard and human syns, suggests that these proteins fulfill evolutionarily conserved functions. However, differences between lizard and humans in the expression of syn variants (two different variants of gamma-syn were detected in A. carolinensis) and differences in some amino acids in key positions for the regulation of protein conformation and affinity for lipid and metal ions also suggest that these proteins may have acquired different functional specializations in the two lineages.

    @article{ISI:000381080100004,
    Author = {Toni, Mattia and Cioni, Carla and De Angelis, Federica and di Patti, Maria Carmela Bonaccorsi},
    Title = {Synuclein expression in the lizard Anolis carolinensis},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY A-NEUROETHOLOGY SENSORY NEURAL AND BEHAVIORAL PHYSIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {202},
    Number = {8},
    Pages = {577-595},
    Abstract = {The synuclein (syn) family comprises three proteins: alpha-, beta- and gamma-syns. In humans, they are involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and in tumors. Members of the syn family were sequenced in representative species of all vertebrates and the comparative analysis of amino acid sequences suggests that syns are evolutionarily conserved, but information about their expression in vertebrate lineages is still scarce and completely lacking in reptiles. In this study, the expression of genes coding for alpha-, beta- and gamma-syns was analyzed in the green lizard Anolis carolinensis by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Results demonstrate good expression levels of the three syns in the lizard nervous system, similarly to human syns. This, together with the high identity between lizard and human syns, suggests that these proteins fulfill evolutionarily conserved functions. However, differences between lizard and humans in the expression of syn variants (two different variants of gamma-syn were detected in A. carolinensis) and differences in some amino acids in key positions for the regulation of protein conformation and affinity for lipid and metal ions also suggest that these proteins may have acquired different functional specializations in the two lineages.},
    }

  • J. M. Bush, M. M. Quinn, C. E. Balreira, and M. A. Johnson, “How do lizards determine dominance? applying ranking algorithms to animal social behaviour,” Animal behaviour, vol. 118, pp. 65-74, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Dominance relationships are a defining feature of the social organization of many animal species. Populations structured by absolute dominance usually maintain a generally linear hierarchy, while relative dominance occurs, for example, within territorial populations where an animal is likely to be dominant within its territory. Because relative dominance is dependent on social context, the traits associated with it are often unclear. Green anole lizards, Anolis carolinensis, are an ideal system in which to determine dominance-related traits, as anoles use territorial defence in most natural environments, but establish a dominance hierarchy at high densities such as those that occur in captivity. We hypothesized that anoles use similar morphological and behavioural traits to determine social status under both forms of social organization. To test this, we studied a natural population of anoles to determine the traits most predictive of male territory size and quality (as measured by the number of females overlapping a male’s territory). While these measures of territory may be related, they measure different components of territorial success. We then used mathematical ranking algorithms to quantify dominance in a tournament of paired arena trials, and identified traits associated with rank. Our results showed that lizards with wider heads had higher social rank, while those with longer heads were more successful at territorial defence. We also found that, independently of morphology, lizards who behaved more aggressively ranked higher in dominance trials, although behaviour did not predict measures of territory. Together, our results indicate that different traits may determine absolute and relative dominance in the green anole. (C) 2016 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    @article{ISI:000380269200009,
    Author = {Bush, Jordan M. and Quinn, McKenzie M. and Balreira, E. Cabral and Johnson, Michele A.},
    Title = {How do lizards determine dominance? Applying ranking algorithms to animal social behaviour},
    Journal = {ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {118},
    Pages = {65-74},
    Abstract = {Dominance relationships are a defining feature of the social organization of many animal species. Populations structured by absolute dominance usually maintain a generally linear hierarchy, while relative dominance occurs, for example, within territorial populations where an animal is likely to be dominant within its territory. Because relative dominance is dependent on social context, the traits associated with it are often unclear. Green anole lizards, Anolis carolinensis, are an ideal system in which to determine dominance-related traits, as anoles use territorial defence in most natural environments, but establish a dominance hierarchy at high densities such as those that occur in captivity. We hypothesized that anoles use similar morphological and behavioural traits to determine social status under both forms of social organization. To test this, we studied a natural population of anoles to determine the traits most predictive of male territory size and quality (as measured by the number of females overlapping a male's territory). While these measures of territory may be related, they measure different components of territorial success. We then used mathematical ranking algorithms to quantify dominance in a tournament of paired arena trials, and identified traits associated with rank. Our results showed that lizards with wider heads had higher social rank, while those with longer heads were more successful at territorial defence. We also found that, independently of morphology, lizards who behaved more aggressively ranked higher in dominance trials, although behaviour did not predict measures of territory. Together, our results indicate that different traits may determine absolute and relative dominance in the green anole. (C) 2016 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
    }

  • H. H. Siliceo-Cantero, A. Garcia, G. R. Reynolds, G. Pacheco, and B. C. Lister, “Dimorphism and divergence in island and mainland anoles,” Biological journal of the linnean society, vol. 118, iss. 4, pp. 852-872, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Relative to the West Indies, the ecology and evolution of anoles inhabiting islands off Central and South America have received little attention. The paucity of studies on continental islands has limited our ability to generalize and extend results based on the West Indian paradigm, as well as our understanding of the profound differences between the adaptive radiations of continental vs. Greater Antillean anoles. Here we compare the morphological, ecological, behavioural and genetic divergence between Anolis nebulosus populations inhabiting a small island in the Bay of Chamela, Mexico, and a nearby mainland forest. Notably, the two populations exhibit intra-sexual dimorphism with respect to head and limb sizes, the first such polymorphism documented for an Anolis species. We also compare the shape of island and mainland A.nebulosus with each other, the six West Indian ecomorphs and a hypothetical generalist species. Finally, we address the generalist convergence hypothesis for anoles on single species islands. We conclude that convergence on a generalist morphology is widespread among solitary anoles in the West Indies. We present data on a limited sample of solitary anoles with mainland ancestors that suggest a parallel convergence on a similar generalist morphology, probably due to similar adaptive landscapes shaped by selective forces common to small island environments.

    @article{ISI:000379784100011,
    Author = {Siliceo-Cantero, Hugo H. and Garcia, Andres and Reynolds, R. Graham and Pacheco, Gualberto and Lister, Bradford C.},
    Title = {Dimorphism and divergence in island and mainland Anoles},
    Journal = {BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {118},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {852-872},
    Abstract = {Relative to the West Indies, the ecology and evolution of anoles inhabiting islands off Central and South America have received little attention. The paucity of studies on continental islands has limited our ability to generalize and extend results based on the West Indian paradigm, as well as our understanding of the profound differences between the adaptive radiations of continental vs. Greater Antillean anoles. Here we compare the morphological, ecological, behavioural and genetic divergence between Anolis nebulosus populations inhabiting a small island in the Bay of Chamela, Mexico, and a nearby mainland forest. Notably, the two populations exhibit intra-sexual dimorphism with respect to head and limb sizes, the first such polymorphism documented for an Anolis species. We also compare the shape of island and mainland A.nebulosus with each other, the six West Indian ecomorphs and a hypothetical generalist species. Finally, we address the generalist convergence hypothesis for anoles on single species islands. We conclude that convergence on a generalist morphology is widespread among solitary anoles in the West Indies. We present data on a limited sample of solitary anoles with mainland ancestors that suggest a parallel convergence on a similar generalist morphology, probably due to similar adaptive landscapes shaped by selective forces common to small island environments.},
    }

  • S. N. Chen, X. W. Zhang, L. Li, B. Y. Ruan, B. Huang, W. S. Huang, P. F. Zou, J. P. Fu, L. J. Zhao, N. Li, and P. Nie, “Evolution of ifn-lambda in tetrapod vertebrates and its functional characterization in green anole lizard (anolis carolinensis),” Developmental and comparative immunology, vol. 61, pp. 208-224, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    IFN-lambda (IFNL), i.e. type III IFN genes were found in a conserved gene locus in tetrapod vertebrates. But, a unique locus containing IFNL was found in avian. In turtle and crocodile, IFNL genes were distributed in these two separate loci. As revealed in phylogenetic trees, IFN-lambda s in these two different loci and other amniotes were grouped into two different clades. The conservation in gene presence and gene locus was also observed for the receptors of IFN-lambda, IFN-lambda R1 and IL-10RB in tetrapods. It is further revealed that in North American green anole lizard Anolis carolinensis, a single IFNL gene was situated collinearly in the conserved locus as in other tetrapods, together with its receptors IFN-lambda R1 and IL-10RB also identified in this study. The IFN-lambda and its receptors were expressed in all examined organs/tissues, and their expression was stimulated following the injection of polyI:polyC. The ISREs in promoter of IFN-lambda in lizard were responsible to IRF3 as demonstrated using luciferase report system, and IFN-lambda, in lizard functioned through the receptors, IFN-lambda R1 and IL-10RB, as the up-regulation of ISGs was observed in ligand-receptor transfected, and also in recombinant IFN-lambda stimulated, cell lines. Taken together, it is concluded that the mechanisms involved in type III IFN ligand-receptor system, and in its signalling pathway and its downstream genes may be conserved in green anole lizard, and may even be so in tetrapods from xenopus to human. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    @article{ISI:000376804300023,
    Author = {Chen, Shan Nan and Zhang, Xiao Wen and Li, Li and Ruan, Bai Ye and Huang, Bei and Huang, Wen Shu and Zou, Peng Fei and Fu, Jian Ping and Zhao, Li Juan and Li, Nan and Nie, Pin},
    Title = {Evolution of IFN-lambda in tetrapod vertebrates and its functional characterization in green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis)},
    Journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL AND COMPARATIVE IMMUNOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {61},
    Pages = {208-224},
    Abstract = {IFN-lambda (IFNL), i.e. type III IFN genes were found in a conserved gene locus in tetrapod vertebrates. But, a unique locus containing IFNL was found in avian. In turtle and crocodile, IFNL genes were distributed in these two separate loci. As revealed in phylogenetic trees, IFN-lambda s in these two different loci and other amniotes were grouped into two different clades. The conservation in gene presence and gene locus was also observed for the receptors of IFN-lambda, IFN-lambda R1 and IL-10RB in tetrapods. It is further revealed that in North American green anole lizard Anolis carolinensis, a single IFNL gene was situated collinearly in the conserved locus as in other tetrapods, together with its receptors IFN-lambda R1 and IL-10RB also identified in this study. The IFN-lambda and its receptors were expressed in all examined organs/tissues, and their expression was stimulated following the injection of polyI:polyC. The ISREs in promoter of IFN-lambda in lizard were responsible to IRF3 as demonstrated using luciferase report system, and IFN-lambda, in lizard functioned through the receptors, IFN-lambda R1 and IL-10RB, as the up-regulation of ISGs was observed in ligand-receptor transfected, and also in recombinant IFN-lambda stimulated, cell lines. Taken together, it is concluded that the mechanisms involved in type III IFN ligand-receptor system, and in its signalling pathway and its downstream genes may be conserved in green anole lizard, and may even be so in tetrapods from xenopus to human. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.},
    }

  • G. Norval, K. Slater, L. R. Brown, and J. Mao, “Does caudal autotomy affect the abdominal fat and liver masses of free-living reproductively mature brown anoles, anolis sagrei dumeril & bibron, 1837, from southwestern taiwan? (squamata: sauria: dactyloidae),” Herpetozoa, vol. 29, iss. 1-2, pp. 47-54, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Anolis sagrei DUMERIL & BIBRON, 1837, of both genders, were collected from an agricultural area in Santzepu, Sheishan District, Chiayi County, southwestern Taiwan, during the period March 2002 to March 2003, as part of a reproductive cycle study. Unpaired t-tests, or where the assumptions of the t-test were substantially violated, the Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare the monthly variations in the mean abdominal fat body mass index and mean liver mass index of the A. sagrei specimens that had not experienced tail autotomy and those that had. No statistically significant variations in the monthly mean abdominal fat body mass indexes or monthly mean liver mass indexes of lizards that had not experienced caudal autotomy and those that had were noted. The authors hypothesize that the results of this study is due to an increase in foraging activity in A. sagrei specimens that experienced tail autotomy.

    @article{ISI:000381321200005,
    Author = {Norval, Gerrut and Slater, Kerry and Brown, Leslie R. and Mao, Jean-Jay},
    Title = {Does caudal autotomy affect the abdominal fat and liver masses of free-living reproductively mature Brown Anoles, Anolis sagrei DUMERIL \& BIBRON, 1837, from southwestern Taiwan? (Squamata: Sauria: Dactyloidae)},
    Journal = {HERPETOZOA},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {29},
    Number = {1-2},
    Pages = {47-54},
    Abstract = {Anolis sagrei DUMERIL \& BIBRON, 1837, of both genders, were collected from an agricultural area in Santzepu, Sheishan District, Chiayi County, southwestern Taiwan, during the period March 2002 to March 2003, as part of a reproductive cycle study. Unpaired t-tests, or where the assumptions of the t-test were substantially violated, the Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare the monthly variations in the mean abdominal fat body mass index and mean liver mass index of the A. sagrei specimens that had not experienced tail autotomy and those that had. No statistically significant variations in the monthly mean abdominal fat body mass indexes or monthly mean liver mass indexes of lizards that had not experienced caudal autotomy and those that had were noted. The authors hypothesize that the results of this study is due to an increase in foraging activity in A. sagrei specimens that experienced tail autotomy.},
    }

  • I. Prates, A. T. Xue, J. L. Brown, D. F. Alvarado-Serrano, M. T. Rodrigues, M. J. Hickerson, and A. C. Carnaval, “Inferring responses to climate dynamics from historical demography in neotropical forest lizards,” Proceedings of the national academy of sciences of the united states of america, vol. 113, iss. 29, pp. 7978-7985, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    We apply a comparative framework to test for concerted demographic changes in response to climate shifts in the neotropical lowland forests, learning from the past to inform projections of the future. Using reduced genomic (SNP) data from three lizard species codistributed in Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest (Anolis punctatus, Anolis ortonii, and Polychrus marmoratus), we first reconstruct former population history and test for assemblage-level responses to cycles of moisture transport recently implicated in changes of forest distribution during the Late Quaternary. We find support for population shifts within the time frame of inferred precipitation fluctuations (the last 250,000 y) but detect idiosyncratic responses across species and uniformity of within-species responses across forest regions. These results are incongruent with expectations of concerted population expansion in response to increased rainfall and fail to detect out-of-phase demographic syndromes (expansions vs. contractions) across forest regions. Using reduced genomic data to infer species-specific demographical parameters, we then model the plausible spatial distribution of genetic diversity in the Atlantic Forest into future climates (2080) under a medium carbon emission trajectory. The models forecast very distinct trajectories for the lizard species, reflecting unique estimated population densities and dispersal abilities. Ecological and demographic constraints seemingly lead to distinct and asynchronous responses to climatic regimes in the tropics, even among similarly distributed taxa. Incorporating such constraints is key to improve modeling of the distribution of biodiversity in the past and future.

    @article{ISI:000380224500031,
    Author = {Prates, Ivan and Xue, Alexander T. and Brown, Jason L. and Alvarado-Serrano, Diego F. and Rodrigues, Miguel T. and Hickerson, Michael J. and Carnaval, Ana C.},
    Title = {Inferring responses to climate dynamics from historical demography in neotropical forest lizards},
    Journal = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {113},
    Number = {29},
    Pages = {7978-7985},
    Abstract = {We apply a comparative framework to test for concerted demographic changes in response to climate shifts in the neotropical lowland forests, learning from the past to inform projections of the future. Using reduced genomic (SNP) data from three lizard species codistributed in Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest (Anolis punctatus, Anolis ortonii, and Polychrus marmoratus), we first reconstruct former population history and test for assemblage-level responses to cycles of moisture transport recently implicated in changes of forest distribution during the Late Quaternary. We find support for population shifts within the time frame of inferred precipitation fluctuations (the last 250,000 y) but detect idiosyncratic responses across species and uniformity of within-species responses across forest regions. These results are incongruent with expectations of concerted population expansion in response to increased rainfall and fail to detect out-of-phase demographic syndromes (expansions vs. contractions) across forest regions. Using reduced genomic data to infer species-specific demographical parameters, we then model the plausible spatial distribution of genetic diversity in the Atlantic Forest into future climates (2080) under a medium carbon emission trajectory. The models forecast very distinct trajectories for the lizard species, reflecting unique estimated population densities and dispersal abilities. Ecological and demographic constraints seemingly lead to distinct and asynchronous responses to climatic regimes in the tropics, even among similarly distributed taxa. Incorporating such constraints is key to improve modeling of the distribution of biodiversity in the past and future.},
    }

  • J. Bro-Jorgensen, “Evolution of the ungulate dewlap: thermoregulation rather than sexual selection or predator deterrence?,” Frontiers in zoology, vol. 13, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Background: Dewlaps are iconic features of several ungulate species and, although a role in signalling has been postulated, their function remains largely unexplored. We recently failed to find any age-independent link between dewlap size and social status in the common eland (Tragelaphus oryx), pointing to the possibility that sexual selection may not be the primary cause of dewlap evolution in ungulates. Here I use a two-pronged approach to test hypotheses on the function of ungulate dewlaps: an interspecific comparative analysis of bovids and deer, and an intraspecific study of eland antelopes in the wild. Results: Across species, the presence of dewlaps in males was not found to be associated with sexual size dimorphism, a commonly used measure of the intensity of sexual selection. The presence of dewlaps was, however, linked to very large male body size (>400 kg), which agrees with a thermoregulatory function as lower surface/volume-ratio counteracts heat dissipation in large-bodied species. In eland antelopes, large dewlap size was associated with higher, rather than lower, incidence of claw-marks (independently of age), a result which speaks against the dewlap as a predator deterrent and rather indicates a predation cost of the structure. Conclusion: The findings suggest that, although an additional function in communication should not be ruled out, the dewlap of ungulates may contrast with that of lizards and birds in thermoregulation being a primary function.

    @article{ISI:000381570900001,
    Author = {Bro-Jorgensen, Jakob},
    Title = {Evolution of the ungulate dewlap: thermoregulation rather than sexual selection or predator deterrence?},
    Journal = {FRONTIERS IN ZOOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {13},
    Abstract = {Background: Dewlaps are iconic features of several ungulate species and, although a role in signalling has been postulated, their function remains largely unexplored. We recently failed to find any age-independent link between dewlap size and social status in the common eland (Tragelaphus oryx), pointing to the possibility that sexual selection may not be the primary cause of dewlap evolution in ungulates. Here I use a two-pronged approach to test hypotheses on the function of ungulate dewlaps: an interspecific comparative analysis of bovids and deer, and an intraspecific study of eland antelopes in the wild. Results: Across species, the presence of dewlaps in males was not found to be associated with sexual size dimorphism, a commonly used measure of the intensity of sexual selection. The presence of dewlaps was, however, linked to very large male body size (>400 kg), which agrees with a thermoregulatory function as lower surface/volume-ratio counteracts heat dissipation in large-bodied species. In eland antelopes, large dewlap size was associated with higher, rather than lower, incidence of claw-marks (independently of age), a result which speaks against the dewlap as a predator deterrent and rather indicates a predation cost of the structure. Conclusion: The findings suggest that, although an additional function in communication should not be ruled out, the dewlap of ungulates may contrast with that of lizards and birds in thermoregulation being a primary function.},
    }

  • T. Keren-Rotem, N. Levy, L. Wolf, A. Bouskila, and E. Geffen, “Alternative mating tactics in male chameleons (chamaeleo chamaeleon) are evident in both long-term body color and short-term courtship pattern,” Plos one, vol. 11, iss. 7, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Alternative mating tactics in males of various taxa are associated with body color, body size, and social status. Chameleons are known for their ability to change body color following immediate environmental or social stimuli. In this study, we examined whether the differential appearance of male common chameleon during the breeding season is indeed an expression of alternative mating tactics. We documented body color of males and used computer vision techniques to classify images of individuals into discrete color patterns associated with seasons, individual characteristics, and social contexts. Our findings revealed no differences in body color and color patterns among males during the non-breeding season. However, during the breeding season males appeared in several color displays, which reflected body size, social status, and behavioral patterns. Furthermore, smaller and younger males resembled the appearance of small females. Consequently, we suggest that long-term color change in males during the breeding season reflects male alternative mating tactics. Upon encounter with a receptive female, males rapidly alter their appearance to that of a specific brief courtship display, which reflects their social status. The females, however, copulated indiscriminately in respect to male color patterns. Thus, we suggest that the differential color patterns displayed by males during the breeding season are largely aimed at inter-male signaling.

    @article{ISI:000379508300051,
    Author = {Keren-Rotem, Tammy and Levy, Noga and Wolf, Lior and Bouskila, Amos and Geffen, Eli},
    Title = {Alternative Mating Tactics in Male Chameleons (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) Are Evident in Both Long-Term Body Color and Short-Term Courtship Pattern},
    Journal = {PLOS ONE},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {11},
    Number = {7},
    Abstract = {Alternative mating tactics in males of various taxa are associated with body color, body size, and social status. Chameleons are known for their ability to change body color following immediate environmental or social stimuli. In this study, we examined whether the differential appearance of male common chameleon during the breeding season is indeed an expression of alternative mating tactics. We documented body color of males and used computer vision techniques to classify images of individuals into discrete color patterns associated with seasons, individual characteristics, and social contexts. Our findings revealed no differences in body color and color patterns among males during the non-breeding season. However, during the breeding season males appeared in several color displays, which reflected body size, social status, and behavioral patterns. Furthermore, smaller and younger males resembled the appearance of small females. Consequently, we suggest that long-term color change in males during the breeding season reflects male alternative mating tactics. Upon encounter with a receptive female, males rapidly alter their appearance to that of a specific brief courtship display, which reflects their social status. The females, however, copulated indiscriminately in respect to male color patterns. Thus, we suggest that the differential color patterns displayed by males during the breeding season are largely aimed at inter-male signaling.},
    }

  • A. C. Algar and L. D. Mahler, “Area, climate heterogeneity, and the response of climate niches to ecological opportunity in island radiations of anolis lizards,” Global ecology and biogeography, vol. 25, iss. 7, SI, pp. 781-791, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Aim Rates of climate niche evolution underlie numerous fundamental ecological processes and patterns. However, while climate niche conservatism varies markedly among regions and clades, the source of this variation remains poorly understood. We tested whether ecological opportunity can stimulate radiation within climate niche space at biogeographic scales, predicting that rates of climate niche evolution will scale with geographic area and climate heterogeneity. Location Caribbean Methods We quantified two temperature axes (mean temperature and temperature seasonality of species’ localities) of the climate niche for 130 Anolis species on Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica and the northern and southern Lesser Antilles. Using a species-level phylogeny, we fitted macroevolutionary models that either constrained rates of climate niche evolution or allowed them to vary among regions. Next, we regressed region-specific evolutionary rates against area, species richness and climate heterogeneity. We evaluated whether results were robust to uncertainty in phylogenetic and biogeographic reconstructions and the assumed mode of evolution. Results For both niche axes, an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model that allowed the net rate of evolution (sigma(2)) to vary among island groups fit the data considerably better than a single-rate Brownian motion model. Nagelkerke pseudo-R-2 values of the fit of these OU models to mean temperature and seasonality axes were 0.43 and 0.66, respectively. Evolutionary rates for both axes were higher in larger areas, which also have more species. Only the rate of mean occupied temperature evolution was positively related to climate heterogeneity, and only after accounting for region size. Conclusions Rates of climate niche evolution scale consistently with the area available for radiation, but responses to climate heterogeneity vary among niche axes. For the mean temperature axis, climate heterogeneity generated additional opportunities for radiation, but for seasonality it did not. Overall, the physical setting in which a clade diversifies can influence where it falls on the evolutionary continuum, from climate niche conservatism to radiation.

    @article{ISI:000383516500003,
    Author = {Algar, Adam C. and Mahler, D. Luke},
    Title = {Area, climate heterogeneity, and the response of climate niches to ecological opportunity in island radiations of Anolis lizards},
    Journal = {GLOBAL ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {25},
    Number = {7, SI},
    Pages = {781-791},
    Abstract = {Aim Rates of climate niche evolution underlie numerous fundamental ecological processes and patterns. However, while climate niche conservatism varies markedly among regions and clades, the source of this variation remains poorly understood. We tested whether ecological opportunity can stimulate radiation within climate niche space at biogeographic scales, predicting that rates of climate niche evolution will scale with geographic area and climate heterogeneity. Location Caribbean Methods We quantified two temperature axes (mean temperature and temperature seasonality of species' localities) of the climate niche for 130 Anolis species on Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica and the northern and southern Lesser Antilles. Using a species-level phylogeny, we fitted macroevolutionary models that either constrained rates of climate niche evolution or allowed them to vary among regions. Next, we regressed region-specific evolutionary rates against area, species richness and climate heterogeneity. We evaluated whether results were robust to uncertainty in phylogenetic and biogeographic reconstructions and the assumed mode of evolution. Results For both niche axes, an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model that allowed the net rate of evolution (sigma(2)) to vary among island groups fit the data considerably better than a single-rate Brownian motion model. Nagelkerke pseudo-R-2 values of the fit of these OU models to mean temperature and seasonality axes were 0.43 and 0.66, respectively. Evolutionary rates for both axes were higher in larger areas, which also have more species. Only the rate of mean occupied temperature evolution was positively related to climate heterogeneity, and only after accounting for region size. Conclusions Rates of climate niche evolution scale consistently with the area available for radiation, but responses to climate heterogeneity vary among niche axes. For the mean temperature axis, climate heterogeneity generated additional opportunities for radiation, but for seasonality it did not. Overall, the physical setting in which a clade diversifies can influence where it falls on the evolutionary continuum, from climate niche conservatism to radiation.},
    }

  • J. Drury, J. Clavel, M. Manceau, and H. Morlon, “Estimating the effect of competition on trait evolution using maximum likelihood inference,” Systematic biology, vol. 65, iss. 4, pp. 700-710, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Many classical ecological and evolutionary theoretical frameworks posit that competition between species is an important selective force. For example, in adaptive radiations, resource competition between evolving lineages plays a role in driving phenotypic diversification and exploration of novel ecological space. Nevertheless, current models of trait evolution fit to phylogenies and comparative data sets are not designed to incorporate the effect of competition. The most advanced models in this direction are diversity-dependent models where evolutionary rates depend on lineage diversity. However, these models still treat changes in traits in one branch as independent of the value of traits on other branches, thus ignoring the effect of species similarity on trait evolution. Here, we consider a model where the evolutionary dynamics of traits involved in interspecific interactions are influenced by species similarity in trait values and where we can specify which lineages are in sympatry. We develop a maximum likelihood based approach to fit this model to combined phylogenetic and phenotypic data. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the approach accurately estimates the simulated parameter values across a broad range of parameter space. Additionally, we develop tools for specifying the biogeographic context in which trait evolution occurs. In order to compare models, we also apply these biogeographic methods to specify which lineages interact sympatrically for two diversity-dependent models. Finally, we fit these various models to morphological data from a classical adaptive radiation (Greater Antillean Anolis lizards). We show that models that account for competition and geography perform better than other models. The matching competition model is an important new tool for studying the influence of interspecific interactions, in particular competition, on phenotypic evolution. More generally, it constitutes a step toward a better integration of interspecific interactions in many ecological and evolutionary processes.

    @article{ISI:000381277700010,
    Author = {Drury, Jonathan and Clavel, Julien and Manceau, Marc and Morlon, Helene},
    Title = {Estimating the Effect of Competition on Trait Evolution Using Maximum Likelihood Inference},
    Journal = {SYSTEMATIC BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {65},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {700-710},
    Abstract = {Many classical ecological and evolutionary theoretical frameworks posit that competition between species is an important selective force. For example, in adaptive radiations, resource competition between evolving lineages plays a role in driving phenotypic diversification and exploration of novel ecological space. Nevertheless, current models of trait evolution fit to phylogenies and comparative data sets are not designed to incorporate the effect of competition. The most advanced models in this direction are diversity-dependent models where evolutionary rates depend on lineage diversity. However, these models still treat changes in traits in one branch as independent of the value of traits on other branches, thus ignoring the effect of species similarity on trait evolution. Here, we consider a model where the evolutionary dynamics of traits involved in interspecific interactions are influenced by species similarity in trait values and where we can specify which lineages are in sympatry. We develop a maximum likelihood based approach to fit this model to combined phylogenetic and phenotypic data. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the approach accurately estimates the simulated parameter values across a broad range of parameter space. Additionally, we develop tools for specifying the biogeographic context in which trait evolution occurs. In order to compare models, we also apply these biogeographic methods to specify which lineages interact sympatrically for two diversity-dependent models. Finally, we fit these various models to morphological data from a classical adaptive radiation (Greater Antillean Anolis lizards). We show that models that account for competition and geography perform better than other models. The matching competition model is an important new tool for studying the influence of interspecific interactions, in particular competition, on phenotypic evolution. More generally, it constitutes a step toward a better integration of interspecific interactions in many ecological and evolutionary processes.},
    }

  • F. Javier Zamora-Camacho, M. Virtudes Rubino-Hispan, S. Reguera, and G. Moreno-Rueda, “Does tail regeneration following autotomy restore lizard sprint speed? evidence from the lacertid psammodromus algirus,” Herpetological journal, vol. 26, iss. 3, p. 213+, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Tail autotomy is a widespread antipredator strategy among lizards, which consists of the capability of willingly detaching a portion of the tail in order to escape predator attacks. Nonetheless, tail autotomy has a number of costs, including reduced sprint speed which increases predation risk. However, lizards regenerate the tail following autotomy, although a regenerated tail is usually shorter and histologically different from the original tail. In the present work, we assess the effect of tail regeneration on sprint speed by comparing Psammodromus algirus lizards with intact and regenerated tails under controlled laboratory conditions. We found that sprint speed was similar in lizards with intact and regenerated tails. Therefore, tail regeneration following autotomy effectively restored sprint speed, although regenerated tails were shorter than intact ones. Thus, regenerating shorter tails could diminish anabolic costs with no negative consequences on flight ability.

    @article{ISI:000381740300004,
    Author = {Javier Zamora-Camacho, Francisco and Virtudes Rubino-Hispan, Maria and Reguera, Senda and Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio},
    Title = {Does tail regeneration following autotomy restore lizard sprint speed? Evidence from the lacertid Psammodromus algirus},
    Journal = {HERPETOLOGICAL JOURNAL},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {26},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {213+},
    Abstract = {Tail autotomy is a widespread antipredator strategy among lizards, which consists of the capability of willingly detaching a portion of the tail in order to escape predator attacks. Nonetheless, tail autotomy has a number of costs, including reduced sprint speed which increases predation risk. However, lizards regenerate the tail following autotomy, although a regenerated tail is usually shorter and histologically different from the original tail. In the present work, we assess the effect of tail regeneration on sprint speed by comparing Psammodromus algirus lizards with intact and regenerated tails under controlled laboratory conditions. We found that sprint speed was similar in lizards with intact and regenerated tails. Therefore, tail regeneration following autotomy effectively restored sprint speed, although regenerated tails were shorter than intact ones. Thus, regenerating shorter tails could diminish anabolic costs with no negative consequences on flight ability.},
    }

  • L. Sanz and J. J. Calvete, “Insights into the evolution of a snake venom multi-gene family from the genomic organization of echis ocellatus svmp genes,” Toxins, vol. 8, iss. 7, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The molecular events underlying the evolution of the Snake Venom Metalloproteinase (SVMP) family from an A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase (ADAM) ancestor remain poorly understood. Comparative genomics may provide decisive information to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this multi-locus toxin family. Here, we report the genomic organization of Echis ocellatus genes encoding SVMPs from the PII and PI classes. Comparisons between them and between these genes and the genomic structures of Anolis carolinensis ADAM28 and E. ocellatus PIII-SVMP EOC00089 suggest that insertions and deletions of intronic regions played key roles along the evolutionary pathway that shaped the current diversity within the multi-locus SVMP gene family. In particular, our data suggest that emergence of EOC00028-like PI-SVMP from an ancestral PII(e/d)-type SVMP involved splicing site mutations that abolished both the 3 1 splice AG acceptor site of intron 12 and the 5 1 splice GT donor site of intron 13

    @article{ISI:000380763800026,
    Author = {Sanz, Libia and Calvete, Juan J.},
    Title = {Insights into the Evolution of a Snake Venom Multi-Gene Family from the Genomic Organization of Echis ocellatus SVMP Genes},
    Journal = {TOXINS},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {8},
    Number = {7},
    Abstract = {The molecular events underlying the evolution of the Snake Venom Metalloproteinase (SVMP) family from an A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase (ADAM) ancestor remain poorly understood. Comparative genomics may provide decisive information to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this multi-locus toxin family. Here, we report the genomic organization of Echis ocellatus genes encoding SVMPs from the PII and PI classes. Comparisons between them and between these genes and the genomic structures of Anolis carolinensis ADAM28 and E. ocellatus PIII-SVMP EOC00089 suggest that insertions and deletions of intronic regions played key roles along the evolutionary pathway that shaped the current diversity within the multi-locus SVMP gene family. In particular, our data suggest that emergence of EOC00028-like PI-SVMP from an ancestral PII(e/d)-type SVMP involved splicing site mutations that abolished both the 3 1 splice AG acceptor site of intron 12 and the 5 1 splice GT donor site of intron 13},
    }

  • J. C. R. Cardoso, C. A. Bergqvist, R. C. Felix, and D. Larhammar, “Corticotropin-releasing hormone family evolution: five ancestral genes remain in some lineages,” Journal of molecular endocrinology, vol. 57, iss. 1, pp. 73-86, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The evolution of the peptide family consisting of corticotropin-releasing hormone ( CRH) and the three urocortins ( UCN1-3) has been puzzling due to uneven evolutionary rates. Distinct gene duplication scenarios have been proposed in relation to the two basal rounds of vertebrate genome doubling ( 2R) and the teleost fish-specific genome doubling ( 3R). By analyses of sequences and chromosomal regions, including many neighboring gene families, we show here that the vertebrate progenitor had two peptide genes that served as the founders of separate subfamilies. Then, 2R resulted in a total of five members: one subfamily consists of CRH1, CRH2, and UCN1. The other subfamily contains UCN2 and UCN3. All five peptide genes are present in the slowly evolving genomes of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae ( a lobe-finned fish), the spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus ( a basal ray-finned fish), and the elephant shark Callorhinchus milii ( a cartilaginous fish). The CRH2 gene has been lost independently in placental mammals and in teleost fish, but is present in birds ( except chicken), anole lizard, and the nonplacental mammals platypus and opossum. Teleost 3R resulted in an additional surviving duplicate only for crh1 in some teleosts including zebrafish ( crh1a and crh1b). We have previously reported that the two vertebrate CRH/UCN receptors arose in 2R and that CRHR1 was duplicated in 3R. Thus, we can now conclude that this peptide-receptor system was quite complex in the ancestor of the jawed vertebrates with five CRH/UCN peptides and two receptors, and that crh and crhr1 were duplicated in the teleost fish tetraploidization.

    @article{ISI:000380717500014,
    Author = {Cardoso, Joao C. R. and Bergqvist, Christina A. and Felix, Rute C. and Larhammar, Dan},
    Title = {Corticotropin-releasing hormone family evolution: five ancestral genes remain in some lineages},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {57},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {73-86},
    Abstract = {The evolution of the peptide family consisting of corticotropin-releasing hormone ( CRH) and the three urocortins ( UCN1-3) has been puzzling due to uneven evolutionary rates. Distinct gene duplication scenarios have been proposed in relation to the two basal rounds of vertebrate genome doubling ( 2R) and the teleost fish-specific genome doubling ( 3R). By analyses of sequences and chromosomal regions, including many neighboring gene families, we show here that the vertebrate progenitor had two peptide genes that served as the founders of separate subfamilies. Then, 2R resulted in a total of five members: one subfamily consists of CRH1, CRH2, and UCN1. The other subfamily contains UCN2 and UCN3. All five peptide genes are present in the slowly evolving genomes of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae ( a lobe-finned fish), the spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus ( a basal ray-finned fish), and the elephant shark Callorhinchus milii ( a cartilaginous fish). The CRH2 gene has been lost independently in placental mammals and in teleost fish, but is present in birds ( except chicken), anole lizard, and the nonplacental mammals platypus and opossum. Teleost 3R resulted in an additional surviving duplicate only for crh1 in some teleosts including zebrafish ( crh1a and crh1b). We have previously reported that the two vertebrate CRH/UCN receptors arose in 2R and that CRHR1 was duplicated in 3R. Thus, we can now conclude that this peptide-receptor system was quite complex in the ancestor of the jawed vertebrates with five CRH/UCN peptides and two receptors, and that crh and crhr1 were duplicated in the teleost fish tetraploidization.},
    }

  • M. Khabbazian, R. Kriebel, K. Rohe, and C. Ane, “Fast and accurate detection of evolutionary shifts in ornstein-uhlenbeck models,” Methods in ecology and evolution, vol. 7, iss. 7, pp. 811-824, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The detection of evolutionary shifts in trait evolution from extant taxa is motivated by the study of convergent evolution, or to correlate shifts in traits with habitat changes or with changes in other phenotypes. We propose here a phylogenetic lasso method to study trait evolution from comparative data and detect past changes in the expected mean trait values. We use the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, which can model a changing adaptive landscape over time and over lineages. Our method is very fast, running in minutes for hundreds of species, and can handle multiple traits. We also propose a phylogenetic Bayesian information criterion that accounts for the phylogenetic correlation between species, as well as for the complexity of estimating an unknown number of shifts at unknown locations in the phylogeny. This criterion does not suffer model overfitting and has high precision, so it offers a conservative alternative to other information criteria. Our re-analysis of Anolis lizard data suggests a more conservative scenario of morphological adaptation and convergence than previously proposed. Software is available on GitHub.

    @article{ISI:000379957400007,
    Author = {Khabbazian, Mohammad and Kriebel, Ricardo and Rohe, Karl and Ane, Cecile},
    Title = {Fast and accurate detection of evolutionary shifts in Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models},
    Journal = {METHODS IN ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {7},
    Number = {7},
    Pages = {811-824},
    Abstract = {The detection of evolutionary shifts in trait evolution from extant taxa is motivated by the study of convergent evolution, or to correlate shifts in traits with habitat changes or with changes in other phenotypes. We propose here a phylogenetic lasso method to study trait evolution from comparative data and detect past changes in the expected mean trait values. We use the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, which can model a changing adaptive landscape over time and over lineages. Our method is very fast, running in minutes for hundreds of species, and can handle multiple traits. We also propose a phylogenetic Bayesian information criterion that accounts for the phylogenetic correlation between species, as well as for the complexity of estimating an unknown number of shifts at unknown locations in the phylogeny. This criterion does not suffer model overfitting and has high precision, so it offers a conservative alternative to other information criteria. Our re-analysis of Anolis lizard data suggests a more conservative scenario of morphological adaptation and convergence than previously proposed. Software is available on GitHub.},
    }

  • M. Colombo, A. Indermaur, B. S. Meyer, and W. Salzburger, “Habitat use and its implications to functional morphology: niche partitioning and the evolution of locomotory morphology in lake tanganyikan cichlids (perciformes: cichlidae),” Biological journal of the linnean society, vol. 118, iss. 3, pp. 536-550, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Animal locomotory morphology, i.e. morphological features involved in locomotion, is under the influence of a diverse set of ecological and behavioral factors. In teleost fish, habitat choice and foraging strategy are major determinants of locomotory morphology. In this study, we assess the influence of habitat use and foraging strategy on important locomotory traits, namely the size of the pectoral and caudal fins and the weight of the pectoral fin muscles, as applied to one of the most astonishing cases of adaptive radiation: the species flock of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika. We also examine the course of niche partitioning along two main habitat axes, the benthic vs. limnetic and the sandy vs. rocky substrate axis. The results are then compared with available data on the cichlid adaptive radiation of neighbouring Lake Malawi. We find that pectoral fin size and muscle weight correlate with habitat use within the water column, as well as with substrate composition and foraging strategies. Niche partitioning along the benthic-limnetic axis in Lake Tanganyikan cichlids seems to follow a similar course as in Lake Malawi, while the course of habitat use with respect to substrate composition appears to differ between the cichlid assemblages of these two lakes. (C) 2016 The Linnean Society of London

    @article{ISI:000379783400008,
    Author = {Colombo, Marco and Indermaur, Adrian and Meyer, Britta S. and Salzburger, Walter},
    Title = {Habitat use and its implications to functional morphology: niche partitioning and the evolution of locomotory morphology in Lake Tanganyikan cichlids (Perciformes: Cichlidae)},
    Journal = {BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {118},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {536-550},
    Abstract = {Animal locomotory morphology, i.e. morphological features involved in locomotion, is under the influence of a diverse set of ecological and behavioral factors. In teleost fish, habitat choice and foraging strategy are major determinants of locomotory morphology. In this study, we assess the influence of habitat use and foraging strategy on important locomotory traits, namely the size of the pectoral and caudal fins and the weight of the pectoral fin muscles, as applied to one of the most astonishing cases of adaptive radiation: the species flock of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika. We also examine the course of niche partitioning along two main habitat axes, the benthic vs. limnetic and the sandy vs. rocky substrate axis. The results are then compared with available data on the cichlid adaptive radiation of neighbouring Lake Malawi. We find that pectoral fin size and muscle weight correlate with habitat use within the water column, as well as with substrate composition and foraging strategies. Niche partitioning along the benthic-limnetic axis in Lake Tanganyikan cichlids seems to follow a similar course as in Lake Malawi, while the course of habitat use with respect to substrate composition appears to differ between the cichlid assemblages of these two lakes. (C) 2016 The Linnean Society of London},
    }

  • R. Brandt, F. C. De Barros, C. Noronha, M. Jose Tulli, and T. Kohlsdorf, “Sexual differences in locomotor performance in tropidurus catalanensis lizards (squamata: tropiduridae) – body shape, size and limb musculature explain variation between males and females,” Biological journal of the linnean society, vol. 118, iss. 3, pp. 598-609, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Sexual dimorphism (SD) is the evolutionary outcome of selection acting differently on males and females. Several studies describe sexual differences in body size, although other morphological traits might be allometric between sexes and imply functional consequences. Here we test whether morphological differences between sexes in size and shape in the lizard Tropidurus catalanensis explain variation in performance of four locomotor traits. Our results show that males are larger than females and also exhibit longer limbs, longer muscles and larger muscle cross-sectional areas, while females have longer trunks and more sharped anterior claws; males outperform females in all locomotor performances measured. Sexual differences in sprinting and climbing is related with body size, and climbing performance is also explained by limb lengths, by differences in lengths and cross-sectional areas of specific muscles, and by interlimb distances. Between-sex differences in exertion are also related to SD, despite associations with sharper posterior claws that are independent of sex. Grasping performance, however, is associated with some muscle and morphological parameters that are not sexually dimorphic. Together our results suggest that morphology might be under sexual selection in T. catalanensis, given that better locomotor performance likely favours male lizards in typical activities of this polygenic species, such as territory defence and female acquisition. Moreover, the longer trunks that characterize females may confer more space to accommodate eggs. On the other hand, territory defence by males probably increases their exposure to predators, resulting in a synergistic effect of sexual and natural selection in the evolution of SD in T. catalanensis. (C) 2016 The Linnean Society of London

    @article{ISI:000379783400012,
    Author = {Brandt, Renata and De Barros, Fabio Cury and Noronha, Carolina and Jose Tulli, Maria and Kohlsdorf, Tiana},
    Title = {Sexual differences in locomotor performance in Tropidurus catalanensis lizards (Squamata: Tropiduridae) - body shape, size and limb musculature explain variation between males and females},
    Journal = {BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {118},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {598-609},
    Abstract = {Sexual dimorphism (SD) is the evolutionary outcome of selection acting differently on males and females. Several studies describe sexual differences in body size, although other morphological traits might be allometric between sexes and imply functional consequences. Here we test whether morphological differences between sexes in size and shape in the lizard Tropidurus catalanensis explain variation in performance of four locomotor traits. Our results show that males are larger than females and also exhibit longer limbs, longer muscles and larger muscle cross-sectional areas, while females have longer trunks and more sharped anterior claws; males outperform females in all locomotor performances measured. Sexual differences in sprinting and climbing is related with body size, and climbing performance is also explained by limb lengths, by differences in lengths and cross-sectional areas of specific muscles, and by interlimb distances. Between-sex differences in exertion are also related to SD, despite associations with sharper posterior claws that are independent of sex. Grasping performance, however, is associated with some muscle and morphological parameters that are not sexually dimorphic. Together our results suggest that morphology might be under sexual selection in T. catalanensis, given that better locomotor performance likely favours male lizards in typical activities of this polygenic species, such as territory defence and female acquisition. Moreover, the longer trunks that characterize females may confer more space to accommodate eggs. On the other hand, territory defence by males probably increases their exposure to predators, resulting in a synergistic effect of sexual and natural selection in the evolution of SD in T. catalanensis. (C) 2016 The Linnean Society of London},
    }

  • M. Altmanova, M. Rovatsos, L. Kratochvil, and M. J. Pokorna, “Minute y chromosomes and karyotype evolution in madagascan iguanas (squamata: iguania: opluridae),” Biological journal of the linnean society, vol. 118, iss. 3, pp. 618-633, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Iguanas (Pleurodonta) are predominantly distributed in the New World, but one previously cytogenetically understudied family, Opluridae, is endemic to Madagascar and the adjacent Grand Comoro archipelago. The aim of our contribution is to fill a gap in the cytogenetic understanding of this biogeographically puzzling lineage. Based on examination of six species, we found that oplurids are rather conservative in karyotype, which is composed of 36 chromosomes as in most iguanas. However, the species differ in the position of the nucleolar organizer region and heterochromatic blocks and in the accumulation and distribution of interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), which suggests cryptic intra-and interchromosomal rearrangements. All tested species share the XY sex-determining system homologous to most other iguana families. The oplurid Y chromosome is degenerated, very small in size but mostly euchromatic. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes composed of microsatellite motifs revealed variability among species in the accumulation of particular repeats on the Y chromosome. This variability accounts for the differences in the detection of sex chromosomes across the species of the family using comparative genome hybridization (CGH) technique. Our study demonstrates the limits of the commonly used CGH technique to uncover sex chromosomes even in organisms with heteromorphic and sequentially largely differentiated sex chromosomes. (C) 2016 The Linnean Society of London

    @article{ISI:000379783400014,
    Author = {Altmanova, Marie and Rovatsos, Michail and Kratochvil, Lukas and Pokorna, Martina Johnson},
    Title = {Minute Y chromosomes and karyotype evolution in Madagascan iguanas (Squamata: Iguania: Opluridae)},
    Journal = {BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {118},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {618-633},
    Abstract = {Iguanas (Pleurodonta) are predominantly distributed in the New World, but one previously cytogenetically understudied family, Opluridae, is endemic to Madagascar and the adjacent Grand Comoro archipelago. The aim of our contribution is to fill a gap in the cytogenetic understanding of this biogeographically puzzling lineage. Based on examination of six species, we found that oplurids are rather conservative in karyotype, which is composed of 36 chromosomes as in most iguanas. However, the species differ in the position of the nucleolar organizer region and heterochromatic blocks and in the accumulation and distribution of interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), which suggests cryptic intra-and interchromosomal rearrangements. All tested species share the XY sex-determining system homologous to most other iguana families. The oplurid Y chromosome is degenerated, very small in size but mostly euchromatic. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes composed of microsatellite motifs revealed variability among species in the accumulation of particular repeats on the Y chromosome. This variability accounts for the differences in the detection of sex chromosomes across the species of the family using comparative genome hybridization (CGH) technique. Our study demonstrates the limits of the commonly used CGH technique to uncover sex chromosomes even in organisms with heteromorphic and sequentially largely differentiated sex chromosomes. (C) 2016 The Linnean Society of London},
    }

  • M. Rovatsos, J. Vukic, M. Altmanova, M. J. Pokorna, J. Moravec, and L. Kratochvil, “Conservation of sex chromosomes in lacertid lizards,” Molecular ecology, vol. 25, iss. 13, pp. 3120-3126, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Sex chromosomes are believed to be stable in endotherms, but young and evolutionary unstable in most ectothermic vertebrates. Within lacertids, the widely radiated lizard group, sex chromosomes have been reported to vary in morphology and heterochromatinization, which may suggest turnovers during the evolution of the group. We compared the partial gene content of the Z-specific part of sex chromosomes across major lineages of lacertids and discovered a strong evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes. We can conclude that the common ancestor of lacertids, living around 70 million years ago (Mya), already had the same highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Molecular data demonstrating an evolutionary conservation of sex chromosomes have also been documented for iguanas and caenophidian snakes. It seems that differences in the evolutionary conservation of sex chromosomes in vertebrates do not reflect the distinction between endotherms and ectotherms, but rather between amniotes and anamniotes, or generally, the differences in the life history of particular lineages.

    @article{ISI:000378942200012,
    Author = {Rovatsos, Michail and Vukic, Jasna and Altmanova, Marie and Pokorna, Martina Johnson and Moravec, Jiri and Kratochvil, Lukas},
    Title = {Conservation of sex chromosomes in lacertid lizards},
    Journal = {MOLECULAR ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {25},
    Number = {13},
    Pages = {3120-3126},
    Abstract = {Sex chromosomes are believed to be stable in endotherms, but young and evolutionary unstable in most ectothermic vertebrates. Within lacertids, the widely radiated lizard group, sex chromosomes have been reported to vary in morphology and heterochromatinization, which may suggest turnovers during the evolution of the group. We compared the partial gene content of the Z-specific part of sex chromosomes across major lineages of lacertids and discovered a strong evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes. We can conclude that the common ancestor of lacertids, living around 70 million years ago (Mya), already had the same highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Molecular data demonstrating an evolutionary conservation of sex chromosomes have also been documented for iguanas and caenophidian snakes. It seems that differences in the evolutionary conservation of sex chromosomes in vertebrates do not reflect the distinction between endotherms and ectotherms, but rather between amniotes and anamniotes, or generally, the differences in the life history of particular lineages.},
    }

  • P. Szydlowski, J. P. Madej, and M. Mazurkiewicz-Kania, “Ultrastructure and distribution of chromatophores in the skin of the leopard gecko (eublepharis macularius),” Acta zoologica, vol. 97, iss. 3, pp. 370-375, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure and arrangement of pigment cells in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) skin to explain how wild-type coloration is formed. The study also attempted to explain, on a morphological level, how skin colour changes occur. Samples of leopard gecko skin were collected from wild-type coloration adult specimens. The morphology of pigmented cells was determined using light microscopy on haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections and in transmission electron microscopy. These studies indicate that skin of E.macularis contains xanthophores and melanophores but lacks iridophores and that this is probably related to nocturnal activity. The number and distribution of xanthophores and melanophores determines the skin colour and pigmentation pattern. The colour changes depend on the arrangement of characteristic protrusions of melanophores and the degree of filling them with melanosomes.

    @article{ISI:000378701000009,
    Author = {Szydlowski, Pawel and Madej, Jan P. and Mazurkiewicz-Kania, Marta},
    Title = {Ultrastructure and distribution of chromatophores in the skin of the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius)},
    Journal = {ACTA ZOOLOGICA},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {97},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {370-375},
    Abstract = {The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure and arrangement of pigment cells in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) skin to explain how wild-type coloration is formed. The study also attempted to explain, on a morphological level, how skin colour changes occur. Samples of leopard gecko skin were collected from wild-type coloration adult specimens. The morphology of pigmented cells was determined using light microscopy on haematoxylin and eosin (H\&E) stained sections and in transmission electron microscopy. These studies indicate that skin of E.macularis contains xanthophores and melanophores but lacks iridophores and that this is probably related to nocturnal activity. The number and distribution of xanthophores and melanophores determines the skin colour and pigmentation pattern. The colour changes depend on the arrangement of characteristic protrusions of melanophores and the degree of filling them with melanosomes.},
    }

  • M. Rovatsos, J. Vukic, and L. Kratochvil, “Mammalian x homolog acts as sex chromosome in lacertid lizards,” Heredity, vol. 117, iss. 1, pp. 8-13, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Among amniotes, squamate reptiles are especially variable in their mechanisms of sex determination; however, based largely on cytogenetic data, some lineages possess highly evolutionary stable sex chromosomes. The still very limited knowledge of the genetic content of squamate sex chromosomes precludes a reliable reconstruction of the evolutionary history of sex determination in this group and consequently in all amniotes. Female heterogamety with a degenerated W chromosome typifies the lizards of the family Lacertidae, the widely distributed Old World clade including several hundreds of species. From the liver transcriptome of the lacertid Takydromus sexlineatus female, we selected candidates for Z-specific genes as the loci lacking single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We validated the candidate genes through the comparison of the copy numbers in the female and male genomes of T. sexlineatus and another lacertid species, Lacerta agilis, by quantitative PCR that also proved to be a reliable technique for the molecular sexing of the studied species. We suggest that this novel approach is effective for the detection of Z-specific and X-specific genes in lineages with degenerated W, respectively Y chromosomes. The analyzed gene content of the Z chromosome revealed that lacertid sex chromosomes are not homologous with those of other reptiles including birds, but instead the genes have orthologs in the X-conserved region shared by viviparous mammals. It is possible that this part of the vertebrate genome was independently co-opted for the function of sex chromosomes in viviparous mammals and lacertids because of its content of genes involved in gonad differentiation.

    @article{ISI:000377495900002,
    Author = {Rovatsos, M. and Vukic, J. and Kratochvil, L.},
    Title = {Mammalian X homolog acts as sex chromosome in lacertid lizards},
    Journal = {HEREDITY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {117},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {8-13},
    Abstract = {Among amniotes, squamate reptiles are especially variable in their mechanisms of sex determination; however, based largely on cytogenetic data, some lineages possess highly evolutionary stable sex chromosomes. The still very limited knowledge of the genetic content of squamate sex chromosomes precludes a reliable reconstruction of the evolutionary history of sex determination in this group and consequently in all amniotes. Female heterogamety with a degenerated W chromosome typifies the lizards of the family Lacertidae, the widely distributed Old World clade including several hundreds of species. From the liver transcriptome of the lacertid Takydromus sexlineatus female, we selected candidates for Z-specific genes as the loci lacking single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We validated the candidate genes through the comparison of the copy numbers in the female and male genomes of T. sexlineatus and another lacertid species, Lacerta agilis, by quantitative PCR that also proved to be a reliable technique for the molecular sexing of the studied species. We suggest that this novel approach is effective for the detection of Z-specific and X-specific genes in lineages with degenerated W, respectively Y chromosomes. The analyzed gene content of the Z chromosome revealed that lacertid sex chromosomes are not homologous with those of other reptiles including birds, but instead the genes have orthologs in the X-conserved region shared by viviparous mammals. It is possible that this part of the vertebrate genome was independently co-opted for the function of sex chromosomes in viviparous mammals and lacertids because of its content of genes involved in gonad differentiation.},
    }

  • J. E. Deakin, M. J. Edwards, H. Patel, D. O’Meally, J. Lian, R. Stenhouse, S. Ryan, A. M. Livernois, B. Azad, C. E. Holleley, Q. Li, and A. Georges, “Anchoring genome sequence to chromosomes of the central bearded dragon (pogona vitticeps) enables reconstruction of ancestral squamate macrochromosomes and identifies sequence content of the z chromosome,” Bmc genomics, vol. 17, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Background: Squamates (lizards and snakes) are a speciose lineage of reptiles displaying considerable karyotypic diversity, particularly among lizards. Understanding the evolution of this diversity requires comparison of genome organisation between species. Although the genomes of several squamate species have now been sequenced, only the green anole lizard has any sequence anchored to chromosomes. There is only limited gene mapping data available for five other squamates. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the events that have led to extant squamate karyotypic diversity. The purpose of this study was to anchor the recently sequenced central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) genome to chromosomes to trace the evolution of squamate chromosomes. Assigning sequence to sex chromosomes was of particular interest for identifying candidate sex determining genes. Results: By using two different approaches to map conserved blocks of genes, we were able to anchor approximately 42 \% of the dragon genome sequence to chromosomes. We constructed detailed comparative maps between dragon, anole and chicken genomes, and where possible, made broader comparisons across Squamata using cytogenetic mapping information for five other species. We show that squamate macrochromosomes are relatively well conserved between species, supporting findings from previous molecular cytogenetic studies. Macrochromosome diversity between members of the Toxicofera clade has been generated by intrachromosomal, and a small number of interchromosomal, rearrangements. We reconstructed the ancestral squamate macrochromosomes by drawing upon comparative cytogenetic mapping data from seven squamate species and propose the events leading to the arrangements observed in representative species. In addition, we assigned over 8 Mbp of sequence containing 219 genes to the Z chromosome, providing a list of genes to begin testing as candidate sex determining genes. Conclusions: Anchoring of the dragon genome has provided substantial insight into the evolution of squamate genomes, enabling us to reconstruct ancestral macrochromosome arrangements at key positions in the squamate phylogeny, demonstrating that fusions between macrochromosomes or fusions of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes, have played an important role during the evolution of squamate genomes. Assigning sequence to the sex chromosomes has identified NR5A1 as a promising candidate sex determining gene in the dragon.

    @article{ISI:000377565800001,
    Author = {Deakin, Janine E. and Edwards, Melanie J. and Patel, Hardip and O'Meally, Denis and Lian, Jinmin and Stenhouse, Rachael and Ryan, Sam and Livernois, Alexandra M. and Azad, Bhumika and Holleley, Clare E. and Li, Qiye and Georges, Arthur},
    Title = {Anchoring genome sequence to chromosomes of the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) enables reconstruction of ancestral squamate macrochromosomes and identifies sequence content of the Z chromosome},
    Journal = {BMC GENOMICS},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {17},
    Abstract = {Background: Squamates (lizards and snakes) are a speciose lineage of reptiles displaying considerable karyotypic diversity, particularly among lizards. Understanding the evolution of this diversity requires comparison of genome organisation between species. Although the genomes of several squamate species have now been sequenced, only the green anole lizard has any sequence anchored to chromosomes. There is only limited gene mapping data available for five other squamates. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the events that have led to extant squamate karyotypic diversity. The purpose of this study was to anchor the recently sequenced central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) genome to chromosomes to trace the evolution of squamate chromosomes. Assigning sequence to sex chromosomes was of particular interest for identifying candidate sex determining genes. Results: By using two different approaches to map conserved blocks of genes, we were able to anchor approximately 42 \% of the dragon genome sequence to chromosomes. We constructed detailed comparative maps between dragon, anole and chicken genomes, and where possible, made broader comparisons across Squamata using cytogenetic mapping information for five other species. We show that squamate macrochromosomes are relatively well conserved between species, supporting findings from previous molecular cytogenetic studies. Macrochromosome diversity between members of the Toxicofera clade has been generated by intrachromosomal, and a small number of interchromosomal, rearrangements. We reconstructed the ancestral squamate macrochromosomes by drawing upon comparative cytogenetic mapping data from seven squamate species and propose the events leading to the arrangements observed in representative species. In addition, we assigned over 8 Mbp of sequence containing 219 genes to the Z chromosome, providing a list of genes to begin testing as candidate sex determining genes. Conclusions: Anchoring of the dragon genome has provided substantial insight into the evolution of squamate genomes, enabling us to reconstruct ancestral macrochromosome arrangements at key positions in the squamate phylogeny, demonstrating that fusions between macrochromosomes or fusions of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes, have played an important role during the evolution of squamate genomes. Assigning sequence to the sex chromosomes has identified NR5A1 as a promising candidate sex determining gene in the dragon.},
    }

  • A. M. Florio and C. J. Raxworthy, “A phylogeographic assessment of the malagasy giant chameleons (furcifer verrucosus and furcifer oustaleti),” Plos one, vol. 11, iss. 6, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The Malagasy giant chameleons (Furcifer oustaleti and Furcifer verrucosus) are sister species that are both broadly distributed in Madagascar, and also endemic to the island. These species are also morphologically similar and, because of this, have been frequently misidentified in the field. Previous studies have suggested that cryptic species are nested within this chameleon group, and two subspecies have been described in F. verrucosus. In this study, we utilized a phylogeographic approach to assess genetic diversification within these chameleons. This was accomplished by (1) identifying clades within each species supported by both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, (2) assessing divergence times between clades, and (3) testing for niche divergence or conservatism. We found that both F. oustaleti and F. verrucosus could be readily identified based on genetic data, and within each species, there are two well-supported clades. However, divergence times are not contemporary and spatial patterns are not congruent. Diversification within F. verrucosus occurred during the Plio-Pleistocene, and there is evidence for niche divergence between a southwestern and southeastern clade, in a region of Madagascar that shows no obvious landscape barriers to dispersal. Diversification in F. oustaleti occurred earlier in the Pliocene or Miocene, and niche conservatism is supported with two genetically distinct clades separated at the Sofia River in northwestern Madagascar. Divergence within F. verrucosus is most consistent with patterns expected from ecologically mediated speciation, whereas divergence in F. oustaleti most strongly matches the patterns expected from the riverine barrier hypothesis.

    @article{ISI:000377369700006,
    Author = {Florio, Antonia M. and Raxworthy, Christopher J.},
    Title = {A Phylogeographic Assessment of the Malagasy Giant Chameleons (Furcifer verrucosus and Furcifer oustaleti)},
    Journal = {PLOS ONE},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {11},
    Number = {6},
    Abstract = {The Malagasy giant chameleons (Furcifer oustaleti and Furcifer verrucosus) are sister species that are both broadly distributed in Madagascar, and also endemic to the island. These species are also morphologically similar and, because of this, have been frequently misidentified in the field. Previous studies have suggested that cryptic species are nested within this chameleon group, and two subspecies have been described in F. verrucosus. In this study, we utilized a phylogeographic approach to assess genetic diversification within these chameleons. This was accomplished by (1) identifying clades within each species supported by both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, (2) assessing divergence times between clades, and (3) testing for niche divergence or conservatism. We found that both F. oustaleti and F. verrucosus could be readily identified based on genetic data, and within each species, there are two well-supported clades. However, divergence times are not contemporary and spatial patterns are not congruent. Diversification within F. verrucosus occurred during the Plio-Pleistocene, and there is evidence for niche divergence between a southwestern and southeastern clade, in a region of Madagascar that shows no obvious landscape barriers to dispersal. Diversification in F. oustaleti occurred earlier in the Pliocene or Miocene, and niche conservatism is supported with two genetically distinct clades separated at the Sofia River in northwestern Madagascar. Divergence within F. verrucosus is most consistent with patterns expected from ecologically mediated speciation, whereas divergence in F. oustaleti most strongly matches the patterns expected from the riverine barrier hypothesis.},
    }

  • J. Bertoluci, “Fifteen years editorial,” Phyllomedusa, vol. 15, iss. 1, pp. 3-6, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000394198600001,
    Author = {Bertoluci, Jaime},
    Title = {Fifteen Years Editorial},
    Journal = {PHYLLOMEDUSA},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {15},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {3-6},
    }

  • D. M. Delaney, M. B. Lovern, and D. A. Warner, “Does reduced perch availability affect reproduction in the brown anole? an experimental test in the laboratory,” Journal of herpetology, vol. 50, iss. 2, pp. 227-232, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The availability of preferred habitat can have numerous effects on an individual’s behavior and physiology and, in turn, can affect fitness. In Anolis lizards, different species have evolved specific limb lengths that enable them to perform well in habitats with specific perch characteristics. Indeed, perch width and height have been major drivers in the morphological diversification in this genus. Despite the extensive work on Anolis limb length/perch width relationships, however, the availability of perches (a preferred habitat characteristic) influences aspects of fitness is poorly known. In this study, we housed captive male/female pairs of Brown Anoles (Anolis sagrei) in cages with high and low availabilities of perches and quantified the effect of perch availability on perch use and reproductive variables (egg production, egg mass, interegg interval, yolk steroids, egg hatching success). In the low-perch availability treatment, females spent less time on perches than did females in the high-perch availability treatment. Despite this effect on perch use, however, perch availability had little to no effect on reproduction. Egg mass and yolk testosterone concentrations increased over the reproductive season, but perch availability had no effect on any temporal changes in reproductive variables over time. Despite the importance of perch characteristics in shaping the evolution of Anolis lizards, we found little evidence that perch availability affects maternal reproductive investment in A. sagrei under controlled laboratory conditions.

    @article{ISI:000378766500007,
    Author = {Delaney, David M. and Lovern, Matthew B. and Warner, Daniel A.},
    Title = {Does Reduced Perch Availability Affect Reproduction in the Brown Anole? An Experimental Test in the Laboratory},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF HERPETOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {50},
    Number = {2},
    Pages = {227-232},
    Abstract = {The availability of preferred habitat can have numerous effects on an individual's behavior and physiology and, in turn, can affect fitness. In Anolis lizards, different species have evolved specific limb lengths that enable them to perform well in habitats with specific perch characteristics. Indeed, perch width and height have been major drivers in the morphological diversification in this genus. Despite the extensive work on Anolis limb length/perch width relationships, however, the availability of perches (a preferred habitat characteristic) influences aspects of fitness is poorly known. In this study, we housed captive male/female pairs of Brown Anoles (Anolis sagrei) in cages with high and low availabilities of perches and quantified the effect of perch availability on perch use and reproductive variables (egg production, egg mass, interegg interval, yolk steroids, egg hatching success). In the low-perch availability treatment, females spent less time on perches than did females in the high-perch availability treatment. Despite this effect on perch use, however, perch availability had little to no effect on reproduction. Egg mass and yolk testosterone concentrations increased over the reproductive season, but perch availability had no effect on any temporal changes in reproductive variables over time. Despite the importance of perch characteristics in shaping the evolution of Anolis lizards, we found little evidence that perch availability affects maternal reproductive investment in A. sagrei under controlled laboratory conditions.},
    }

  • E. M. Baruch, M. A. Manger, and J. L. Stynoski, “Ground anoles (anolis humilis) discriminate between aposematic and cryptic model insects,” Journal of herpetology, vol. 50, iss. 2, pp. 245-248, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Aposematic coloration allows predators to use visual cues to avoid eating potentially toxic or distasteful prey. Predators across many animal taxa actively avoid aposematically colored prey and remember distasteful brightly colored prey longer than cryptically colored prey. Lizards of many species are known to use aposematic coloration when foraging; however, most previous studies investigating the recognition of aposematic coloration by lizards have used live prey. This factor makes it difficult to determine whether lizards rely solely on visual cues or use a combination of sensory cues in prey selection. To determine whether anoles can select prey relying on only visual cues, we investigated the foraging response of Ground Anoles (Anolis humilis) to aposematic prey. By using clay models, we were able to remove any natural olfactory or behavioral cues that lizards may use in prey selection. We presented anoles with aposematically and cryptically colored insect models and found that lizards recognized and avoided aposematic models. This study demonstrates that A. humilis are able to use visual cues alone when selecting prey items. Our findings support previous work demonstrating that aposematic coloration is advantageous for prey, as it decreases the risk of attack by predators. The coloration also benefits predators, as they are able to recognize aposematic prey by sight alone, and avoid expending energy on an unpalatable meal.

    @article{ISI:000378766500010,
    Author = {Baruch, Ethan M. and Manger, Morgan A. and Stynoski, Jennifer L.},
    Title = {Ground Anoles (Anolis humilis) Discriminate between Aposematic and Cryptic Model Insects},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF HERPETOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {50},
    Number = {2},
    Pages = {245-248},
    Abstract = {Aposematic coloration allows predators to use visual cues to avoid eating potentially toxic or distasteful prey. Predators across many animal taxa actively avoid aposematically colored prey and remember distasteful brightly colored prey longer than cryptically colored prey. Lizards of many species are known to use aposematic coloration when foraging; however, most previous studies investigating the recognition of aposematic coloration by lizards have used live prey. This factor makes it difficult to determine whether lizards rely solely on visual cues or use a combination of sensory cues in prey selection. To determine whether anoles can select prey relying on only visual cues, we investigated the foraging response of Ground Anoles (Anolis humilis) to aposematic prey. By using clay models, we were able to remove any natural olfactory or behavioral cues that lizards may use in prey selection. We presented anoles with aposematically and cryptically colored insect models and found that lizards recognized and avoided aposematic models. This study demonstrates that A. humilis are able to use visual cues alone when selecting prey items. Our findings support previous work demonstrating that aposematic coloration is advantageous for prey, as it decreases the risk of attack by predators. The coloration also benefits predators, as they are able to recognize aposematic prey by sight alone, and avoid expending energy on an unpalatable meal.},
    }

  • L. Alibardi, “Immunolocalization of 5brdu long retaining labeled cells and macrophage infiltration in the scarring limb of lizard after limb amputation,” Tissue & cell, vol. 48, iss. 3, pp. 197-207, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    After limb amputation in lizards no regeneration occurs following massive inflammatory reaction. Light immunocytochemistry for CD68 and ultrastructural observations show that numerous macrophages persist for over 18 days post-amputation in the limb and fibroblasts producing high levels of collagen are present underneath a differentiating wound epidermis. Injections of 5BrdU for 1 week in normal lizards followed by a 4 weeks chase period indicate that most Long Retention Cells are present in the dense connectives of the dermis and inter-muscle septa, sparse cells in bone marrow and epidermis and scattered cells in muscle satellite cells. Most of the fibrocytes forming the scarring outgrowth of the amputated limb likely derive from the proliferation of dermal and inter-muscle fibrocytes after amputation. Differently from the tail where autotomous planes limit the extension of the damage, in the limb the injury produces massive tissue damage that favors intense and lasting inflammation. Numerous CD68 labeled macrophages likely stimulate fibroblast activation and rapid production of collagen fibrils underneath the wound epidermis. The latter does not form a growing apical region but rapidly differentiates into a mature epidermis so that no distal elongation of the limb occurs and a scar is instead formed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    @article{ISI:000376396200007,
    Author = {Alibardi, L.},
    Title = {Immunolocalization of 5BrdU long retaining labeled cells and macrophage infiltration in the scarring limb of lizard after limb amputation},
    Journal = {TISSUE \& CELL},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {48},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {197-207},
    Abstract = {After limb amputation in lizards no regeneration occurs following massive inflammatory reaction. Light immunocytochemistry for CD68 and ultrastructural observations show that numerous macrophages persist for over 18 days post-amputation in the limb and fibroblasts producing high levels of collagen are present underneath a differentiating wound epidermis. Injections of 5BrdU for 1 week in normal lizards followed by a 4 weeks chase period indicate that most Long Retention Cells are present in the dense connectives of the dermis and inter-muscle septa, sparse cells in bone marrow and epidermis and scattered cells in muscle satellite cells. Most of the fibrocytes forming the scarring outgrowth of the amputated limb likely derive from the proliferation of dermal and inter-muscle fibrocytes after amputation. Differently from the tail where autotomous planes limit the extension of the damage, in the limb the injury produces massive tissue damage that favors intense and lasting inflammation. Numerous CD68 labeled macrophages likely stimulate fibroblast activation and rapid production of collagen fibrils underneath the wound epidermis. The latter does not form a growing apical region but rapidly differentiates into a mature epidermis so that no distal elongation of the limb occurs and a scar is instead formed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
    }

  • D. O. Mesquita, G. C. Costa, G. R. Colli, T. B. Costa, D. B. Shepard, L. J. Vitt, and E. R. Pianka, “Life-history patterns of lizards of the world,” American naturalist, vol. 187, iss. 6, pp. 689-705, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Identification of mechanisms that promote variation in life-history traits is critical to understand the evolution of divergent reproductive strategies. Here we compiled a large life-history data set (674 lizard populations, representing 297 species from 263 sites globally) to test a number of hypotheses regarding the evolution of life-history traits in lizards. We found significant phylogenetic signal in most life-history traits, although phylogenetic signal was not particularly high. Climatic variables influenced the evolution of many traits, with clutch frequency being positively related to precipitation and clutches of tropical lizards being smaller than those of temperate species. This result supports the hypothesis that in tropical and less seasonal climates, many lizards tend to reproduce repeatedly throughout the season, producing smaller clutches during each reproductive episode. Our analysis also supported the hypothesis that viviparity has evolved in lizards as a response to cooler climates. Finally, we also found that variation in trait values explained by clade membership is unevenly distributed among lizard clades, with basal clades and a few younger clades showing the most variation. Our global analyses are largely consistent with life-history theory and previous results based on smaller and scattered data sets, suggesting that these patterns are remarkably consistent across geographic and taxonomic scales.

    @article{ISI:000376271400003,
    Author = {Mesquita, Daniel O. and Costa, Gabriel C. and Colli, Guarino R. and Costa, Tais B. and Shepard, Donald B. and Vitt, Laurie J. and Pianka, Eric R.},
    Title = {Life-History Patterns of Lizards of the World},
    Journal = {AMERICAN NATURALIST},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {187},
    Number = {6},
    Pages = {689-705},
    Abstract = {Identification of mechanisms that promote variation in life-history traits is critical to understand the evolution of divergent reproductive strategies. Here we compiled a large life-history data set (674 lizard populations, representing 297 species from 263 sites globally) to test a number of hypotheses regarding the evolution of life-history traits in lizards. We found significant phylogenetic signal in most life-history traits, although phylogenetic signal was not particularly high. Climatic variables influenced the evolution of many traits, with clutch frequency being positively related to precipitation and clutches of tropical lizards being smaller than those of temperate species. This result supports the hypothesis that in tropical and less seasonal climates, many lizards tend to reproduce repeatedly throughout the season, producing smaller clutches during each reproductive episode. Our analysis also supported the hypothesis that viviparity has evolved in lizards as a response to cooler climates. Finally, we also found that variation in trait values explained by clade membership is unevenly distributed among lizard clades, with basal clades and a few younger clades showing the most variation. Our global analyses are largely consistent with life-history theory and previous results based on smaller and scattered data sets, suggesting that these patterns are remarkably consistent across geographic and taxonomic scales.},
    }

  • D. M. Delaney and D. A. Warner, “Age- and sex-specific variations in microhabitat and macrohabitat use in a territorial lizard,” Behavioral ecology and sociobiology, vol. 70, iss. 6, pp. 981-991, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Animals should select microhabitats with features that enhance fitness. However, the fitness benefits of different habitats may vary across ages and between sexes. By quantifying microhabitat choice in relation to age or sex, as well as the specific fitness consequences of habitat selection, we can better understand the factors that shape the way organisms distribute themselves across landscapes. Studies of Anolis lizards have provided critical insights into population and community structure, but most studies have focused on interspecific variation in habitat use, rather than intraspecific patterns. We quantified habitat use of Anolis sagrei at two scales (microhabitat and macrohabitat) for males and females of two distinct age classes (juvenile vs adult). We show that age, sex, size, and macrohabitat have significant effects on how A. sagrei utilize available microhabitat and that age, sex, size, and season influence macrohabitat use. In addition, large individuals of both age classes had increased survival during the breeding season. However, body size did not influence overwinter survival, but lizards that used relatively low perches had increased overwinter survival. Overall, this study demonstrates that the complex variation in habitat use by A. sagrei is explained by interactions among age, sex, size, season, and habitat scale. Habitat choice behaviors can have important effects on fitness, yet optimal habitat may vary across ages and between sexes. In this paper, we quantified microhabitat and macrohabitat use of the brown anole lizard (Anolis sagrei) and subsequently estimated selection on these behaviors via mark recapture. We show that the complex variation in habitat use by A. sagrei is explained by interactions among age, sex, size, season, and habitat scale. In addition, body size influenced survival of both age classes during the breeding season but not over winter. However, lizards that used relatively low perches had increased overwinter survival. These findings provide new insights into the factors that shape the way these organisms distribute themselves across landscapes and provide a rare assessment of selection on behavioral traits.

    @article{ISI:000376122600015,
    Author = {Delaney, David M. and Warner, Daniel A.},
    Title = {Age- and sex-specific variations in microhabitat and macrohabitat use in a territorial lizard},
    Journal = {BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {70},
    Number = {6},
    Pages = {981-991},
    Abstract = {Animals should select microhabitats with features that enhance fitness. However, the fitness benefits of different habitats may vary across ages and between sexes. By quantifying microhabitat choice in relation to age or sex, as well as the specific fitness consequences of habitat selection, we can better understand the factors that shape the way organisms distribute themselves across landscapes. Studies of Anolis lizards have provided critical insights into population and community structure, but most studies have focused on interspecific variation in habitat use, rather than intraspecific patterns. We quantified habitat use of Anolis sagrei at two scales (microhabitat and macrohabitat) for males and females of two distinct age classes (juvenile vs adult). We show that age, sex, size, and macrohabitat have significant effects on how A. sagrei utilize available microhabitat and that age, sex, size, and season influence macrohabitat use. In addition, large individuals of both age classes had increased survival during the breeding season. However, body size did not influence overwinter survival, but lizards that used relatively low perches had increased overwinter survival. Overall, this study demonstrates that the complex variation in habitat use by A. sagrei is explained by interactions among age, sex, size, season, and habitat scale. Habitat choice behaviors can have important effects on fitness, yet optimal habitat may vary across ages and between sexes. In this paper, we quantified microhabitat and macrohabitat use of the brown anole lizard (Anolis sagrei) and subsequently estimated selection on these behaviors via mark recapture. We show that the complex variation in habitat use by A. sagrei is explained by interactions among age, sex, size, season, and habitat scale. In addition, body size influenced survival of both age classes during the breeding season but not over winter. However, lizards that used relatively low perches had increased overwinter survival. These findings provide new insights into the factors that shape the way these organisms distribute themselves across landscapes and provide a rare assessment of selection on behavioral traits.},
    }

  • D. F. Hughes, E. M. Walker, P. M. Gignac, A. Martinez, K. Negishi, C. S. Lieb, E. Greenbaum, and A. M. Khan, “Rescuing perishable neuroanatomical information from a threatened biodiversity hotspot: remote field methods for brain tissue preservation validated by cytoarchitectonic analysis, immunohistochemistry, and x-ray microcomputed tomography,” Plos one, vol. 11, iss. 5, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological, genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between structure and function, and revealed constraints and selective pressures that provide context about the evolution of complex behavior. Here, we report our field-testing of two commonly used laboratory-based techniques for brain preservation while on a collecting expedition in the Congo Basin and Albertine Rift, two poorly known regions associated with the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot. First, we found that transcardial perfusion fixation and long-term brain storage, conducted in remote field conditions with no access to cold storage laboratory equipment, had no observable impact on cytoarchitectural features of lizard brain tissue when compared to lizard brain tissue processed under laboratory conditions. Second, field-perfused brain tissue subjected to prolonged post-fixation remained readily compatible with subsequent immunohistochemical detection of neural antigens, with immunostaining that was comparable to that of laboratory-perfused brain tissue. Third, immersion-fixation of lizard brains, prepared under identical environmental conditions, was readily compatible with subsequent iodine-enhanced X-ray microcomputed tomography, which facilitated the non-destructive imaging of the intact brain within its skull. In summary, we have validated multiple approaches to preserving intact lizard brains in remote field conditions with limited access to supplies and a high degree of environmental exposure. This protocol should serve as a malleable framework for researchers attempting to rescue perishable and irreplaceable morphological and molecular data from regions of disappearing biodiversity. Our approach can be harnessed to extend the numbers of species being actively studied by the neuroscience community, by reducing some of the difficulty associated with acquiring brains of animal species that are not readily available in captivity.

    @article{ISI:000376291100106,
    Author = {Hughes, Daniel F. and Walker, Ellen M. and Gignac, Paul M. and Martinez, Anais and Negishi, Kenichiro and Lieb, Carl S. and Greenbaum, Eli and Khan, Arshad M.},
    Title = {Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information from a Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods for Brain Tissue Preservation Validated by Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, and X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography},
    Journal = {PLOS ONE},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {11},
    Number = {5},
    Abstract = {Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological, genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between structure and function, and revealed constraints and selective pressures that provide context about the evolution of complex behavior. Here, we report our field-testing of two commonly used laboratory-based techniques for brain preservation while on a collecting expedition in the Congo Basin and Albertine Rift, two poorly known regions associated with the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot. First, we found that transcardial perfusion fixation and long-term brain storage, conducted in remote field conditions with no access to cold storage laboratory equipment, had no observable impact on cytoarchitectural features of lizard brain tissue when compared to lizard brain tissue processed under laboratory conditions. Second, field-perfused brain tissue subjected to prolonged post-fixation remained readily compatible with subsequent immunohistochemical detection of neural antigens, with immunostaining that was comparable to that of laboratory-perfused brain tissue. Third, immersion-fixation of lizard brains, prepared under identical environmental conditions, was readily compatible with subsequent iodine-enhanced X-ray microcomputed tomography, which facilitated the non-destructive imaging of the intact brain within its skull. In summary, we have validated multiple approaches to preserving intact lizard brains in remote field conditions with limited access to supplies and a high degree of environmental exposure. This protocol should serve as a malleable framework for researchers attempting to rescue perishable and irreplaceable morphological and molecular data from regions of disappearing biodiversity. Our approach can be harnessed to extend the numbers of species being actively studied by the neuroscience community, by reducing some of the difficulty associated with acquiring brains of animal species that are not readily available in captivity.},
    }

  • E. D. Hutchins, W. L. Eckalbar, J. M. Wolter, M. Mangone, and K. Kusumi, “Differential expression of conserved and novel micrornas during tail regeneration in the lizard anolis carolinensis,” Bmc genomics, vol. 17, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Background: Lizards are evolutionarily the most closely related vertebrates to humans that can lose and regrow an entire appendage. Regeneration in lizards involves differential expression of hundreds of genes that regulate wound healing, musculoskeletal development, hormonal response, and embryonic morphogenesis. While microRNAs are able to regulate large groups of genes, their role in lizard regeneration has not been investigated. Results: MicroRNA sequencing of green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) regenerating tail and associated tissues revealed 350 putative novel and 196 known microRNA precursors. Eleven microRNAs were differentially expressed between the regenerating tail tip and base during maximum outgrowth (25 days post autotomy), including miR-133a, miR-133b, and miR-206, which have been reported to regulate regeneration and stem cell proliferation in other model systems. Three putative novel differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in the regenerating tail tip. Conclusions: Differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in the regenerating lizard tail, including known regulators of stem cell proliferation. The identification of 3 putative novel microRNAs suggests that regulatory networks, either conserved in vertebrates and previously uncharacterized or specific to lizards, are involved in regeneration. These findings suggest that differential regulation of microRNAs may play a role in coordinating the timing and expression of hundreds of genes involved in regeneration.

    @article{ISI:000376154300001,
    Author = {Hutchins, Elizabeth D. and Eckalbar, Walter L. and Wolter, Justin M. and Mangone, Marco and Kusumi, Kenro},
    Title = {Differential expression of conserved and novel microRNAs during tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis},
    Journal = {BMC GENOMICS},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {17},
    Abstract = {Background: Lizards are evolutionarily the most closely related vertebrates to humans that can lose and regrow an entire appendage. Regeneration in lizards involves differential expression of hundreds of genes that regulate wound healing, musculoskeletal development, hormonal response, and embryonic morphogenesis. While microRNAs are able to regulate large groups of genes, their role in lizard regeneration has not been investigated. Results: MicroRNA sequencing of green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) regenerating tail and associated tissues revealed 350 putative novel and 196 known microRNA precursors. Eleven microRNAs were differentially expressed between the regenerating tail tip and base during maximum outgrowth (25 days post autotomy), including miR-133a, miR-133b, and miR-206, which have been reported to regulate regeneration and stem cell proliferation in other model systems. Three putative novel differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in the regenerating tail tip. Conclusions: Differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in the regenerating lizard tail, including known regulators of stem cell proliferation. The identification of 3 putative novel microRNAs suggests that regulatory networks, either conserved in vertebrates and previously uncharacterized or specific to lizards, are involved in regeneration. These findings suggest that differential regulation of microRNAs may play a role in coordinating the timing and expression of hundreds of genes involved in regeneration.},
    }

  • T. Camarata, A. Howard, R. M. Elsey, S. Raza, A. O’Connor, B. Beatty, J. Conrad, N. Solounias, P. Chow, S. Mukta, and A. Vasilyev, “Postembryonic nephrogenesis and persistence of six2-expressing nephron progenitor cells in the reptilian kidney,” Plos one, vol. 11, iss. 5, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    New nephron formation (nephrogenesis) ceases in mammals around birth and is completely absent in adults. In contrast, postembryonic nephrogenesis is well documented in the mesonephric kidneys of fishes and amphibians. The transient mesonephros in reptiles (including birds) and mammals is replaced by the metanephros during embryogenesis. Thus, one may speculate that postembryonic nephrogenesis is restricted to the mesonephric kidney. Previous reports have suggested the metanephros of non-avian reptiles (hereafter reptiles) may continually form nephrons throughout life. We investigated the presence of adult nephrogenesis in reptiles by examining adult kidneys from several species including Trachemys scripta, Chrysemys picta, Boa constrictor, Tupinambis tegu, Anolis carolinensis, and Alligator mississipiensis among others. We found that all major reptilian groups (Testudines, Crocodylia, and Squamates) showed the presence of adult nephrogenesis. The total amount of nephrogenesis varied greatly between species with turtles displaying the highest density of nephrogenesis. In contrast, we were unable to detect adult nephrogenesis in monotremes, and in the iguanid A. carolinensis. Nephron progenitor cells express the transcription factor Six2, which in mammals, becomes downregulated as the progenitor cell population is exhausted and nephrogenesis ends. Using the alligator as a model, we were able to detect Six2-positive cap mesenchyme cells in the adult kidney, which spatially correlated with areas of nephrogenesis. These results suggest that the metanephric kidney of reptiles has maintained the ability to continually grow new nephrons during postembryonic life, a process lost early in mammalian evolution, likely due to the persistence of a Six2-expressing progenitor cell population.

    @article{ISI:000375676400014,
    Author = {Camarata, Troy and Howard, Alexis and Elsey, Ruth M. and Raza, Sarah and O'Connor, Alice and Beatty, Brian and Conrad, Jack and Solounias, Nikos and Chow, Priscilla and Mukta, Saima and Vasilyev, Aleksandr},
    Title = {Postembryonic Nephrogenesis and Persistence of Six2-Expressing Nephron Progenitor Cells in the Reptilian Kidney},
    Journal = {PLOS ONE},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {11},
    Number = {5},
    Abstract = {New nephron formation (nephrogenesis) ceases in mammals around birth and is completely absent in adults. In contrast, postembryonic nephrogenesis is well documented in the mesonephric kidneys of fishes and amphibians. The transient mesonephros in reptiles (including birds) and mammals is replaced by the metanephros during embryogenesis. Thus, one may speculate that postembryonic nephrogenesis is restricted to the mesonephric kidney. Previous reports have suggested the metanephros of non-avian reptiles (hereafter reptiles) may continually form nephrons throughout life. We investigated the presence of adult nephrogenesis in reptiles by examining adult kidneys from several species including Trachemys scripta, Chrysemys picta, Boa constrictor, Tupinambis tegu, Anolis carolinensis, and Alligator mississipiensis among others. We found that all major reptilian groups (Testudines, Crocodylia, and Squamates) showed the presence of adult nephrogenesis. The total amount of nephrogenesis varied greatly between species with turtles displaying the highest density of nephrogenesis. In contrast, we were unable to detect adult nephrogenesis in monotremes, and in the iguanid A. carolinensis. Nephron progenitor cells express the transcription factor Six2, which in mammals, becomes downregulated as the progenitor cell population is exhausted and nephrogenesis ends. Using the alligator as a model, we were able to detect Six2-positive cap mesenchyme cells in the adult kidney, which spatially correlated with areas of nephrogenesis. These results suggest that the metanephric kidney of reptiles has maintained the ability to continually grow new nephrons during postembryonic life, a process lost early in mammalian evolution, likely due to the persistence of a Six2-expressing progenitor cell population.},
    }

  • G. Fontanarrosa and V. Abdala, “Bone indicators of grasping hands in lizards,” Peerj, vol. 4, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Grasping is one of a few adaptive mechanisms that, in conjunction with clinging, hooking, arm swinging, adhering, and flying, allowed for incursion into the arboreal eco-space. Little research has been done that addresses grasping as an enhanced manual ability in non-mammalian tetrapods, with the exception of studies comparing the anatomy of muscle and tendon structure. Previous studies showed that grasping abilities allow exploitation for narrow branch habitats and that this adaptation has clear osteological consequences. The objective of this work is to ascertain the existence of morphometric descriptors in the hand skeleton of lizards related to grasping functionality. A morphological matrix was constructed using 51 morphometric variables in 278 specimens, from 24 genera and 13 families of Squamata. To reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to organize the original variables into a simpler system, three PCAs (Principal Component Analyses) were performed using the subsets of (1) carpal variables, (2) metacarpal variables, and (3) phalanges variables. The variables that demonstrated the most significant contributions to the construction of the PCA synthetic variables were then used in subsequent analyses. To explore which morphological variables better explain the variations in the functional setting, we ran Generalized Linear Models for the three different sets. This method allows us to model the morphology that enables a particular functional trait. Grasping was considered the only response variable, taking the value of 0 or 1, while the original variables retained by the PCAs were considered predictor variables. Our analyses yielded six variables associated with grasping abilities: two belong to the carpal bones, two belong to the metacarpals and two belong to the phalanges. Grasping in lizards can be performed with hands exhibiting at least two different independently originated combinations of bones. The first is a combination of a highly elongated centrale bone, reduced palmar sesamoid, divergence angles above 90 degrees, and slender metacarpal V and phalanges, such as exhibited by Anolis sp. and Tropidurus sp. The second includes an elongated centrale bone, lack of a palmar sesamoid, divergence angles above 90 degrees, and narrow metacarpal V and phalanges, as exhibited by geckos. Our data suggest that the morphological distinction between graspers and non-graspers is demonstrating the existence of ranges along the morphological continuum within which a new ability is generated. Our results support the hypothesis of the nested origin of grasping abilities within arboreality. Thus, the manifestation of grasping abilities as a response to locomotive selective pressure in the context of narrow-branch eco-spaces could also enable other grasping-dependent biological roles, such as prey handling.

    @article{ISI:000376488300005,
    Author = {Fontanarrosa, Gabriela and Abdala, Virginia},
    Title = {Bone indicators of grasping hands in lizards},
    Journal = {PEERJ},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {4},
    Abstract = {Grasping is one of a few adaptive mechanisms that, in conjunction with clinging, hooking, arm swinging, adhering, and flying, allowed for incursion into the arboreal eco-space. Little research has been done that addresses grasping as an enhanced manual ability in non-mammalian tetrapods, with the exception of studies comparing the anatomy of muscle and tendon structure. Previous studies showed that grasping abilities allow exploitation for narrow branch habitats and that this adaptation has clear osteological consequences. The objective of this work is to ascertain the existence of morphometric descriptors in the hand skeleton of lizards related to grasping functionality. A morphological matrix was constructed using 51 morphometric variables in 278 specimens, from 24 genera and 13 families of Squamata. To reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to organize the original variables into a simpler system, three PCAs (Principal Component Analyses) were performed using the subsets of (1) carpal variables, (2) metacarpal variables, and (3) phalanges variables. The variables that demonstrated the most significant contributions to the construction of the PCA synthetic variables were then used in subsequent analyses. To explore which morphological variables better explain the variations in the functional setting, we ran Generalized Linear Models for the three different sets. This method allows us to model the morphology that enables a particular functional trait. Grasping was considered the only response variable, taking the value of 0 or 1, while the original variables retained by the PCAs were considered predictor variables. Our analyses yielded six variables associated with grasping abilities: two belong to the carpal bones, two belong to the metacarpals and two belong to the phalanges. Grasping in lizards can be performed with hands exhibiting at least two different independently originated combinations of bones. The first is a combination of a highly elongated centrale bone, reduced palmar sesamoid, divergence angles above 90 degrees, and slender metacarpal V and phalanges, such as exhibited by Anolis sp. and Tropidurus sp. The second includes an elongated centrale bone, lack of a palmar sesamoid, divergence angles above 90 degrees, and narrow metacarpal V and phalanges, as exhibited by geckos. Our data suggest that the morphological distinction between graspers and non-graspers is demonstrating the existence of ranges along the morphological continuum within which a new ability is generated. Our results support the hypothesis of the nested origin of grasping abilities within arboreality. Thus, the manifestation of grasping abilities as a response to locomotive selective pressure in the context of narrow-branch eco-spaces could also enable other grasping-dependent biological roles, such as prey handling.},
    }

  • L. E. Rojas Murcia, J. E. Carvajal Cogollo, and J. A. Cabrejo Bello, “Reptiles from the seasonal dry forest the caribbean region: distribution of habitat and use of food resource,” Acta biologica colombiana, vol. 21, iss. 2, pp. 365-377, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    We assessed the horizontal distribution and use of the food resource of the reptile’s assemblage of the seasonal tropical dry forest in the North of the Caribbean region of Colombia, department of Cesar. Five fieldtrips of 12 days each were performed, sampling was diurnal and nocturnal, following a transect design replicated along different habitats including grasslands, edge and interior of forest. We performed descriptive analyzes of habitat use, using a profile of vegetation by each climatic period; we also did an analysis of amplitude and niche overlap. We recorded 38 species of 14 families of the Squamata order. Species distributed evenly between open and forested areas. Record of 31 categories of prey in 109 stomachs of six species snakes (61 stomachs) and seven of lizards (48 stomachs) with a percentage of empty stomachs of 38 \% was found. The preys of greater importance for the lizards were Coleoptera and Araneae and for snakes, amphibians. Most of the species presented a wide range of diet and between similar species, such as Anolis auratus and A. gaigei, found a similar use of resources. In summary, the assembly of reptiles presented a homogeneous distribution in the habitats evaluated (forested and open areas) and the food resource varied among the different species; the seasonality of the area plays a fundamental role on the structure of this reptile assembly with less abundance during the dry season in both, open and forested habitats.

    @article{ISI:000376679100005,
    Author = {Rojas Murcia, Luis Eduardo and Carvajal Cogollo, Juan E. and Cabrejo Bello, Javier Alejandro},
    Title = {Reptiles from the Seasonal Dry Forest the Caribbean Region: Distribution of Habitat and use of Food Resource},
    Journal = {ACTA BIOLOGICA COLOMBIANA},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {21},
    Number = {2},
    Pages = {365-377},
    Abstract = {We assessed the horizontal distribution and use of the food resource of the reptile's assemblage of the seasonal tropical dry forest in the North of the Caribbean region of Colombia, department of Cesar. Five fieldtrips of 12 days each were performed, sampling was diurnal and nocturnal, following a transect design replicated along different habitats including grasslands, edge and interior of forest. We performed descriptive analyzes of habitat use, using a profile of vegetation by each climatic period; we also did an analysis of amplitude and niche overlap. We recorded 38 species of 14 families of the Squamata order. Species distributed evenly between open and forested areas. Record of 31 categories of prey in 109 stomachs of six species snakes (61 stomachs) and seven of lizards (48 stomachs) with a percentage of empty stomachs of 38 \% was found. The preys of greater importance for the lizards were Coleoptera and Araneae and for snakes, amphibians. Most of the species presented a wide range of diet and between similar species, such as Anolis auratus and A. gaigei, found a similar use of resources. In summary, the assembly of reptiles presented a homogeneous distribution in the habitats evaluated (forested and open areas) and the food resource varied among the different species; the seasonality of the area plays a fundamental role on the structure of this reptile assembly with less abundance during the dry season in both, open and forested habitats.},
    }

  • R. M. Dores, L. Liang, P. Davis, A. L. Thomas, and B. Petko, “Melanocortin receptors: evolution of ligand selectivity for melanocortin peptides,” Journal of molecular endocrinology, vol. 56, iss. 4, p. T119-T133, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The evolution of the melanocortin receptors (MCRs) is linked to the evolution of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), the melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs), and their common precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). The origin of the MCRs and POMC appears to be grounded in the early radiation of the ancestral protochordates. During the genome duplications that have occurred during the evolution of the chordates, the organization plan for POMC was established, and features that have been retained include, the high conservation of the amino acid sequences of alpha-MSH and ACTH, and the presence of the HFRW MCR activation motif in all of the melanocortin peptides (i.e. ACTH, alpha-MSH, beta-MSH, gamma-MSH, and delta-MSH). For the MCRs, the chordate genome duplication events resulted in the proliferation of paralogous receptor genes, and a divergence in ligand selectivity. While most gnathostome MCRs can be activated by either ACTH or the MSHs, teleost and tetrapod MC2R orthologs can only be activated by ACTH. The appearance of the accessory protein, MRAP1, paralleled the emergence of teleost and tetrapods MC2R ligand selectivity, and the dependence of these orthologs on MRAP1 for trafficking to the plasma membrane. The accessory protein, MRAP2, does not affect MC2R ligand selectivity, but does influence the functionality of MC4R orthologs. In this regard, the roles that these accessory proteins may play in the physiology of the five MCRs (i.e. MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R) are discussed.

    @article{ISI:000380717100011,
    Author = {Dores, Robert M. and Liang, Liang and Davis, Perry and Thomas, Alexa L. and Petko, Bogdana},
    Title = {Melanocortin receptors: evolution of ligand selectivity for melanocortin peptides},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {T119-T133},
    Abstract = {The evolution of the melanocortin receptors (MCRs) is linked to the evolution of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), the melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs), and their common precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). The origin of the MCRs and POMC appears to be grounded in the early radiation of the ancestral protochordates. During the genome duplications that have occurred during the evolution of the chordates, the organization plan for POMC was established, and features that have been retained include, the high conservation of the amino acid sequences of alpha-MSH and ACTH, and the presence of the HFRW MCR activation motif in all of the melanocortin peptides (i.e. ACTH, alpha-MSH, beta-MSH, gamma-MSH, and delta-MSH). For the MCRs, the chordate genome duplication events resulted in the proliferation of paralogous receptor genes, and a divergence in ligand selectivity. While most gnathostome MCRs can be activated by either ACTH or the MSHs, teleost and tetrapod MC2R orthologs can only be activated by ACTH. The appearance of the accessory protein, MRAP1, paralleled the emergence of teleost and tetrapods MC2R ligand selectivity, and the dependence of these orthologs on MRAP1 for trafficking to the plasma membrane. The accessory protein, MRAP2, does not affect MC2R ligand selectivity, but does influence the functionality of MC4R orthologs. In this regard, the roles that these accessory proteins may play in the physiology of the five MCRs (i.e. MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R) are discussed.},
    }

  • K. M. Winchell, G. R. Reynolds, S. R. Prado-Irwin, A. R. Puente-Rolon, and L. J. Revell, “Phenotypic shifts in urban areas in the tropical lizard anolis cristatellus,” Evolution, vol. 70, iss. 5, pp. 1009-1022, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Urbanization is an increasingly important dimension of global change, and urban areas likely impose significant natural selection on the species that reside within them. Although many species of plants and animals can survive in urban areas, so far relatively little research has investigated whether such populations have adapted (in an evolutionary sense) to their newfound milieu. Even less of this work has taken place in tropical regions, many of which have experienced dramatic growth and intensification of urbanization in recent decades. In the present study, we focus on the neotropical lizard, Anolis cristatellus. We tested whether lizard ecology and morphology differ between urban and natural areas in three of the most populous municipalities on the island of Puerto Rico. We found that environmental conditions including temperature, humidity, and substrate availability differ dramatically between neighboring urban and natural areas. We also found that lizards in urban areas use artificial substrates a large proportion of the time, and that these substrates tend to be broader than substrates in natural forest. Finally, our morphological data showed that lizards in urban areas have longer limbs relative to their body size, as well as more subdigital scales called lamellae, when compared to lizards from nearby forested habitats. This shift in phenotype is exactly in the direction predicted based on habitat differences between our urban and natural study sites, combined with our results on how substrates are being used by lizards in these areas. Findings from a common-garden rearing experiment using individuals from one of our three pairs of populations provide evidence that trait differences between urban and natural sites may be genetically based. Taken together, our data suggest that anoles in urban areas are under significant differential natural selection and may be evolutionarily adapting to their human-modified environments.

    @article{ISI:000378946600005,
    Author = {Winchell, Kristin M. and Reynolds, R. Graham and Prado-Irwin, Sofia R. and Puente-Rolon, Alberto R. and Revell, Liam J.},
    Title = {Phenotypic shifts in urban areas in the tropical lizard Anolis cristatellus},
    Journal = {EVOLUTION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {70},
    Number = {5},
    Pages = {1009-1022},
    Abstract = {Urbanization is an increasingly important dimension of global change, and urban areas likely impose significant natural selection on the species that reside within them. Although many species of plants and animals can survive in urban areas, so far relatively little research has investigated whether such populations have adapted (in an evolutionary sense) to their newfound milieu. Even less of this work has taken place in tropical regions, many of which have experienced dramatic growth and intensification of urbanization in recent decades. In the present study, we focus on the neotropical lizard, Anolis cristatellus. We tested whether lizard ecology and morphology differ between urban and natural areas in three of the most populous municipalities on the island of Puerto Rico. We found that environmental conditions including temperature, humidity, and substrate availability differ dramatically between neighboring urban and natural areas. We also found that lizards in urban areas use artificial substrates a large proportion of the time, and that these substrates tend to be broader than substrates in natural forest. Finally, our morphological data showed that lizards in urban areas have longer limbs relative to their body size, as well as more subdigital scales called lamellae, when compared to lizards from nearby forested habitats. This shift in phenotype is exactly in the direction predicted based on habitat differences between our urban and natural study sites, combined with our results on how substrates are being used by lizards in these areas. Findings from a common-garden rearing experiment using individuals from one of our three pairs of populations provide evidence that trait differences between urban and natural sites may be genetically based. Taken together, our data suggest that anoles in urban areas are under significant differential natural selection and may be evolutionarily adapting to their human-modified environments.},
    }

  • M. Medina, J. B. Fernandez, P. Charruau, F. Mendez de la Cruz, and N. Ibarguengoytia, “Vulnerability to climate change of anolis allisoni in the mangrove habitats of banco chinchorro islands, mexico,” Journal of thermal biology, vol. 58, pp. 8-14, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    As niche specialist species, lizards from tropical environments are characterized by a low tolerance and high physiological sensitivity to temperature changes. The extent of vulnerability to thermal changes depends on the lizard’s physiological plasticity to adjust the environmental changes. Herein we studied the thermal biology of Anolis allisoni, an endemic arboreal lizard from the tropical islands of the Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve, Mexico, carried out during April and May 2012 and April 2014. We report field body (T-b) and preferred body temperatures in the laboratory (T-pref), operative temperatures (T-e) and restriction of hours of activity. Anolis allisoni showed high and identical T-b and T-pref (33 degrees C), not significantly different than the mean T-e (32.15 degrees C). The effectiveness of thermoregulation (E = -0.30) and the analysis of hours of restriction suggested that the high temperatures of T-e (40-62.5 degrees C) registered at midday (from 12:00 to 15:00) of A. allisoni habitat are hostile and force lizards to take refuge during a period of 3 h of their daily time of activity. The scarcity of opportunities to find alternative refuges for thermoregulation in Banco Chinchorro point out the vulnerability of A. allisoni and the risk of local extinction when considering future predictions of increase in global environmental temperatures. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    @article{ISI:000376833000002,
    Author = {Medina, Marlin and Fernandez, Jimena B. and Charruau, Pierre and Mendez de la Cruz, Fausto and Ibarguengoytia, Nora},
    Title = {Vulnerability to climate change of Anolis allisoni in the mangrove habitats of Banco Chinchorro Islands, Mexico},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF THERMAL BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {58},
    Pages = {8-14},
    Abstract = {As niche specialist species, lizards from tropical environments are characterized by a low tolerance and high physiological sensitivity to temperature changes. The extent of vulnerability to thermal changes depends on the lizard's physiological plasticity to adjust the environmental changes. Herein we studied the thermal biology of Anolis allisoni, an endemic arboreal lizard from the tropical islands of the Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve, Mexico, carried out during April and May 2012 and April 2014. We report field body (T-b) and preferred body temperatures in the laboratory (T-pref), operative temperatures (T-e) and restriction of hours of activity. Anolis allisoni showed high and identical T-b and T-pref (33 degrees C), not significantly different than the mean T-e (32.15 degrees C). The effectiveness of thermoregulation (E = -0.30) and the analysis of hours of restriction suggested that the high temperatures of T-e (40-62.5 degrees C) registered at midday (from 12:00 to 15:00) of A. allisoni habitat are hostile and force lizards to take refuge during a period of 3 h of their daily time of activity. The scarcity of opportunities to find alternative refuges for thermoregulation in Banco Chinchorro point out the vulnerability of A. allisoni and the risk of local extinction when considering future predictions of increase in global environmental temperatures. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.},
    }

  • H. D. Akashi, A. Cadiz Diaz, S. Shigenobu, T. Makino, and M. Kawata, “Differentially expressed genes associated with adaptation to different thermal environments in three sympatric cuban anolis lizards,” Molecular ecology, vol. 25, iss. 10, pp. 2273-2285, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    How animals achieve evolutionary adaptation to different thermal environments is an important issue for evolutionary biology as well as for biodiversity conservation in the context of recent global warming. In Cuba, three sympatric species of Anolis lizards (Anolis allogus, A. homolechis and A. sagrei) inhabit different thermal microhabitats, thereby providing an excellent opportunity to examine how they have adapted to different environmental temperatures. Here, we performed RNA-seq on the brain, liver and skin tissues from these three species to analyse their transcriptional responses at two different temperatures. In total, we identified 400, 816 and 781 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two temperatures in A. allogus, A. homolechis and A. sagrei, respectively. Only 62 of these DEGs were shared across the three species, indicating that global transcriptional responses have diverged among these species. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that large numbers of ribosomal protein genes were DEGs in the warm-adapted A. homolechis, suggesting that the upregulation of protein synthesis is an important physiological mechanism in the adaptation of this species to hotter environments. GO analysis also showed that GO terms associated with circadian regulation were enriched in all three species. A gene associated with circadian regulation, Nr1d1, was detected as a DEG with opposite expression patterns between the cool-adapted A. allogus and the hot-adapted A. sagrei. Because the environmental temperature fluctuates more widely in open habitats than in forests throughout the day, the circadian thermoregulation could also be important for adaptation to distinct thermal habitats.

    @article{ISI:000377024200013,
    Author = {Akashi, Hiroshi D. and Cadiz Diaz, Antonio and Shigenobu, Shuji and Makino, Takashi and Kawata, Masakado},
    Title = {Differentially expressed genes associated with adaptation to different thermal environments in three sympatric Cuban Anolis lizards},
    Journal = {MOLECULAR ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {25},
    Number = {10},
    Pages = {2273-2285},
    Abstract = {How animals achieve evolutionary adaptation to different thermal environments is an important issue for evolutionary biology as well as for biodiversity conservation in the context of recent global warming. In Cuba, three sympatric species of Anolis lizards (Anolis allogus, A. homolechis and A. sagrei) inhabit different thermal microhabitats, thereby providing an excellent opportunity to examine how they have adapted to different environmental temperatures. Here, we performed RNA-seq on the brain, liver and skin tissues from these three species to analyse their transcriptional responses at two different temperatures. In total, we identified 400, 816 and 781 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two temperatures in A. allogus, A. homolechis and A. sagrei, respectively. Only 62 of these DEGs were shared across the three species, indicating that global transcriptional responses have diverged among these species. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that large numbers of ribosomal protein genes were DEGs in the warm-adapted A. homolechis, suggesting that the upregulation of protein synthesis is an important physiological mechanism in the adaptation of this species to hotter environments. GO analysis also showed that GO terms associated with circadian regulation were enriched in all three species. A gene associated with circadian regulation, Nr1d1, was detected as a DEG with opposite expression patterns between the cool-adapted A. allogus and the hot-adapted A. sagrei. Because the environmental temperature fluctuates more widely in open habitats than in forests throughout the day, the circadian thermoregulation could also be important for adaptation to distinct thermal habitats.},
    }

  • S. M. Weir, A. Knox, L. G. Talent, T. A. Anderson, and C. J. Salice, “Direct and indirect effects of petroleum production activities on the western fence lizard (sceloporus occidentalis) as a surrogate for the dunes sagebrush lizard (sceloporus arenicolus),” Environmental toxicology and chemistry, vol. 35, iss. 5, pp. 1276-1283, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) is a habitat specialist of conservation concern limited to shin oak sand dune systems of New Mexico and Texas (USA). Because much of the dunes sagebrush lizard’s habitat occurs in areas of high oil and gas production, there may be direct and indirect effects of these activities. The congeneric Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) was used as a surrogate species to determine direct effects of 2 contaminants associated with oil and gas drilling activities in the Permian Basin (NM and TX, USA): herbicide formulations (Krovar and Quest) and hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). Lizards were exposed to 2 concentrations of H2S (30 ppm or 90 ppm) and herbicide formulations (1 x or 2 x label application rate) representing high-end exposure scenarios. Sublethal behavioral endpoints were evaluated, including sprint speed and time to prey detection and capture. Neither H2S nor herbicide formulations caused significant behavioral effects compared to controls. To understand potential indirect effects of oil and gas drilling on the prey base, terrestrial invertebrate biomass and order diversity were quantified at impacted sites to compare with nonimpacted sites. A significant decrease in biomass was found at impacted sites, but no significant effects on diversity. The results suggest little risk from direct toxic effects, but the potential for indirect effects should be further explored. (C) 2015 SETAC

    @article{ISI:000374547500027,
    Author = {Weir, Scott M. and Knox, Ami and Talent, Larry G. and Anderson, Todd A. and Salice, Christopher J.},
    Title = {DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECTS OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES ON THE WESTERN FENCE LIZARD (SCELOPORUS OCCIDENTALIS) AS A SURROGATE FOR THE DUNES SAGEBRUSH LIZARD (SCELOPORUS ARENICOLUS)},
    Journal = {ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {35},
    Number = {5},
    Pages = {1276-1283},
    Abstract = {The dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) is a habitat specialist of conservation concern limited to shin oak sand dune systems of New Mexico and Texas (USA). Because much of the dunes sagebrush lizard's habitat occurs in areas of high oil and gas production, there may be direct and indirect effects of these activities. The congeneric Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) was used as a surrogate species to determine direct effects of 2 contaminants associated with oil and gas drilling activities in the Permian Basin (NM and TX, USA): herbicide formulations (Krovar and Quest) and hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). Lizards were exposed to 2 concentrations of H2S (30 ppm or 90 ppm) and herbicide formulations (1 x or 2 x label application rate) representing high-end exposure scenarios. Sublethal behavioral endpoints were evaluated, including sprint speed and time to prey detection and capture. Neither H2S nor herbicide formulations caused significant behavioral effects compared to controls. To understand potential indirect effects of oil and gas drilling on the prey base, terrestrial invertebrate biomass and order diversity were quantified at impacted sites to compare with nonimpacted sites. A significant decrease in biomass was found at impacted sites, but no significant effects on diversity. The results suggest little risk from direct toxic effects, but the potential for indirect effects should be further explored. (C) 2015 SETAC},
    }

  • J. A. Ramos and R. A. Peters, “Dragon wars: movement-based signalling by australian agamid lizards in relation to species ecology,” Austral ecology, vol. 41, iss. 3, pp. 302-315, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    It is evident that the environment has the potential to affect animal communication strategies. Species from diverse taxonomic groups using signals from different modalities are known to generate signals that suit the structure of their habitat in order to maximize efficiency. Studies of acoustically communicating species dominate the literature, but visual signals are also tailored to local conditions. There is now increasing evidence that dynamic visual signals, in the form of movement-based displays, are also influenced by habitat characteristics. Australia’s dragon lizards (Family: Agamidae) employ such dynamic signals in a variety of contexts but are particularly common in territory defence. With a few notable exceptions, the signalling behaviour of this group has been relatively overlooked, and the knowledge that does exist is contained in scientific papers focused on other topics or unpublished accounts from herpetologists. In this review, we collated information on the signalling behaviour of these animals and determined that 34 of the 78 species use movement-based signalling. This number is likely to be an underestimate, as knowledge of the signalling behaviour of many species is lacking. The richly contrasting environments of Australia inhabited by these lizards provide considerable variation in ecological context, so our second objective was to place known signalling behaviour in the context of species ecology. After controlling for phylogeny, we found that broad habitat classifications do not strongly influence the likelihood of motion signalling, and specific motor patterns are not more likely to occur in particular microhabitats. We conclude by suggesting that fully understanding the motion signalling behaviour of Australia’s agamids will require documenting the displays of species for which there are no data, while taking into account the high variability existing within motor patterns and considering in detail the environmental context under which signalling takes place.

    @article{ISI:000375083600009,
    Author = {Ramos, Jose Antonio and Peters, Richard Anthony},
    Title = {Dragon wars: Movement-based signalling by Australian agamid lizards in relation to species ecology},
    Journal = {AUSTRAL ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {41},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {302-315},
    Abstract = {It is evident that the environment has the potential to affect animal communication strategies. Species from diverse taxonomic groups using signals from different modalities are known to generate signals that suit the structure of their habitat in order to maximize efficiency. Studies of acoustically communicating species dominate the literature, but visual signals are also tailored to local conditions. There is now increasing evidence that dynamic visual signals, in the form of movement-based displays, are also influenced by habitat characteristics. Australia's dragon lizards (Family: Agamidae) employ such dynamic signals in a variety of contexts but are particularly common in territory defence. With a few notable exceptions, the signalling behaviour of this group has been relatively overlooked, and the knowledge that does exist is contained in scientific papers focused on other topics or unpublished accounts from herpetologists. In this review, we collated information on the signalling behaviour of these animals and determined that 34 of the 78 species use movement-based signalling. This number is likely to be an underestimate, as knowledge of the signalling behaviour of many species is lacking. The richly contrasting environments of Australia inhabited by these lizards provide considerable variation in ecological context, so our second objective was to place known signalling behaviour in the context of species ecology. After controlling for phylogeny, we found that broad habitat classifications do not strongly influence the likelihood of motion signalling, and specific motor patterns are not more likely to occur in particular microhabitats. We conclude by suggesting that fully understanding the motion signalling behaviour of Australia's agamids will require documenting the displays of species for which there are no data, while taking into account the high variability existing within motor patterns and considering in detail the environmental context under which signalling takes place.},
    }

  • F. Javier Zamora-Camacho, S. Reguera, and G. Moreno-Rueda, “Thermoregulation in the lizard psammodromus algirus along a 2200-m elevational gradient in sierra nevada (spain),” International journal of biometeorology, vol. 60, iss. 5, pp. 687-697, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Achieving optimal body temperature maximizes animal fitness. Since ambient temperature may limit ectotherm thermal performance, it can be constrained in too cold or hot environments. In this sense, elevational gradients encompass contrasting thermal environments. In thermally pauperized elevations, ectotherms may either show adaptations or suboptimal body temperatures. Also, reproductive condition may affect thermal needs. Herein, we examined different thermal ecology and physiology capabilities of the lizard Psammodromus algirus along a 2200-m elevational gradient. We measured field (T-b) and laboratory-preferred (T-pref) body temperatures of lizards with different reproductive conditions, as well as ambient (T-a) and copper-model operative temperature (T-e), which we used to determine thermal quality of the habitat (d(e)), accuracy (d(b)), and effectiveness of thermoregulation (d(e)-d(b)) indexes. We detected no T-b trend in elevation, while T-a constrained T-b only at high elevations. Moreover, while T-a decreased more than 7 A degrees C with elevation, T-pref dropped only 0.6 A degrees C, although significantly. Notably, low-elevation lizards faced excess temperature (T-e > T-pref). Notably, d(e) was best at middle elevations, followed by high elevations, and poorest at low elevations. Nonetheless, regarding microhabitat, high-elevation d(e) was more suitable in sun-exposed microhabitats, which may increase exposition to predators, and at midday, which may limit daily activity. As for gender, d(b) and d(e)-d(b) were better in females than in males. In conclusion, P. algirus seems capable to face a wide thermal range, which probably contributes to its extensive corology and makes it adaptable to climate changes.

    @article{ISI:000374305900006,
    Author = {Javier Zamora-Camacho, Francisco and Reguera, Senda and Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio},
    Title = {Thermoregulation in the lizard Psammodromus algirus along a 2200-m elevational gradient in Sierra Nevada (Spain)},
    Journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOMETEOROLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {60},
    Number = {5},
    Pages = {687-697},
    Abstract = {Achieving optimal body temperature maximizes animal fitness. Since ambient temperature may limit ectotherm thermal performance, it can be constrained in too cold or hot environments. In this sense, elevational gradients encompass contrasting thermal environments. In thermally pauperized elevations, ectotherms may either show adaptations or suboptimal body temperatures. Also, reproductive condition may affect thermal needs. Herein, we examined different thermal ecology and physiology capabilities of the lizard Psammodromus algirus along a 2200-m elevational gradient. We measured field (T-b) and laboratory-preferred (T-pref) body temperatures of lizards with different reproductive conditions, as well as ambient (T-a) and copper-model operative temperature (T-e), which we used to determine thermal quality of the habitat (d(e)), accuracy (d(b)), and effectiveness of thermoregulation (d(e)-d(b)) indexes. We detected no T-b trend in elevation, while T-a constrained T-b only at high elevations. Moreover, while T-a decreased more than 7 A degrees C with elevation, T-pref dropped only 0.6 A degrees C, although significantly. Notably, low-elevation lizards faced excess temperature (T-e > T-pref). Notably, d(e) was best at middle elevations, followed by high elevations, and poorest at low elevations. Nonetheless, regarding microhabitat, high-elevation d(e) was more suitable in sun-exposed microhabitats, which may increase exposition to predators, and at midday, which may limit daily activity. As for gender, d(b) and d(e)-d(b) were better in females than in males. In conclusion, P. algirus seems capable to face a wide thermal range, which probably contributes to its extensive corology and makes it adaptable to climate changes.},
    }

  • J. Garcia-Porta, H. E. Morales, E. Gomez-Diaz, R. Sindaco, and S. Carranza, “Patterns of diversification in islands: a comparative study across three gecko genera in the socotra archipelago,” Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, vol. 98, pp. 288-299, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    In this study we used the complete fauna of geckos of the Socotra Archipelago to test whether the three gecko genera co-occurring in the islands (Pristurus, Hemidactylus and Haemodracon) produced similar outcomes of morphological and climatic diversification. To test this, we produced a time-calibrated tree of 346 geckos including all 16 endemic species of the archipelago and 26 potential close-relatives in the continent. Our dating estimates revealed that most of the diversity of geckos in the archipelago was the consequence of in situ diversification. However not all genera shared similar patterns of diversification. While in Hemidactylus and Haemodracon this involved great differences in body size and low levels of climatic diversification (mostly involving sympatric distributions), an opposite pattern appeared in Pristurus in which most of the diversification involved shifts in climatic envelopes (mostly involving allopatric and parapatric distributions) but almost no size differentiation. Consistently with this, Pristurus was the only genus in which rates of size diversification in islands were substantially lower than in the continent. This illustrates how different groups can greatly differ in their patterns of intra-island diversification and highlights the importance of taxon-dependent factors at determining different patterns of diversification in the same insular context. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    @article{ISI:000374206900027,
    Author = {Garcia-Porta, Joan and Morales, Hernan E. and Gomez-Diaz, Elena and Sindaco, Roberto and Carranza, Salvador},
    Title = {Patterns of diversification in islands: A comparative study across three gecko genera in the Socotra Archipelago},
    Journal = {MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS AND EVOLUTION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {98},
    Pages = {288-299},
    Abstract = {In this study we used the complete fauna of geckos of the Socotra Archipelago to test whether the three gecko genera co-occurring in the islands (Pristurus, Hemidactylus and Haemodracon) produced similar outcomes of morphological and climatic diversification. To test this, we produced a time-calibrated tree of 346 geckos including all 16 endemic species of the archipelago and 26 potential close-relatives in the continent. Our dating estimates revealed that most of the diversity of geckos in the archipelago was the consequence of in situ diversification. However not all genera shared similar patterns of diversification. While in Hemidactylus and Haemodracon this involved great differences in body size and low levels of climatic diversification (mostly involving sympatric distributions), an opposite pattern appeared in Pristurus in which most of the diversification involved shifts in climatic envelopes (mostly involving allopatric and parapatric distributions) but almost no size differentiation. Consistently with this, Pristurus was the only genus in which rates of size diversification in islands were substantially lower than in the continent. This illustrates how different groups can greatly differ in their patterns of intra-island diversification and highlights the importance of taxon-dependent factors at determining different patterns of diversification in the same insular context. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.},
    }

  • M. E. McNamara, P. J. Orr, S. L. Kearns, L. Alcala, P. Anadon, and E. Penalver, “Reconstructing carotenoid-based and structural coloration in fossil skin,” Current biology, vol. 26, iss. 8, pp. 1075-1082, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Evidence of original coloration in fossils provides insights into the visual communication strategies used by ancient animals and the functional evolution of coloration over time {[}1-7]. Hitherto, all reconstructions of the colors of reptile integument and the plumage of fossil birds and feathered dinosaurs have been of melanin-based coloration {[}1-6]. Extant animals also use other mechanisms for producing color {[}8], but these have not been identified in fossils. Here we report the first examples of carotenoid-based coloration in the fossil record, and of structural coloration in fossil integument. The fossil skin, from a 10 million-year-old colubrid snake from the Late Miocene Libros Lagerstatte (Teruel, Spain) {[}9, 10], preserves dermal pigment cells (chromatophores)-xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores-in calcium phosphate. Comparison with chromatophore abundance and position in extant reptiles {[}11-15] indicates that the fossil snake was pale-colored in ventral regions; dorsal and lateral regions were green with brown-black and yellow-green transverse blotches. Such coloration most likely functioned in substrate matching and intraspecific signaling. Skin replicated in authigenic minerals is not uncommon in exceptionally preserved fossils {[}16, 17], and dermal pigment cells generate coloration in numerous reptile, amphibian, and fish taxa today {[}18]. Our discovery thus represents a new means by which to reconstruct the original coloration of exceptionally preserved fossil vertebrates.

    @article{ISI:000375339700027,
    Author = {McNamara, Maria E. and Orr, Patrick J. and Kearns, Stuart L. and Alcala, Luis and Anadon, Pere and Penalver, Enrique},
    Title = {Reconstructing Carotenoid-Based and Structural Coloration in Fossil Skin},
    Journal = {CURRENT BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {26},
    Number = {8},
    Pages = {1075-1082},
    Abstract = {Evidence of original coloration in fossils provides insights into the visual communication strategies used by ancient animals and the functional evolution of coloration over time {[}1-7]. Hitherto, all reconstructions of the colors of reptile integument and the plumage of fossil birds and feathered dinosaurs have been of melanin-based coloration {[}1-6]. Extant animals also use other mechanisms for producing color {[}8], but these have not been identified in fossils. Here we report the first examples of carotenoid-based coloration in the fossil record, and of structural coloration in fossil integument. The fossil skin, from a 10 million-year-old colubrid snake from the Late Miocene Libros Lagerstatte (Teruel, Spain) {[}9, 10], preserves dermal pigment cells (chromatophores)-xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores-in calcium phosphate. Comparison with chromatophore abundance and position in extant reptiles {[}11-15] indicates that the fossil snake was pale-colored in ventral regions; dorsal and lateral regions were green with brown-black and yellow-green transverse blotches. Such coloration most likely functioned in substrate matching and intraspecific signaling. Skin replicated in authigenic minerals is not uncommon in exceptionally preserved fossils {[}16, 17], and dermal pigment cells generate coloration in numerous reptile, amphibian, and fish taxa today {[}18]. Our discovery thus represents a new means by which to reconstruct the original coloration of exceptionally preserved fossil vertebrates.},
    }

  • G. Norval, S. R. Goldberg, and J. J. Mao, “The reproductive cycle of the brown anole (anolis sagrei), an invasive lizard species in taiwan (vol 19, pg 75, 2012),” Russian journal of herpetology, vol. 23, iss. 2, p. 102, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000382515000003,
    Author = {Norval, G. and Goldberg, S. R. and Mao, J. J.},
    Title = {The reproductive cycle of the brown anole (Anolis sagrei), an invasive lizard species in Taiwan (vol 19, pg 75, 2012)},
    Journal = {RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF HERPETOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {23},
    Number = {2},
    Pages = {102},
    }

  • M. S. Lattanzio and D. B. Miles, “Trophic niche divergence among colour morphs that exhibit alternative mating tactics,” Royal society open science, vol. 3, iss. 4, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Discrete colour morphs associated with alternative mating tactics are assumed to be ecologically equivalent. Yet suites of behaviours linked with reproduction can also favour habitat segregation and exploitation of different prey among morphs. By contrast, trophic polymorphisms are usually attributed to morphs exhibiting habitat or prey selectivity. An alternative hypothesis is that habitat variation generates a trophic polymorphism driven by differences in morph reproductive behaviour, the spatial dispersion of morphs in a landscape and their exposure to different prey types. In this scenario, morphs are allowed to vary in habitat or diet selectivity (e.g. specialist or generalist) as they do in behaviour, rather than being assumed to exhibit equivalent levels of ecological specialization. We test this hypothesis using male Urosaurus ornatus lizards that exhibit a discrete dewlap colour polymorphism that reflects alternative mating tactics. We found blue morphs specialize on prey at higher trophic levels, yellow males display plasticity in trophic and morphological attributes and orange males are trophic generalists. Our results also demonstrate that morph diet differences are enhanced in resource-limited habitats. We conclude that discrete behavioural morphs may also diverge in morphology and trophic niche. Jointly, these processes may enhance speciation rates in colour polymorphic taxa.

    @article{ISI:000377969500002,
    Author = {Lattanzio, Matthew S. and Miles, Donald B.},
    Title = {Trophic niche divergence among colour morphs that exhibit alternative mating tactics},
    Journal = {ROYAL SOCIETY OPEN SCIENCE},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {3},
    Number = {4},
    Abstract = {Discrete colour morphs associated with alternative mating tactics are assumed to be ecologically equivalent. Yet suites of behaviours linked with reproduction can also favour habitat segregation and exploitation of different prey among morphs. By contrast, trophic polymorphisms are usually attributed to morphs exhibiting habitat or prey selectivity. An alternative hypothesis is that habitat variation generates a trophic polymorphism driven by differences in morph reproductive behaviour, the spatial dispersion of morphs in a landscape and their exposure to different prey types. In this scenario, morphs are allowed to vary in habitat or diet selectivity (e.g. specialist or generalist) as they do in behaviour, rather than being assumed to exhibit equivalent levels of ecological specialization. We test this hypothesis using male Urosaurus ornatus lizards that exhibit a discrete dewlap colour polymorphism that reflects alternative mating tactics. We found blue morphs specialize on prey at higher trophic levels, yellow males display plasticity in trophic and morphological attributes and orange males are trophic generalists. Our results also demonstrate that morph diet differences are enhanced in resource-limited habitats. We conclude that discrete behavioural morphs may also diverge in morphology and trophic niche. Jointly, these processes may enhance speciation rates in colour polymorphic taxa.},
    }

  • M. Costantini, G. Greif, F. Alvarez-Valin, and G. Bernardi, “The anolis lizard genome: an amniote genome without isochores?,” Genome biology and evolution, vol. 8, iss. 4, pp. 1048-1055, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Two articles published 5 years ago concluded that the genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis is an amniote genome without isochores. This claim was apparently contradicting previous results on the general presence of an isochore organization in all vertebrate genomes tested (including Anolis). In this investigation, we demonstrate that the Anolis genome is indeed heterogeneous in base composition, since its macrochromosomes comprise isochores mainly from the L2 and H1 families (a moderately GC-poor and a moderately GC-rich family, respectively), and since the majority of the sequenced microchromosomes consists of H1 isochores. These families are associated with different features of genome structure, including gene density and compositional correlations (e.g., GC3 vs flanking sequence GC and intron GC), as in the case of mammalian and avian genomes. Moreover, the assembled Anolis chromosomes have an enormous number of gaps, which could be due to sequencing problems in GC-rich regions of the genome. In conclusion, the Anolis genome is no exception to the general rule of an isochore organization in the genomes of vertebrates (and other eukaryotes).

    @article{ISI:000376126400008,
    Author = {Costantini, Maria and Greif, Gonzalo and Alvarez-Valin, Fernando and Bernardi, Giorgio},
    Title = {The Anolis Lizard Genome: An Amniote Genome without Isochores?},
    Journal = {GENOME BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {8},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {1048-1055},
    Abstract = {Two articles published 5 years ago concluded that the genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis is an amniote genome without isochores. This claim was apparently contradicting previous results on the general presence of an isochore organization in all vertebrate genomes tested (including Anolis). In this investigation, we demonstrate that the Anolis genome is indeed heterogeneous in base composition, since its macrochromosomes comprise isochores mainly from the L2 and H1 families (a moderately GC-poor and a moderately GC-rich family, respectively), and since the majority of the sequenced microchromosomes consists of H1 isochores. These families are associated with different features of genome structure, including gene density and compositional correlations (e.g., GC3 vs flanking sequence GC and intron GC), as in the case of mammalian and avian genomes. Moreover, the assembled Anolis chromosomes have an enormous number of gaps, which could be due to sequencing problems in GC-rich regions of the genome. In conclusion, the Anolis genome is no exception to the general rule of an isochore organization in the genomes of vertebrates (and other eukaryotes).},
    }

  • A. B. D’Angiolella, J. Klaczko, M. T. Rodrigues, and T. C. S. Avila-Pires, “Hemipenial morphology and diversity in south american anoles (squamata: dactyloidae),” Canadian journal of zoology, vol. 94, iss. 4, pp. 251-256, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Hemipenial morphology has provided useful characters to improve species identification and phylogenetic relationships in squamates. Here we provide hemipenial description and illustration of 13 South American anoles. At generic and specific levels, differences are mainly related to shape and ornamentation; intraspecific variation is low. An asulcate process, present in the hemipenis of most anole species studied, was highly variable among species and may be a useful taxonomic character in hemipenial morphology of this group.

    @article{ISI:000375952500002,
    Author = {D'Angiolella, A. B. and Klaczko, J. and Rodrigues, M. T. and Avila-Pires, T. C. S.},
    Title = {Hemipenial morphology and diversity in South American anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae)},
    Journal = {CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {94},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {251-256},
    Abstract = {Hemipenial morphology has provided useful characters to improve species identification and phylogenetic relationships in squamates. Here we provide hemipenial description and illustration of 13 South American anoles. At generic and specific levels, differences are mainly related to shape and ornamentation; intraspecific variation is low. An asulcate process, present in the hemipenis of most anole species studied, was highly variable among species and may be a useful taxonomic character in hemipenial morphology of this group.},
    }

  • A. A. Mauro and B. C. Jayne, “Perch compliance and experience affect destination choice of brown tree snakes (boiga irregularis),” Zoology, vol. 119, iss. 2, pp. 113-118, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Arboreal animals often encounter branches with variable diameters that are highly correlated with stiffness, but how surface compliance affects the perch choice of animals is poorly understood. We used artificial branches to test the effects of different diameters and compliance on the choice between two destinations for twenty brown tree snakes as they bridged gaps. When both destinations were rigid, the diameters of the surfaces did not affect perch choice. However, with increased experience snakes developed a preference for a rigid, large-diameter perch compared to a compliant, small-diameter perch that collapsed under loads that were a small fraction of the weight of the snake. In hundreds of trials, with only one exception, the snakes proceeded to crawl entirely onto all rigid perches after first touching them, whereas the snakes commonly withdrew from the compliant perch even after touching it so lightly that it did not collapse. Hence, both tactile and visual cues appear to influence how these animals select a destination while crossing a gap. The preference for the rigid, large-diameter perch compared to the compliant, small-diameter perch developed mainly from short-term learning during three successive trials per testing session per individual. Furthermore, a preference for large diameters did not persist in the final treatment which used a rigid, large-diameter perch and a rigid, small-diameter perch. Hence, brown tree snakes appeared to be able to form short-term associations between the perch appearance and stiffness, the latter of which may have been determined via tactile sensory input. (C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

    @article{ISI:000374364700004,
    Author = {Mauro, A. Alexander and Jayne, C. Bruce},
    Title = {Perch compliance and experience affect destination choice of brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis)},
    Journal = {ZOOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {119},
    Number = {2},
    Pages = {113-118},
    Abstract = {Arboreal animals often encounter branches with variable diameters that are highly correlated with stiffness, but how surface compliance affects the perch choice of animals is poorly understood. We used artificial branches to test the effects of different diameters and compliance on the choice between two destinations for twenty brown tree snakes as they bridged gaps. When both destinations were rigid, the diameters of the surfaces did not affect perch choice. However, with increased experience snakes developed a preference for a rigid, large-diameter perch compared to a compliant, small-diameter perch that collapsed under loads that were a small fraction of the weight of the snake. In hundreds of trials, with only one exception, the snakes proceeded to crawl entirely onto all rigid perches after first touching them, whereas the snakes commonly withdrew from the compliant perch even after touching it so lightly that it did not collapse. Hence, both tactile and visual cues appear to influence how these animals select a destination while crossing a gap. The preference for the rigid, large-diameter perch compared to the compliant, small-diameter perch developed mainly from short-term learning during three successive trials per testing session per individual. Furthermore, a preference for large diameters did not persist in the final treatment which used a rigid, large-diameter perch and a rigid, small-diameter perch. Hence, brown tree snakes appeared to be able to form short-term associations between the perch appearance and stiffness, the latter of which may have been determined via tactile sensory input. (C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.},
    }

  • L. Alibardi, “Localization of proliferating cells in the inter-vertebral region of the developing and adult vertebrae of lizards in relation to growth and regeneration,” Anatomical record-advances in integrative anatomy and evolutionary biology, vol. 299, iss. 4, pp. 461-473, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    New cartilaginous tissues in lizards is formed during the regeneration of the tail or after vertebral damage. In order to understand the origin of new cartilaginous cells in the embryo and after injury of adult vertebrae we have studied the distribution of proliferating cartilaginous cells in the vertebral column of embryos and adults of the lizard Anolis lineatopus using autoradiography for H3-thymidine and light and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry for 5BrdU. Proliferating sclerotomal cells initially surround the notochord in a segmental pattern and give rise to the chondrocytes of the vertebral centrum that replace the original chordal cells. Qualitative observations show that proliferating sclerotomal cells dilute the labeling up to 13 days post-injection but a few maintain the labeling as long labeling retention cells and remain in the intercentra and perichondrium after birth. These cells supply new chondroblasts for post-natal growth of vertebrae but can also proliferate in case of vertebral damage or tail amputation in lizards, a process that sustains tail regeneration. The lack of somitic organization in the regenerating tail impedes the re-formation of a segmental vertebral column that is instead replaced by a continuous cartilaginous tube. It is hypothesized that long labeling retaining cells might represent stem/primordial cells, and that their permanence in the inter-vertebral cartilages and the nearby perichondrium in adult lizards pre-adapt these reptiles to elicit a broad cartilage regeneration in case of injury of the vertebrae. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    @article{ISI:000374378100007,
    Author = {Alibardi, Lorenzo},
    Title = {Localization of Proliferating Cells in the Inter-Vertebral Region of the Developing and Adult Vertebrae of Lizards in Relation to Growth and Regeneration},
    Journal = {ANATOMICAL RECORD-ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {299},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {461-473},
    Abstract = {New cartilaginous tissues in lizards is formed during the regeneration of the tail or after vertebral damage. In order to understand the origin of new cartilaginous cells in the embryo and after injury of adult vertebrae we have studied the distribution of proliferating cartilaginous cells in the vertebral column of embryos and adults of the lizard Anolis lineatopus using autoradiography for H3-thymidine and light and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry for 5BrdU. Proliferating sclerotomal cells initially surround the notochord in a segmental pattern and give rise to the chondrocytes of the vertebral centrum that replace the original chordal cells. Qualitative observations show that proliferating sclerotomal cells dilute the labeling up to 13 days post-injection but a few maintain the labeling as long labeling retention cells and remain in the intercentra and perichondrium after birth. These cells supply new chondroblasts for post-natal growth of vertebrae but can also proliferate in case of vertebral damage or tail amputation in lizards, a process that sustains tail regeneration. The lack of somitic organization in the regenerating tail impedes the re-formation of a segmental vertebral column that is instead replaced by a continuous cartilaginous tube. It is hypothesized that long labeling retaining cells might represent stem/primordial cells, and that their permanence in the inter-vertebral cartilages and the nearby perichondrium in adult lizards pre-adapt these reptiles to elicit a broad cartilage regeneration in case of injury of the vertebrae. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.},
    }

  • C. M. Donihue, K. M. Brock, J. Foufopoulos, and A. Herrel, “Feed or fight: testing the impact of food availability and intraspecific aggression on the functional ecology of an island lizard,” Functional ecology, vol. 30, iss. 4, pp. 566-575, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Body size often varies among insular populations relative to continental conspecifics – the island rule’ – and functional, context-dependent morphological differences tend to track this body size variation on islands. Two hypotheses are often proposed as potential drivers of insular population differences in morphology: one relating to diet and the other involving intraspecific competition and aggression. We directly tested whether differences in morphology and maximum bite capacity were explained by interisland changes in hardness of both available and consumed prey, and levels of lizard-to-lizard aggression among small-island populations. Our study included 11 islands in the Greek Cyclades and made use of a gradient in islandarea spanning five orders of magnitude. We focused on the widespread lizard Podarcis erhardii. We found that on smaller islands, P.erhardii body size was larger, head height was larger relative to body size, and maximum bite capacity became proportionally stronger. This pattern in morphology and performance was not related to differences in diet, but was highly correlated with proxies of intraspecific aggression – bite scars and missing toes. Our findings suggest that critical functional traits such as body size and bite force in P.erhardii follow the predictions of the island rule and are changing in response to changes in the competitive landscape across islands of different sizes.

    @article{ISI:000373920800008,
    Author = {Donihue, Colin M. and Brock, Kinsey M. and Foufopoulos, Johannes and Herrel, Anthony},
    Title = {Feed or fight: testing the impact of food availability and intraspecific aggression on the functional ecology of an island lizard},
    Journal = {FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {30},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {566-575},
    Abstract = {Body size often varies among insular populations relative to continental conspecifics - the island rule' - and functional, context-dependent morphological differences tend to track this body size variation on islands. Two hypotheses are often proposed as potential drivers of insular population differences in morphology: one relating to diet and the other involving intraspecific competition and aggression. We directly tested whether differences in morphology and maximum bite capacity were explained by interisland changes in hardness of both available and consumed prey, and levels of lizard-to-lizard aggression among small-island populations. Our study included 11 islands in the Greek Cyclades and made use of a gradient in islandarea spanning five orders of magnitude. We focused on the widespread lizard Podarcis erhardii. We found that on smaller islands, P.erhardii body size was larger, head height was larger relative to body size, and maximum bite capacity became proportionally stronger. This pattern in morphology and performance was not related to differences in diet, but was highly correlated with proxies of intraspecific aggression - bite scars and missing toes. Our findings suggest that critical functional traits such as body size and bite force in P.erhardii follow the predictions of the island rule and are changing in response to changes in the competitive landscape across islands of different sizes.},
    }

  • L. J. Fleishman, C. W. Perez, A. I. Yeo, K. J. Cummings, S. Dick, and E. Almonte, “Perceptual distance between colored stimuli in the lizard anolis sagrei: comparing visual system models to empirical results,” Behavioral ecology and sociobiology, vol. 70, iss. 4, pp. 541-555, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    In the study of the evolution of animal colors, the conspicuousness of a pair of colors (e.g., stimulus vs. background) is often modeled by determining the distance between them in perceptual color space. For similar colors, receptor noise models have been demonstrated to be an effective way to estimate discrimination thresholds. However, the best way to quantify conspicuousness of color pairs that are distant in perceptual space is not widely agreed upon. In experiments where an animal is presented with different colors that it can easily discriminate, its response may be strongly influenced by the biological significance of a color, in addition to its conspicuousness, a phenomenon known as color categorization. This has made it difficult to test and confirm the validity of different models of perceptual distance. We tested the relative conspicuousness of different stimulus/background color combinations in the lizard Anolis sagrei using a visual attention reflex, which has been shown in earlier experiments to be less influenced by color categorization than other commonly used behavioral assays. We compared the results to predictions based on two different visual system-based models. The Euclidian distance between pairs of points plotted in a lizard chromaticity diagram effectively predicted the relative responses. A receptor noise model, in which color space distance was estimated in units of “just noticeable difference,{”} yielded a similarly accurate prediction of the results. We concluded that for studies of color signal evolution, either of these methods may be effectively employed to make behaviorally-relevant predictions of perceptual distance among colors that are widely separated in visual space.

    @article{ISI:000372258200009,
    Author = {Fleishman, Leo J. and Perez, Carley W. and Yeo, Anna I. and Cummings, Kailee J. and Dick, Stephanie and Almonte, Elizabeth},
    Title = {Perceptual distance between colored stimuli in the lizard Anolis sagrei: comparing visual system models to empirical results},
    Journal = {BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {70},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {541-555},
    Abstract = {In the study of the evolution of animal colors, the conspicuousness of a pair of colors (e.g., stimulus vs. background) is often modeled by determining the distance between them in perceptual color space. For similar colors, receptor noise models have been demonstrated to be an effective way to estimate discrimination thresholds. However, the best way to quantify conspicuousness of color pairs that are distant in perceptual space is not widely agreed upon. In experiments where an animal is presented with different colors that it can easily discriminate, its response may be strongly influenced by the biological significance of a color, in addition to its conspicuousness, a phenomenon known as color categorization. This has made it difficult to test and confirm the validity of different models of perceptual distance. We tested the relative conspicuousness of different stimulus/background color combinations in the lizard Anolis sagrei using a visual attention reflex, which has been shown in earlier experiments to be less influenced by color categorization than other commonly used behavioral assays. We compared the results to predictions based on two different visual system-based models. The Euclidian distance between pairs of points plotted in a lizard chromaticity diagram effectively predicted the relative responses. A receptor noise model, in which color space distance was estimated in units of ``just noticeable difference,{''} yielded a similarly accurate prediction of the results. We concluded that for studies of color signal evolution, either of these methods may be effectively employed to make behaviorally-relevant predictions of perceptual distance among colors that are widely separated in visual space.},
    }

  • A. L. Jaffe, S. C. Campbell-Staton, and J. B. Losos, “Geographical variation in morphology and its environmental correlates in a widespread north american lizard, anolis carolinensis (squamata: dactyloidae),” Biological journal of the linnean society, vol. 117, iss. 4, pp. 760-774, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The green anole, Anolis carolinensis, has long been an important model organism for studies of physiology and behaviour, and recently became the first reptile to have its genome sequenced. With a large and environmentally heterogeneous distribution, especially in relation to well-studied Antillean relatives, A.carolinensis is also emerging as an important organism for novel studies of geographical differentiation and adaptation. In the present study, we quantify the degree of morphological variation in this species and test for environmental correlates of this variation. We also examine adherence to Bergmann’s and Allen’s rule, two eco-geographical principles that have been well studied over large species ranges. We sampled from 14 populations across the distribution of the species in North America and measured 28 distinct morphological traits. We also collected a suite of environmental variables for each site, including those related to temperature, precipitation, and vegetation. Ultimately, we found a large degree of geographical variation in morphology, with head traits contributing the most to differences among populations. Morphological variation was correlated with variation in temperature, precipitation, and latitude across sites. We found no support for reverse Bergmann’s rule typical of squamates, although we did find a trend of reverse Allen’s rule. Ultimately, the present study provides a novel look at A.carolinensis and establishes it as a strong candidate for further studies of variation and adaptation over a large range.

    @article{ISI:000371527800008,
    Author = {Jaffe, Alexander L. and Campbell-Staton, Shane C. and Losos, Jonathan B.},
    Title = {Geographical variation in morphology and its environmental correlates in a widespread North American lizard, Anolis carolinensis (Squamata: Dactyloidae)},
    Journal = {BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {117},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {760-774},
    Abstract = {The green anole, Anolis carolinensis, has long been an important model organism for studies of physiology and behaviour, and recently became the first reptile to have its genome sequenced. With a large and environmentally heterogeneous distribution, especially in relation to well-studied Antillean relatives, A.carolinensis is also emerging as an important organism for novel studies of geographical differentiation and adaptation. In the present study, we quantify the degree of morphological variation in this species and test for environmental correlates of this variation. We also examine adherence to Bergmann's and Allen's rule, two eco-geographical principles that have been well studied over large species ranges. We sampled from 14 populations across the distribution of the species in North America and measured 28 distinct morphological traits. We also collected a suite of environmental variables for each site, including those related to temperature, precipitation, and vegetation. Ultimately, we found a large degree of geographical variation in morphology, with head traits contributing the most to differences among populations. Morphological variation was correlated with variation in temperature, precipitation, and latitude across sites. We found no support for reverse Bergmann's rule typical of squamates, although we did find a trend of reverse Allen's rule. Ultimately, the present study provides a novel look at A.carolinensis and establishes it as a strong candidate for further studies of variation and adaptation over a large range.},
    }

  • J. P. Olberding, A. Herrel, T. E. Higham, and T. Garland Jr., “Limb segment contributions to the evolution of hind limb length in phrynosomatid lizards,” Biological journal of the linnean society, vol. 117, iss. 4, pp. 775-795, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Longer hind limbs are often associated with faster maximum sprint speeds measured in the laboratory and sometimes with increased Darwinian fitness in studies of individual variation in natural populations. Limb length may be altered by changing the length of one or all segments, with different functional consequences. Segment length evolution can be influenced by both natural and sexual selection, and lineage-specific effects (multiple solutions) may also occur. We examined the evolution of total hind limb length, as well as thigh, crus, pes, and toe length, among 46 species of phrynosomatids and also investigated the role of habitat use and shared evolutionary history in shaping limb morphology. Because sexes are usually behaviourally and morphologically dimorphic, we examined them separately. In females, habitat was only an important predictor of crus (lower leg) length. In males, habitat was not an important predictor of any variable. Overall, clade-level differences were more important than habitat as predictors of segment or total hind limb length. Not all limb segments scaled isometrically with the combined length of other segments, and both sex and clade affected the scaling of some segments. These results suggest that clade-level differences are more important than habitat use for explaining differences in limb length and proportions, and sexual dimorphism may be an important consideration in morphology-performance-behaviour-fitness relationships.

    @article{ISI:000371527800009,
    Author = {Olberding, Jeffrey P. and Herrel, Anthony and Higham, Timothy E. and Garland, Jr., Theodore},
    Title = {Limb segment contributions to the evolution of hind limb length in phrynosomatid lizards},
    Journal = {BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {117},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {775-795},
    Abstract = {Longer hind limbs are often associated with faster maximum sprint speeds measured in the laboratory and sometimes with increased Darwinian fitness in studies of individual variation in natural populations. Limb length may be altered by changing the length of one or all segments, with different functional consequences. Segment length evolution can be influenced by both natural and sexual selection, and lineage-specific effects (multiple solutions) may also occur. We examined the evolution of total hind limb length, as well as thigh, crus, pes, and toe length, among 46 species of phrynosomatids and also investigated the role of habitat use and shared evolutionary history in shaping limb morphology. Because sexes are usually behaviourally and morphologically dimorphic, we examined them separately. In females, habitat was only an important predictor of crus (lower leg) length. In males, habitat was not an important predictor of any variable. Overall, clade-level differences were more important than habitat as predictors of segment or total hind limb length. Not all limb segments scaled isometrically with the combined length of other segments, and both sex and clade affected the scaling of some segments. These results suggest that clade-level differences are more important than habitat use for explaining differences in limb length and proportions, and sexual dimorphism may be an important consideration in morphology-performance-behaviour-fitness relationships.},
    }

  • S. Baeckens, T. Driessens, and R. Van Damme, “Intersexual chemo-sensation in a “visually-oriented” lizard, anolis sagrei,” Peerj, vol. 4, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    While the conspicuous visual displays of anoles have been studied in great depth, the possibility that these lizards may also interact through chemical signalling has received hardly any consideration. In this study, we observed the behaviour of male brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) when introduced into an environment previously inhabited by female conspecifics, and compared it to when they were introduced into an untreated environment. The males in our tests exhibited significantly more elaborate display behaviour (i.e., greater number of dewlap extensions and head-nods) and a significantly greater number of tongue extrusions while in the cage formerly pied by females than when placed in the untreated, control cage. The absolute numbers of tongue extrusions, however, were relatively low in comparison to average tongue-flick rates of `true’ chemically-oriented lizards. Our results strongly suggest that the males were capable of detecting chemical cues left behind by the females. These observations provide the first evidence of intersexual chemo-sensation in an anole lizard.

    @article{ISI:000374159400006,
    Author = {Baeckens, Simon and Driessens, Tess and Van Damme, Raoul},
    Title = {Intersexual chemo-sensation in a ``visually-oriented{''} lizard, Anolis sagrei},
    Journal = {PEERJ},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {4},
    Abstract = {While the conspicuous visual displays of anoles have been studied in great depth, the possibility that these lizards may also interact through chemical signalling has received hardly any consideration. In this study, we observed the behaviour of male brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) when introduced into an environment previously inhabited by female conspecifics, and compared it to when they were introduced into an untreated environment. The males in our tests exhibited significantly more elaborate display behaviour (i.e., greater number of dewlap extensions and head-nods) and a significantly greater number of tongue extrusions while in the cage formerly pied by females than when placed in the untreated, control cage. The absolute numbers of tongue extrusions, however, were relatively low in comparison to average tongue-flick rates of `true' chemically-oriented lizards. Our results strongly suggest that the males were capable of detecting chemical cues left behind by the females. These observations provide the first evidence of intersexual chemo-sensation in an anole lizard.},
    }

  • C. Donihue, “Microgeographic variation in locomotor traits among lizards in a human-built environment,” Peerj, vol. 4, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Microgeographic variation in fitness-relevant traits may be more common than previously appreciated. The fitness of many `vertebrates is directly related to their locomotor capacity, a whole-organism trait integrating behavior, morphology, and physiology Because locomotion is inextricably related to context I hypothesized that it might vary with habitat structure in a wide-ranging lizard, Podarcis erhardii, found in the Greek Cyclade Islands. I compared lizard populations living on human. built rock walls, a novel habitat with complex vertical structure, with nearby lizard populations that are naive to human-built infrastructure and live in flat, loose-substrate habitat. I tested for differences in morphology, behavior, and performance. Lizards from built sites were larger and had significantly (and relatively) longer forelimbs and hindlimbs. The differences in hind morphology were especially pronounced for distal components the foot and longest toe. These morphologies facilitated. a significant behavioral shift in jumping propensity across a rocky experimental in. substrate. I found no difference maximum velocity between these populations; however, females originating from wall sites potentially accelerated faster over the rocky experimental substrate. The variation between these closely neighboring populations suggests that the lizards inhabiting walls have experienced a suite of trait changes enabling them to take advantage of the novel habitat structure created by humans.

    @article{ISI:000372142200003,
    Author = {Donihue, Colin},
    Title = {Microgeographic variation in locomotor traits among lizards in a human-built environment},
    Journal = {PEERJ},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {4},
    Abstract = {Microgeographic variation in fitness-relevant traits may be more common than previously appreciated. The fitness of many `vertebrates is directly related to their locomotor capacity, a whole-organism trait integrating behavior, morphology, and physiology Because locomotion is inextricably related to context I hypothesized that it might vary with habitat structure in a wide-ranging lizard, Podarcis erhardii, found in the Greek Cyclade Islands. I compared lizard populations living on human. built rock walls, a novel habitat with complex vertical structure, with nearby lizard populations that are naive to human-built infrastructure and live in flat, loose-substrate habitat. I tested for differences in morphology, behavior, and performance. Lizards from built sites were larger and had significantly (and relatively) longer forelimbs and hindlimbs. The differences in hind morphology were especially pronounced for distal components the foot and longest toe. These morphologies facilitated. a significant behavioral shift in jumping propensity across a rocky experimental in. substrate. I found no difference maximum velocity between these populations; however, females originating from wall sites potentially accelerated faster over the rocky experimental substrate. The variation between these closely neighboring populations suggests that the lizards inhabiting walls have experienced a suite of trait changes enabling them to take advantage of the novel habitat structure created by humans.},
    }

  • S. Perni, M. Close, and C. Franzini-Armstrong, “Design principles of reptilian muscles: calcium cycling strategies,” Anatomical record-advances in integrative anatomy and evolutionary biology, vol. 299, iss. 3, pp. 352-360, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The ultrastructure of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in skeletal muscles was compared among different reptile species (watersnake, boa constrictor, lizard, and turtle) and a mammal (mouse). Morphometric analysis demonstrates a pattern of increasing calsequestrin (CASQ) content in the lumen of SR from turtle to lizard, watersnake, and boa constrictor, and this content is in all cases higher than in mouse. In all reptiles sampled except turtle, CASQ is not confined to the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (jSR) cisternae as it is in other species. It instead fills the entire longitudinal (free) SR (fSR) regions, and in the extreme case of snakes, the shape of the SR is modified around the extra CASQ. We suggest that high CASQ content may represent an ATP-saving adaptation that permits relatively low metabolic rates during prolonged periods of fasting and inactivity, particularly in watersnake and boa constrictor. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    @article{ISI:000374342000007,
    Author = {Perni, Stefano and Close, Matthew and Franzini-Armstrong, Clara},
    Title = {Design Principles of Reptilian Muscles: Calcium Cycling Strategies},
    Journal = {ANATOMICAL RECORD-ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {299},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {352-360},
    Abstract = {The ultrastructure of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in skeletal muscles was compared among different reptile species (watersnake, boa constrictor, lizard, and turtle) and a mammal (mouse). Morphometric analysis demonstrates a pattern of increasing calsequestrin (CASQ) content in the lumen of SR from turtle to lizard, watersnake, and boa constrictor, and this content is in all cases higher than in mouse. In all reptiles sampled except turtle, CASQ is not confined to the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (jSR) cisternae as it is in other species. It instead fills the entire longitudinal (free) SR (fSR) regions, and in the extreme case of snakes, the shape of the SR is modified around the extra CASQ. We suggest that high CASQ content may represent an ATP-saving adaptation that permits relatively low metabolic rates during prolonged periods of fasting and inactivity, particularly in watersnake and boa constrictor. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.},
    }

  • M. W. Vandewege, S. F. Mangum, T. Gabaldon, T. A. Castoe, D. A. Ray, and F. G. Hoffmann, “Contrasting patterns of evolutionary diversification in the olfactory repertoires of reptile and bird genomes,” Genome biology and evolution, vol. 8, iss. 3, pp. 470-480, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are membrane proteins that mediate the detection of odorants in the environment, and are the largest vertebrate gene family. Comparative studies of mammalian genomes indicate that OR repertoires vary widely, even between closely related lineages, as a consequence of frequent OR gains and losses. Several studies also suggest that mammalian OR repertoires are influenced by life history traits. Sauropsida is a diverse group of vertebrates group that is the sister group to mammals, and includes birds, testudines, squamates, and crocodilians, and represents a natural system to explore predictions derived from mammalian studies. In this study, we analyzed olfactory receptor (OR) repertoire variation among several representative species and found that the number of intact OR genes in sauropsid genomes analyzed ranged over an order of magnitude, from 108 in the green anole to over 1,000 in turtles. Our results suggest that different sauropsid lineages have highly divergent OR repertoire composition that derive from lineage-specific combinations of gene expansions, losses, and retentions of ancestral OR genes. These differences also suggest that varying degrees of adaption related to life history have shaped the unique OR repertoires observed across sauropsid lineages.

    @article{ISI:000373839200001,
    Author = {Vandewege, Michael W. and Mangum, Sarah F. and Gabaldon, Toni and Castoe, Todd A. and Ray, David A. and Hoffmann, Federico G.},
    Title = {Contrasting Patterns of Evolutionary Diversification in the Olfactory Repertoires of Reptile and Bird Genomes},
    Journal = {GENOME BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {8},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {470-480},
    Abstract = {Olfactory receptors (ORs) are membrane proteins that mediate the detection of odorants in the environment, and are the largest vertebrate gene family. Comparative studies of mammalian genomes indicate that OR repertoires vary widely, even between closely related lineages, as a consequence of frequent OR gains and losses. Several studies also suggest that mammalian OR repertoires are influenced by life history traits. Sauropsida is a diverse group of vertebrates group that is the sister group to mammals, and includes birds, testudines, squamates, and crocodilians, and represents a natural system to explore predictions derived from mammalian studies. In this study, we analyzed olfactory receptor (OR) repertoire variation among several representative species and found that the number of intact OR genes in sauropsid genomes analyzed ranged over an order of magnitude, from 108 in the green anole to over 1,000 in turtles. Our results suggest that different sauropsid lineages have highly divergent OR repertoire composition that derive from lineage-specific combinations of gene expansions, losses, and retentions of ancestral OR genes. These differences also suggest that varying degrees of adaption related to life history have shaped the unique OR repertoires observed across sauropsid lineages.},
    }

  • M. E. Kemp and E. A. Hadly, “Early holocene turnover, followed by stability, in a caribbean lizard assemblage,” Quaternary research, vol. 85, iss. 2, pp. 255-261, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Understanding how communities are impacted by environmental perturbations is integral for addressing the ongoing biodiversity crisis that impacts ecosystems worldwide. The fossil record serves as a window into ancient interactions and the responses of communities to past perturbations. Here, we re-examine paleontological data from Katouche Bay, Anguilla, a Holocene site in the Lesser Antilles. We reveal that the site was more diverse than previously indicated, with long-term, continuous records of three genera of extant lizards (Anolis, Ameiva, and Thecadactylus), and the early Holocene presence of Leiocephalus, a large ground-dwelling lizard that has since been completely extirpated from the Lesser Antilles. The disappearance of Leiocephalus from Katouche Bay resulted in high turnover, decreased evenness, and decreased species richness a trend that continues to the present day. Our body size reconstructions for the most abundant genus, Anolis, are consistent with the presence of only one species, Anolis cf. gingivinus, at Katouche Bay throughout the Holocene, contrary to previously published studies. Additionally, we find no evidence of dwarfism in A. cf. gingivinus, which contrasts with a global study of contemporary insular lizards. Our data reveal that the impacts of diversity loss on lizard communities are long lasting and irreversible over millennia. (C) 2015 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    @article{ISI:000373661300007,
    Author = {Kemp, Melissa E. and Hadly, Elizabeth A.},
    Title = {Early Holocene turnover, followed by stability, in a Caribbean lizard assemblage},
    Journal = {QUATERNARY RESEARCH},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {85},
    Number = {2},
    Pages = {255-261},
    Abstract = {Understanding how communities are impacted by environmental perturbations is integral for addressing the ongoing biodiversity crisis that impacts ecosystems worldwide. The fossil record serves as a window into ancient interactions and the responses of communities to past perturbations. Here, we re-examine paleontological data from Katouche Bay, Anguilla, a Holocene site in the Lesser Antilles. We reveal that the site was more diverse than previously indicated, with long-term, continuous records of three genera of extant lizards (Anolis, Ameiva, and Thecadactylus), and the early Holocene presence of Leiocephalus, a large ground-dwelling lizard that has since been completely extirpated from the Lesser Antilles. The disappearance of Leiocephalus from Katouche Bay resulted in high turnover, decreased evenness, and decreased species richness a trend that continues to the present day. Our body size reconstructions for the most abundant genus, Anolis, are consistent with the presence of only one species, Anolis cf. gingivinus, at Katouche Bay throughout the Holocene, contrary to previously published studies. Additionally, we find no evidence of dwarfism in A. cf. gingivinus, which contrasts with a global study of contemporary insular lizards. Our data reveal that the impacts of diversity loss on lizard communities are long lasting and irreversible over millennia. (C) 2015 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.},
    }

  • L. J. Fleishman, B. Ogas, D. Steinberg, and M. Leal, “Why do anolis dewlaps glow? an analysis of a translucent visual signal,” Functional ecology, vol. 30, iss. 3, pp. 345-355, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    1. Male anoline lizards utilize a colourful, expandable throat fan, called the dewlap, to rapidly and unambiguously signal their presence and species identity to conspecifics. Under some viewing conditions, the dewlaps of some species appear to glow vividly, because they transmit a great deal of diffuse light, creating a translucent signal. Translucent signals are probably found in many animal groups, but they have rarely been studied. 2. We hypothesized that dewlap translucence might (i) increase dewlap/background luminance contrast or (ii) increase the reliability of the colour as a species recognition signal by lowering the colour discrimination threshold in low light conditions such as forest shade. 3. We calculated dewlap colour (spectral radiance) for the Jamaican lizard Anolis lineatopus at natural perch sites with, and without, the inclusion of transmitted light. 4. Transmitted light did not significantly increase the magnitude of luminance contrast between the dewlap and background. 5. We plotted colours of dewlaps, background patches of habitat and dewlaps of sympatric species in an anoline perceptual colour space (the colour tetrahedron), based on the four classes of cone photoreceptors found in the retina. Using a newly developed approach, we used ellipsoidal plots of uncertainty to quantify perceptual overlap between dewlap spectral radiance and values for natural distractor colours. Diffuse transmission of light through the dewlap greatly reduced the perceptual overlap between the dewlap and natural background colours. 6. This finding strongly suggests that selection has favoured the evolution of a translucent dewlap as a mechanism to increase the reliability of detection of the signal under the low light conditions. In general, any animal’s colour signal must emit sufficient light intensity to allow the colour to be discriminated from other distractor colours in the habitat. This will tend to favour the evolution of colours with higher total intensity (i.e. higher reflectance and/or transmittance) in animals that signal in relatively low light conditions such as forest shade.

    @article{ISI:000372949000002,
    Author = {Fleishman, Leo J. and Ogas, Brianna and Steinberg, David and Leal, Manuel},
    Title = {Why do Anolis dewlaps glow? An analysis of a translucent visual signal},
    Journal = {FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {30},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {345-355},
    Abstract = {1. Male anoline lizards utilize a colourful, expandable throat fan, called the dewlap, to rapidly and unambiguously signal their presence and species identity to conspecifics. Under some viewing conditions, the dewlaps of some species appear to glow vividly, because they transmit a great deal of diffuse light, creating a translucent signal. Translucent signals are probably found in many animal groups, but they have rarely been studied. 2. We hypothesized that dewlap translucence might (i) increase dewlap/background luminance contrast or (ii) increase the reliability of the colour as a species recognition signal by lowering the colour discrimination threshold in low light conditions such as forest shade. 3. We calculated dewlap colour (spectral radiance) for the Jamaican lizard Anolis lineatopus at natural perch sites with, and without, the inclusion of transmitted light. 4. Transmitted light did not significantly increase the magnitude of luminance contrast between the dewlap and background. 5. We plotted colours of dewlaps, background patches of habitat and dewlaps of sympatric species in an anoline perceptual colour space (the colour tetrahedron), based on the four classes of cone photoreceptors found in the retina. Using a newly developed approach, we used ellipsoidal plots of uncertainty to quantify perceptual overlap between dewlap spectral radiance and values for natural distractor colours. Diffuse transmission of light through the dewlap greatly reduced the perceptual overlap between the dewlap and natural background colours. 6. This finding strongly suggests that selection has favoured the evolution of a translucent dewlap as a mechanism to increase the reliability of detection of the signal under the low light conditions. In general, any animal's colour signal must emit sufficient light intensity to allow the colour to be discriminated from other distractor colours in the habitat. This will tend to favour the evolution of colours with higher total intensity (i.e. higher reflectance and/or transmittance) in animals that signal in relatively low light conditions such as forest shade.},
    }

  • B. Ademi, A. D’Almeida, and M. S. Rand, “-adrenergic stimulation, camp, and edema cause dorsal crest erections in anole lizards,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 1, p. E252, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000372457601364,
    Author = {Ademi, B. and D'Almeida, A. and Rand, M. S.},
    Title = {-Adrenergic Stimulation, cAMP, and Edema Cause Dorsal Crest Erections in Anole Lizards},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {E252},
    }

  • C. Anderson V, S. S. Jain, N. R. Park, and T. J. Roberts, “Locomotor and feeding muscles in anolis lizards are tuned to different functional demands,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 1, p. E5, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000372457600021,
    Author = {Anderson, V, C. and Jain, S. S. and Park, N. R. and Roberts, T. J.},
    Title = {Locomotor and feeding muscles in Anolis lizards are tuned to different functional demands},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {E5},
    }

  • A. C. Battles and J. J. Kolbe, “Can lizards take the heat? cities alter the thermal ecology of anolis lizards,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 1, p. E258, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000372457601391,
    Author = {Battles, A. C. and Kolbe, J. J.},
    Title = {Can lizards take the heat? Cities alter the thermal ecology of Anolis lizards},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {E258},
    }

  • G. Borgmans and R. Van Damme, “Stress on the job: a case study of anolis carolinensis,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 1, p. E20, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000372457600079,
    Author = {Borgmans, G. and Van Damme, R.},
    Title = {Stress on the job: a case study of Anolis carolinensis},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {E20},
    }

  • S. C. Campbell-Staton, Z. A. Cheviron, A. Bare, J. B. Losos, and S. Edwards V, “Effects of local environment, acclimation, and extreme winter events on phenotypic and genomic variation of the green anole (anolis carolinensis),” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 1, p. E30, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000372457600119,
    Author = {Campbell-Staton, S. C. and Cheviron, Z. A. and Bare, A. and Losos, J. B. and Edwards, V, S.},
    Title = {Effects of local environment, acclimation, and extreme winter events on phenotypic and genomic variation of the green anole (Anolis carolinensis)},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {E30},
    }

  • C. D. Cates and D. A. Warner, “Long term effects of incubation moisture on desiccation rate in the brown anole lizard (anolis sagrei),” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 1, p. E32, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000372457600128,
    Author = {Cates, C. D. and Warner, D. A.},
    Title = {Long Term Effects of Incubation Moisture on Desiccation Rate in the Brown Anole Lizard (Anolis sagrei)},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {E32},
    }

  • J. D. Curlis, C. L. Cox, and R. M. Cox, “Sex-specific population differences in metabolism are associated with intraspecific variation in sexual size dimorphism in brown anole lizards,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 1, p. E274, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000372457601455,
    Author = {Curlis, J. D. and Cox, C. L. and Cox, R. M.},
    Title = {Sex-specific population differences in metabolism are associated with intraspecific variation in sexual size dimorphism in brown anole lizards},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {E274},
    }

  • K. L. Foster and T. E. Higham, “Comparative arboreal locomotion of anolis lizards,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 1, p. E67, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000372457600269,
    Author = {Foster, K. L. and Higham, T. E.},
    Title = {Comparative arboreal locomotion of Anolis lizards},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {E67},
    }

  • B. M. Ivanov, L. A. Selznick, and M. A. Johnson, “What does it mean to be green? body color and social interaction in the green anole lizard,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 1, p. E101, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000372457600402,
    Author = {Ivanov, B. M. and Selznick, L. A. and Johnson, M. A.},
    Title = {What does it mean to be green? Body color and social interaction in the green anole lizard},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {E101},
    }

  • A. F. Kahrl and R. M. Cox, “Variation in sperm morphology between native and introduced populations of three anolis lizard species,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 1, p. E105, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000372457600419,
    Author = {Kahrl, A. F. and Cox, R. M.},
    Title = {Variation in sperm morphology between native and introduced populations of three Anolis lizard species},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {E105},
    }

  • N. R. Park, C. Anderson V, and T. J. Roberts, “Muscle twitch time limits gait dynamics in anolis lizards,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 1, p. E347, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000372457601744,
    Author = {Park, N. R. and Anderson, V, C. and Roberts, T. J.},
    Title = {Muscle twitch time limits gait dynamics in Anolis lizards},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {E347},
    }

  • C. R. Peterson, A. C. Echternacht, and B. J. Fitzpatrick, “Intraspecific variation and divergence in anolis conspersus,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 1, p. E349, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000372457601754,
    Author = {Peterson, C. R. and Echternacht, A. C. and Fitzpatrick, B. J.},
    Title = {Intraspecific variation and divergence in Anolis conspersus},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {E349},
    }

  • M. A. Webber, B. M. Ivanov, and M. A. Johnson, “Interspecific variation in blood physiology in caribbean anolis lizards,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 1, p. E390, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000372457601917,
    Author = {Webber, M. A. and Ivanov, B. M. and Johnson, M. A.},
    Title = {Interspecific variation in blood physiology in Caribbean Anolis lizards},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {E390},
    }

  • J. E. Wegener, K. P. Mulder, R. M. Pringle, T. R. Kartziel, J. B. Losos, and J. J. Kolbe, “Relative contribution of genetic and ecological factors to morphological differentiation in island populations of anolis sagrei,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 56, iss. 1, p. E235, 2016.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ISI:000372457601300,
    Author = {Wegener, J. E. and Mulder, K. P. and Pringle, R. M. and Kartziel, T. R. and Losos, J. B. and Kolbe, J. J.},
    Title = {Relative contribution of genetic and ecological factors to morphological differentiation in island populations of Anolis sagrei},
    Journal = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {56},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {E235},
    }

  • R. Megia-Palma, J. Martinez, I. Nasri, J. Javier Cuervo, J. Martin, I. Acevedo, J. Belliure, J. Ortega, R. Garcia-Roa, S. Selmi, and S. Merino, “Phylogenetic relationships of isospora, lankesterella, and caryospora species (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) infecting lizards,” Organisms diversity & evolution, vol. 16, iss. 1, pp. 275-288, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    In this study, several species of Isospora infecting lizards were genetically characterized. Specifically, five described and four newly described species of Isospora were included in a phylogeny of the family Eimeriidae. These species were isolated from hosts originally inhabiting all geographic continents except Europe. Phylogenetic analyses of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene grouped these nine species of Isospora with Lankesterella species and Caryospora ernsti. Therefore, within this clade, different evolutionary strategies in oocyst development and transmission occurred. Although the characteristic endogenous oocyst development of the genus Lankesterella may have arisen only once, the reduction in the number of sporocysts observed in the genus Caryospora occurred at least twice during coccidian evolution, as evidenced by the phylogenetic position of Caryospora bigenetica as the sister taxon of the group formed by reptilian Isospora, Lankesterella, and C. ernsti. Within this group, C. ernsti was the sister taxon to the genus Lankesterella. Overall, our results contradict the proposed monophyly of the genus Caryospora, highlighting the need for a thorough taxonomic and systematic revision of the group. Furthermore, they suggest that the recent ancestor of the genus Lankesterella may have been heteroxenous.

    @article{ISI:000372294700021,
    Author = {Megia-Palma, Rodrigo and Martinez, Javier and Nasri, Intissar and Javier Cuervo, Jose and Martin, Jose and Acevedo, Ivan and Belliure, Josabel and Ortega, Jesus and Garcia-Roa, Roberto and Selmi, Slaheddine and Merino, Santiago},
    Title = {Phylogenetic relationships of Isospora, Lankesterella, and Caryospora species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting lizards},
    Journal = {ORGANISMS DIVERSITY \& EVOLUTION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {16},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {275-288},
    Abstract = {In this study, several species of Isospora infecting lizards were genetically characterized. Specifically, five described and four newly described species of Isospora were included in a phylogeny of the family Eimeriidae. These species were isolated from hosts originally inhabiting all geographic continents except Europe. Phylogenetic analyses of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene grouped these nine species of Isospora with Lankesterella species and Caryospora ernsti. Therefore, within this clade, different evolutionary strategies in oocyst development and transmission occurred. Although the characteristic endogenous oocyst development of the genus Lankesterella may have arisen only once, the reduction in the number of sporocysts observed in the genus Caryospora occurred at least twice during coccidian evolution, as evidenced by the phylogenetic position of Caryospora bigenetica as the sister taxon of the group formed by reptilian Isospora, Lankesterella, and C. ernsti. Within this group, C. ernsti was the sister taxon to the genus Lankesterella. Overall, our results contradict the proposed monophyly of the genus Caryospora, highlighting the need for a thorough taxonomic and systematic revision of the group. Furthermore, they suggest that the recent ancestor of the genus Lankesterella may have been heteroxenous.},
    }

  • S. Des Roches, L. J. Harmon, and E. B. Rosenblum, “Colonization of a novel depauperate habitat leads to trophic niche shifts in three desert lizard species,” Oikos, vol. 125, iss. 3, pp. 343-353, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    In a novel, depauperate ecosystem, colonizing species may experience changes in their trophic niche as a result of a new resource base and fewer competitors and predators. To examine trophic niche shifts of recent colonists, we focused on three ecologically and phylogenetically divergent lizard species that inhabit both the geologically distinctive depauperate habitat of White Sands and the surrounding Chihuahuan `dark soil’ desert in New Mexico. In White Sands the three species comprise the entire lizard community, whereas in the dark soils habitat, they constitute less than half of the lizard community abundance. As a result, we hypothesized that the three focal species would collectively represent a greater variety of trophic positions in the White Sands habitat than in the dark soils habitat. We hypothesized that the extent of shifts in each species’ trophic position would parallel diet and ecomorphology differences between habitats. To test these hypotheses, we combined analysis of lizard stomach contents with carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in the context of previously published ecomorphology measurements. Stable isotope data indicated that as predicted, species were more different from one another in White Sands than in dark soils, suggesting community-wide ecological release. Overall, all species were lower on the White Sands food chain; however, only one species decreased trophic level significantly, one increased trophic level variance, and one did not change significantly. Furthermore, stomach content data paralleled both stable isotope and ecomorphological data, showing different degrees of dietary overlap between habitats, depending on the species. That species’ differences in trophic ecology also correspond with ecomorphological differences suggests that these factors are either causally linked or collectively responding to similar ecological pressures, such as competition. By examining diet, trophic position, and ecomorphology of three colonist species, we demonstrate both species-specific and community-wide trophic differences in adjacent, but distinct habitats.

    @article{ISI:000371222300008,
    Author = {Des Roches, Simone and Harmon, Luke J. and Rosenblum, Erica B.},
    Title = {Colonization of a novel depauperate habitat leads to trophic niche shifts in three desert lizard species},
    Journal = {OIKOS},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {125},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {343-353},
    Abstract = {In a novel, depauperate ecosystem, colonizing species may experience changes in their trophic niche as a result of a new resource base and fewer competitors and predators. To examine trophic niche shifts of recent colonists, we focused on three ecologically and phylogenetically divergent lizard species that inhabit both the geologically distinctive depauperate habitat of White Sands and the surrounding Chihuahuan `dark soil' desert in New Mexico. In White Sands the three species comprise the entire lizard community, whereas in the dark soils habitat, they constitute less than half of the lizard community abundance. As a result, we hypothesized that the three focal species would collectively represent a greater variety of trophic positions in the White Sands habitat than in the dark soils habitat. We hypothesized that the extent of shifts in each species' trophic position would parallel diet and ecomorphology differences between habitats. To test these hypotheses, we combined analysis of lizard stomach contents with carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in the context of previously published ecomorphology measurements. Stable isotope data indicated that as predicted, species were more different from one another in White Sands than in dark soils, suggesting community-wide ecological release. Overall, all species were lower on the White Sands food chain; however, only one species decreased trophic level significantly, one increased trophic level variance, and one did not change significantly. Furthermore, stomach content data paralleled both stable isotope and ecomorphological data, showing different degrees of dietary overlap between habitats, depending on the species. That species' differences in trophic ecology also correspond with ecomorphological differences suggests that these factors are either causally linked or collectively responding to similar ecological pressures, such as competition. By examining diet, trophic position, and ecomorphology of three colonist species, we demonstrate both species-specific and community-wide trophic differences in adjacent, but distinct habitats.},
    }

  • R. D. Grabar, C. A. Gilman, and D. J. Irschick, “Effects of surface diameter on jumping kinematics and performance in two arboreal gecko species (correlophus ciliatus and rhacodactylus auriculatus),” Herpetologica, vol. 72, iss. 1, pp. 32-39, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Jumping is one of the most common modes of locomotion for animals, and animals in the wild often jump off a range of substrates. We tested the effects of varying surface diameter (1 and 5 cm) on jumping performance and kinematics in two species of arboreal geckos (Rhacodactylus auriculatus and Correlophus ciliatus). Both are medium-sized (similar to 10-15 g) geckos that readily jump off a range of diameters. We filmed maximal jumps with a Photron high-speed camera at 500 frames . s(-1). We found that diameter had little impact on either jumping performance (distance) or kinematics (takeoff angle and speed, landing angle, jump duration), but mass had a positive effect on both jump distance and takeoff speed in C. ciliatus. Further, C. ciliatus exhibited higher takeoff velocities and tended to have greater jump distances compared to R. auriculatus. The factors causing this among-species difference are unclear, but differences in both tail morphology and how these species use their tails could partly explain this difference. Our study confirms other studies, which show that lizards are scarcely affected by diameter in terms of jumping, and we discuss some of the reasons for why lizards are able to effectively overcome this environmental challenge.

    @article{ISI:000370800300005,
    Author = {Grabar, Rachel D. and Gilman, Casey A. and Irschick, Duncan J.},
    Title = {Effects of Surface Diameter on Jumping Kinematics and Performance in Two Arboreal Gecko Species (Correlophus ciliatus and Rhacodactylus auriculatus)},
    Journal = {HERPETOLOGICA},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {72},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {32-39},
    Abstract = {Jumping is one of the most common modes of locomotion for animals, and animals in the wild often jump off a range of substrates. We tested the effects of varying surface diameter (1 and 5 cm) on jumping performance and kinematics in two species of arboreal geckos (Rhacodactylus auriculatus and Correlophus ciliatus). Both are medium-sized (similar to 10-15 g) geckos that readily jump off a range of diameters. We filmed maximal jumps with a Photron high-speed camera at 500 frames . s(-1). We found that diameter had little impact on either jumping performance (distance) or kinematics (takeoff angle and speed, landing angle, jump duration), but mass had a positive effect on both jump distance and takeoff speed in C. ciliatus. Further, C. ciliatus exhibited higher takeoff velocities and tended to have greater jump distances compared to R. auriculatus. The factors causing this among-species difference are unclear, but differences in both tail morphology and how these species use their tails could partly explain this difference. Our study confirms other studies, which show that lizards are scarcely affected by diameter in terms of jumping, and we discuss some of the reasons for why lizards are able to effectively overcome this environmental challenge.},
    }

  • D. L. Clark, J. M. Macedonia, J. C. Gillingham, J. W. Rowe, H. J. Kane, and C. A. Valle, “Why does conspecific display recognition differ among species of galapagos lava lizards? a test using lizard robots,” Herpetologica, vol. 72, iss. 1, pp. 47-54, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Discriminating between conspecific and heterospecific communication signals has important implications for evolution. The benefits of such discriminations are clear for sympatric congeners, but if conspecific display recognition (CDR) has a cost, it should be relaxed in species that have evolved in isolation. Of the nine lava lizard species (Microlophus spp.) endemic to the Galapagos Islands, all are thought to have evolved in allopatry and none overlap in geographic distribution. Although prior research failed to reveal CDR in male M. grayii on Floreana Island, male M. indefatigabilis on Santa Cruz Island showed a response bias toward conspecific displays under the same experimental conditions. In the present study we tested for CDR in two additional species: M. albemarlensis on Isabella Island and M. bivittatus on San Cristobal Island. Subjects were presented with computer-controlled robots that either performed the conspecific display, a reversed-inverted conspecific display, or a display from an Anolis lizard species. Results revealed evidence of CDR in male M. albemarlensis, but no such evidence in male M. bivittatus. Interestingly, bathymetric data provide a potential explanation for CDR in M. indefatigabilis and M. albemarlensis: a land bridge between Santa Cruz and Isabella might have resulted in secondary contact and reinforcement in these two species during Pleistocene glacial maxima. Another possibility is that intraspecific selection for discrimination among males has caused heterospecific displays to be viewed as low-fidelity conspecific displays. Nevertheless, our findings are consistent with CDR being lost early in Galapagos Microlophus evolution, as predicted for allopatric speciation, and re-emerging later only where selection favored the discrimination of male displays.

    @article{ISI:000370800300007,
    Author = {Clark, David L. and Macedonia, Joseph M. and Gillingham, James C. and Rowe, John W. and Kane, Heather J. and Valle, Carlos A.},
    Title = {Why Does Conspecific Display Recognition Differ Among Species of Galapagos Lava Lizards? A Test Using Lizard Robots},
    Journal = {HERPETOLOGICA},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {72},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {47-54},
    Abstract = {Discriminating between conspecific and heterospecific communication signals has important implications for evolution. The benefits of such discriminations are clear for sympatric congeners, but if conspecific display recognition (CDR) has a cost, it should be relaxed in species that have evolved in isolation. Of the nine lava lizard species (Microlophus spp.) endemic to the Galapagos Islands, all are thought to have evolved in allopatry and none overlap in geographic distribution. Although prior research failed to reveal CDR in male M. grayii on Floreana Island, male M. indefatigabilis on Santa Cruz Island showed a response bias toward conspecific displays under the same experimental conditions. In the present study we tested for CDR in two additional species: M. albemarlensis on Isabella Island and M. bivittatus on San Cristobal Island. Subjects were presented with computer-controlled robots that either performed the conspecific display, a reversed-inverted conspecific display, or a display from an Anolis lizard species. Results revealed evidence of CDR in male M. albemarlensis, but no such evidence in male M. bivittatus. Interestingly, bathymetric data provide a potential explanation for CDR in M. indefatigabilis and M. albemarlensis: a land bridge between Santa Cruz and Isabella might have resulted in secondary contact and reinforcement in these two species during Pleistocene glacial maxima. Another possibility is that intraspecific selection for discrimination among males has caused heterospecific displays to be viewed as low-fidelity conspecific displays. Nevertheless, our findings are consistent with CDR being lost early in Galapagos Microlophus evolution, as predicted for allopatric speciation, and re-emerging later only where selection favored the discrimination of male displays.},
    }

  • R. A. Moreno-Arias and M. L. Calderon-Espinosa, “Patterns of morphological diversification of mainland anolis lizards from northwestern south america,” Zoological journal of the linnean society, vol. 176, iss. 3, pp. 632-647, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Anolis lizards are one of the most diverse vertebrate genera and are the classic example of adaptive radiation and convergent evolution. Anoles exhibit great morphological diversity produced by the ecological opportunity to exploit several arboreal niches. Anole radiation in the Caribbean islands is well studied, but the mainland radiation is less understood. We used a large morphological data set and a molecular phylogeny to describe the morphological diversification of anoles from northwestern South America, a region with the highest anole diversity on a mainland. We describe morphological diversity as summarized by ten morphotypes, defined mainly by body size, limb proportions, and subdigital lamellae. We show that some morphotypes are limited to forested lowlands and others to Andean highlands; by contrast, Anolis assemblages from tropical rainforests are comprised of the same four morphotypes. We demonstrate that morphological diversification followed a pattern of adaptive radiation across a landscape of adaptive peaks. Our results are consistent with the most recent hypothesis of convergence stated for Caribbean radiation, and demonstrate convergence between mainland morphotypes and Caribbean ecomorphs, which suggests that common processes are driving both radiations.(c) 2016 The Linnean Society of London

    @article{ISI:000370138700006,
    Author = {Moreno-Arias, Rafael A. and Calderon-Espinosa, Martha L.},
    Title = {Patterns of morphological diversification of mainland Anolis lizards from northwestern South America},
    Journal = {ZOOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {176},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {632-647},
    Abstract = {Anolis lizards are one of the most diverse vertebrate genera and are the classic example of adaptive radiation and convergent evolution. Anoles exhibit great morphological diversity produced by the ecological opportunity to exploit several arboreal niches. Anole radiation in the Caribbean islands is well studied, but the mainland radiation is less understood. We used a large morphological data set and a molecular phylogeny to describe the morphological diversification of anoles from northwestern South America, a region with the highest anole diversity on a mainland. We describe morphological diversity as summarized by ten morphotypes, defined mainly by body size, limb proportions, and subdigital lamellae. We show that some morphotypes are limited to forested lowlands and others to Andean highlands; by contrast, Anolis assemblages from tropical rainforests are comprised of the same four morphotypes. We demonstrate that morphological diversification followed a pattern of adaptive radiation across a landscape of adaptive peaks. Our results are consistent with the most recent hypothesis of convergence stated for Caribbean radiation, and demonstrate convergence between mainland morphotypes and Caribbean ecomorphs, which suggests that common processes are driving both radiations.(c) 2016 The Linnean Society of London},
    }

  • A. M. Reedy, C. L. Cox, A. K. Chung, W. J. Evans, and R. M. Cox, “Both sexes suffer increased parasitism and reduced energy storage as costs of reproduction in the brown anole, anolis sagrei,” Biological journal of the linnean society, vol. 117, iss. 3, pp. 516-527, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Sexual selection theory proposes that males suffer reduced immune function and increased parasitism as costs of expressing sexual signals. Life-history theory proposes that females suffer the same costs because of inherent trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. Mechanistically, each theory invokes an energetic trade-off, although few experiments have directly compared these costs of reproduction between the sexes as a result of fundamental sex differences in the nature of reproductive investment and a tendency for each theory to focus on a single sex. To test whether males and females experience comparable costs of reproduction in terms of energetics, immune function, and parasitism, we used gonadectomy to eliminate most aspects of reproductive investment in wild brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) of both sexes. We compared these nonreproductive males and females with intact, reproductive controls with respect to stored energy (fat bodies), immune function (swelling response to phytohemagglutinin), and the prevalence and intensity of infection by four types of parasite (gastric nematodes, intestinal nematodes, faecal coccidia, and ectoparasitic mites). Gonadectomized anoles experienced dramatic increases in fat storage that were accompanied by decreases in the prevalence of intestinal nematodes and in the intensity of coccidia infection. These costs of reproduction were comparable between males and females, although neither sex exhibited the predicted increase in immune function after gonadectomy. Our results suggest that, despite fundamental sex differences in the nature of reproductive investment, both male and female anoles experience similar costs of reproduction with respect to energy storage and some aspects of parasitism.

    @article{ISI:000370159100010,
    Author = {Reedy, Aaron M. and Cox, Christian L. and Chung, Albert K. and Evans, William J. and Cox, Robert M.},
    Title = {Both sexes suffer increased parasitism and reduced energy storage as costs of reproduction in the brown anole, Anolis sagrei},
    Journal = {BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {117},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {516-527},
    Abstract = {Sexual selection theory proposes that males suffer reduced immune function and increased parasitism as costs of expressing sexual signals. Life-history theory proposes that females suffer the same costs because of inherent trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. Mechanistically, each theory invokes an energetic trade-off, although few experiments have directly compared these costs of reproduction between the sexes as a result of fundamental sex differences in the nature of reproductive investment and a tendency for each theory to focus on a single sex. To test whether males and females experience comparable costs of reproduction in terms of energetics, immune function, and parasitism, we used gonadectomy to eliminate most aspects of reproductive investment in wild brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) of both sexes. We compared these nonreproductive males and females with intact, reproductive controls with respect to stored energy (fat bodies), immune function (swelling response to phytohemagglutinin), and the prevalence and intensity of infection by four types of parasite (gastric nematodes, intestinal nematodes, faecal coccidia, and ectoparasitic mites). Gonadectomized anoles experienced dramatic increases in fat storage that were accompanied by decreases in the prevalence of intestinal nematodes and in the intensity of coccidia infection. These costs of reproduction were comparable between males and females, although neither sex exhibited the predicted increase in immune function after gonadectomy. Our results suggest that, despite fundamental sex differences in the nature of reproductive investment, both male and female anoles experience similar costs of reproduction with respect to energy storage and some aspects of parasitism.},
    }

  • X. Wang, G. Cheng, Y. Lug, C. Zhang, X. Wu, H. Han, Y. Zhao, and L. Ren, “A comprehensive analysis of the phylogeny, genomic organization and expression of immunoglobulin light chain genes in alligator sinensis, an endangered reptile species,” Plos one, vol. 11, iss. 2, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Crocodilians are evolutionarily distinct reptiles that are distantly related to lizards and are thought to be the closest relatives of birds. Compared with birds and mammals, few studies have investigated the Ig light chain of crocodilians. Here, employing an Alligator sinensis genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and available genome data, we characterized the genomic organization of the Alligator sinensis IgL gene loci. The Alligator sinensis has two IgL isotypes, lambda and kappa, the same as Anolis carolinensis. The Ig(lambda) locus contains 6 C-lambda genes, each preceded by a J(lambda) gene, and 86 potentially functional V-lambda genes upstream of (J(lambda)-C-lambda)(n). The Ig kappa locus contains a single C-kappa gene, 6 J(kappa)s and 62 functional V(kappa)s. All V-L genes are classified into a total of 31 families: 19 V-lambda families and 12 V-kappa families. Based on an analysis of the chromosomal location of the light chain genes among mammals, birds, lizards and frogs, the data further confirm that there are two IgL isotypes in the Alligator sinensis: Ig lambda and Ig kappa. By analyzing the cloned Ig lambda/kappa cDNA, we identified a biased usage pattern of V families in the expressed V-lambda and V-kappa. An analysis of the junctions of the recombined VJ revealed the presence of N and P nucleotides in both expressed. and. sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the V genes revealed V families shared by mammals, birds, reptiles and Xenopus, suggesting that these conserved V families are orthologous and have been retained during the evolution of IgL. Our data suggest that the Alligator sinensis IgL gene repertoire is highly diverse and complex and provide insight into immunoglobulin gene evolution in vertebrates.

    @article{ISI:000371276100012,
    Author = {Wang, Xifeng and Cheng, Gang and Lug, Yan and Zhang, Chenglin and Wu, Xiaobing and Han, Haitang and Zhao, Yaofeng and Ren, Liming},
    Title = {A Comprehensive Analysis of the Phylogeny, Genomic Organization and Expression of Immunoglobulin Light Chain Genes in Alligator sinensis, an Endangered Reptile Species},
    Journal = {PLOS ONE},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {11},
    Number = {2},
    Abstract = {Crocodilians are evolutionarily distinct reptiles that are distantly related to lizards and are thought to be the closest relatives of birds. Compared with birds and mammals, few studies have investigated the Ig light chain of crocodilians. Here, employing an Alligator sinensis genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and available genome data, we characterized the genomic organization of the Alligator sinensis IgL gene loci. The Alligator sinensis has two IgL isotypes, lambda and kappa, the same as Anolis carolinensis. The Ig(lambda) locus contains 6 C-lambda genes, each preceded by a J(lambda) gene, and 86 potentially functional V-lambda genes upstream of (J(lambda)-C-lambda)(n). The Ig kappa locus contains a single C-kappa gene, 6 J(kappa)s and 62 functional V(kappa)s. All V-L genes are classified into a total of 31 families: 19 V-lambda families and 12 V-kappa families. Based on an analysis of the chromosomal location of the light chain genes among mammals, birds, lizards and frogs, the data further confirm that there are two IgL isotypes in the Alligator sinensis: Ig lambda and Ig kappa. By analyzing the cloned Ig lambda/kappa cDNA, we identified a biased usage pattern of V families in the expressed V-lambda and V-kappa. An analysis of the junctions of the recombined VJ revealed the presence of N and P nucleotides in both expressed. and. sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the V genes revealed V families shared by mammals, birds, reptiles and Xenopus, suggesting that these conserved V families are orthologous and have been retained during the evolution of IgL. Our data suggest that the Alligator sinensis IgL gene repertoire is highly diverse and complex and provide insight into immunoglobulin gene evolution in vertebrates.},
    }

  • J. Wade, “Genetic regulation of sex differences in songbirds and lizards,” Philosophical transactions of the royal society b-biological sciences, vol. 371, iss. 1688, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Sex differences in the morphology of neural and peripheral structures related to reproduction often parallel the frequency of particular behaviours displayed by males and females. In a variety of model organisms, these sex differences are organized in development by gonadal steroids, which also act in adulthood to modulate behavioural expression and in some cases to generate parallel anatomical changes on a seasonal basis. Data collected from diverse species, however, suggest that changes in hormone availability are not sufficient to explain sex and seasonal differences in structure and function. This paper pulls together some of this literature from songbirds and lizards and considers the information in the broader context of taking a comparative approach to investigating genetic mechanisms associated with behavioural neuroendocrinology.

    @article{ISI:000369065000005,
    Author = {Wade, Juli},
    Title = {Genetic regulation of sex differences in songbirds and lizards},
    Journal = {PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {371},
    Number = {1688},
    Abstract = {Sex differences in the morphology of neural and peripheral structures related to reproduction often parallel the frequency of particular behaviours displayed by males and females. In a variety of model organisms, these sex differences are organized in development by gonadal steroids, which also act in adulthood to modulate behavioural expression and in some cases to generate parallel anatomical changes on a seasonal basis. Data collected from diverse species, however, suggest that changes in hormone availability are not sufficient to explain sex and seasonal differences in structure and function. This paper pulls together some of this literature from songbirds and lizards and considers the information in the broader context of taking a comparative approach to investigating genetic mechanisms associated with behavioural neuroendocrinology.},
    }

  • R. Wu, Q. Liu, P. Zhang, and D. Liang, “Tandem amino acid repeats in the green anole (anolis carolinensis) and other squamates may have a role in increasing genetic variability,” Bmc genomics, vol. 17, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Background: Tandem amino acid repeats are characterised by the consecutive recurrence of a single amino acid. They exhibit high rates of length mutations in addition to point mutations and have been proposed to be involved in genetic plasticity. Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) diversify in both morphology and physiology. The underlying mechanism is yet to be understood. In a previous phylogenomic analysis of reptiles, the density of tandem repeats in an anole lizard diverged heavily from that of the other reptiles. To gain further insight into the tandem amino acid repeats in squamates, we analysed the repeat content in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) proteome and compared the amino acid repeats in a large orthologous protein data set from six vertebrates (the Western clawed frog, the green anole, the Chinese softshell turtle, the zebra finch, mouse and human). Results: Our results revealed that the number of amino acid repeats in the green anole exceeded those found in the other five species studied. Species-only repeats were found in high proportion in the green anole but not in the other five species, suggesting that the green anole had gained many amino acid repeats in either the Anolis or the squamate lineage. Since the amino acid repeat containing genes in the green anole were highly enriched in genes related to transcription and development, an important family of developmental genes, i.e., the Hox family, was further studied in a wide collection of squamates. Abundant amino acid repeats were also observed, implying the general high tolerance of amino acid repeats in squamates. A particular enrichment of amino acid repeats was observed in the central class Hox genes that are known to be responsible for defining cervical to lumbar regions. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the abundant amino acid repeats in the green anole, and possibly in other squamates, may play a role in increasing the genetic variability, and contribute to the evolutionary diversity of this clade.

    @article{ISI:000370015400002,
    Author = {Wu, Riga and Liu, Qingfeng and Zhang, Peng and Liang, Dan},
    Title = {Tandem amino acid repeats in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) and other squamates may have a role in increasing genetic variability},
    Journal = {BMC GENOMICS},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {17},
    Abstract = {Background: Tandem amino acid repeats are characterised by the consecutive recurrence of a single amino acid. They exhibit high rates of length mutations in addition to point mutations and have been proposed to be involved in genetic plasticity. Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) diversify in both morphology and physiology. The underlying mechanism is yet to be understood. In a previous phylogenomic analysis of reptiles, the density of tandem repeats in an anole lizard diverged heavily from that of the other reptiles. To gain further insight into the tandem amino acid repeats in squamates, we analysed the repeat content in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) proteome and compared the amino acid repeats in a large orthologous protein data set from six vertebrates (the Western clawed frog, the green anole, the Chinese softshell turtle, the zebra finch, mouse and human). Results: Our results revealed that the number of amino acid repeats in the green anole exceeded those found in the other five species studied. Species-only repeats were found in high proportion in the green anole but not in the other five species, suggesting that the green anole had gained many amino acid repeats in either the Anolis or the squamate lineage. Since the amino acid repeat containing genes in the green anole were highly enriched in genes related to transcription and development, an important family of developmental genes, i.e., the Hox family, was further studied in a wide collection of squamates. Abundant amino acid repeats were also observed, implying the general high tolerance of amino acid repeats in squamates. A particular enrichment of amino acid repeats was observed in the central class Hox genes that are known to be responsible for defining cervical to lumbar regions. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the abundant amino acid repeats in the green anole, and possibly in other squamates, may play a role in increasing the genetic variability, and contribute to the evolutionary diversity of this clade.},
    }

  • A. L. Gilbert and M. S. Lattanzio, “Ontogenetic variation in the thermal biology of yarrow’s spiny lizard, sceloporus jarrovii,” Plos one, vol. 11, iss. 2, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Climate change is rapidly altering the way current species interact with their environment to satisfy life-history demands. In areas anticipated to experience extreme warming, rising temperatures are expected to diminish population growth, due either to environmental degradation, or the inability to tolerate novel temperature regimes. Determining how at risk ectotherms, and lizards in particular, are to changes in climate traditionally emphasizes the thermal ecology and thermal sensitivity of physiology of adult members of a population. In this study, we reveal ontogenetic differences in thermal physiological and ecological traits that have been used to anticipate how ectotherms will respond to climate change. We show that the thermal biological traits of juvenile Yarrow’s Spiny Lizards (Sceloporus jarrovii) differ from the published estimates of the same traits for adult lizards. Juvenile S. jarrovii differ in their optimal performance temperature, field field-active body temperature, and critical thermal temperatures compared to adult S. jarrovii. Within juvenile S. jarrovii, males and females exhibit differences in field-active body temperature and desiccation tolerance. Given the observed age-and sex-related variation in thermal physiology, we argue that not including physiological differences in thermal biology throughout ontogeny may lead to misinterpretation of patterns of ecological or evolutionary change due to climate warming. Further characterizing the potential for ontogenetic changes in thermal biology would be useful for a more precise and accurate estimation of the role of thermal physiology in mediating population persistence in warmer environments.

    @article{ISI:000369550200020,
    Author = {Gilbert, Anthony L. and Lattanzio, Matthew S.},
    Title = {Ontogenetic Variation in the Thermal Biology of Yarrow's Spiny Lizard, Sceloporus jarrovii},
    Journal = {PLOS ONE},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {11},
    Number = {2},
    Abstract = {Climate change is rapidly altering the way current species interact with their environment to satisfy life-history demands. In areas anticipated to experience extreme warming, rising temperatures are expected to diminish population growth, due either to environmental degradation, or the inability to tolerate novel temperature regimes. Determining how at risk ectotherms, and lizards in particular, are to changes in climate traditionally emphasizes the thermal ecology and thermal sensitivity of physiology of adult members of a population. In this study, we reveal ontogenetic differences in thermal physiological and ecological traits that have been used to anticipate how ectotherms will respond to climate change. We show that the thermal biological traits of juvenile Yarrow's Spiny Lizards (Sceloporus jarrovii) differ from the published estimates of the same traits for adult lizards. Juvenile S. jarrovii differ in their optimal performance temperature, field field-active body temperature, and critical thermal temperatures compared to adult S. jarrovii. Within juvenile S. jarrovii, males and females exhibit differences in field-active body temperature and desiccation tolerance. Given the observed age-and sex-related variation in thermal physiology, we argue that not including physiological differences in thermal biology throughout ontogeny may lead to misinterpretation of patterns of ecological or evolutionary change due to climate warming. Further characterizing the potential for ontogenetic changes in thermal biology would be useful for a more precise and accurate estimation of the role of thermal physiology in mediating population persistence in warmer environments.},
    }

  • D. Labonte, C. J. Clemente, A. Dittrich, C. Kuo, A. J. Crosby, D. J. Irschick, and W. Federle, “Extreme positive allometry of animal adhesive pads and the size limits of adhesion-based climbing,” Proceedings of the national academy of sciences of the united states of america, vol. 113, iss. 5, pp. 1297-1302, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Organismal functions are size-dependent whenever body surfaces supply body volumes. Larger organisms can develop strongly folded internal surfaces for enhanced diffusion, but in many cases areas cannot be folded so that their enlargement is constrained by anatomy, presenting a problem for larger animals. Here, we study the allometry of adhesive pad area in 225 climbing animal species, covering more than seven orders of magnitude in weight. Across all taxa, adhesive pad area showed extreme positive allometry and scaled with weight, implying a 200-fold increase of relative pad area from mites to geckos. However, allometric scaling coefficients for pad area systematically decreased with taxonomic level and were close to isometry when evolutionary history was accounted for, indicating that the substantial anatomical changes required to achieve this increase in relative pad area are limited by phylogenetic constraints. Using a comparative phylogenetic approach, we found that the departure from isometry is almost exclusively caused by large differences in size-corrected pad area between arthropods and vertebrates. To mitigate the expected decrease of weight-specific adhesion within closely related taxa where pad area scaled close to isometry, data for several taxa suggest that the pads’ adhesive strength increased for larger animals. The combination of adjustments in relative pad area for distantly related taxa and changes in adhesive strength for closely related groups helps explain how climbing with adhesive pads has evolved in animals varying over seven orders of magnitude in body weight. Our results illustrate the size limits of adhesion-based climbing, with profound implications for large-scale bio-inspired adhesives.

    @article{ISI:000369085100063,
    Author = {Labonte, David and Clemente, Christofer J. and Dittrich, Alex and Kuo, Chi-Yun and Crosby, Alfred J. and Irschick, Duncan J. and Federle, Walter},
    Title = {Extreme positive allometry of animal adhesive pads and the size limits of adhesion-based climbing},
    Journal = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {113},
    Number = {5},
    Pages = {1297-1302},
    Abstract = {Organismal functions are size-dependent whenever body surfaces supply body volumes. Larger organisms can develop strongly folded internal surfaces for enhanced diffusion, but in many cases areas cannot be folded so that their enlargement is constrained by anatomy, presenting a problem for larger animals. Here, we study the allometry of adhesive pad area in 225 climbing animal species, covering more than seven orders of magnitude in weight. Across all taxa, adhesive pad area showed extreme positive allometry and scaled with weight, implying a 200-fold increase of relative pad area from mites to geckos. However, allometric scaling coefficients for pad area systematically decreased with taxonomic level and were close to isometry when evolutionary history was accounted for, indicating that the substantial anatomical changes required to achieve this increase in relative pad area are limited by phylogenetic constraints. Using a comparative phylogenetic approach, we found that the departure from isometry is almost exclusively caused by large differences in size-corrected pad area between arthropods and vertebrates. To mitigate the expected decrease of weight-specific adhesion within closely related taxa where pad area scaled close to isometry, data for several taxa suggest that the pads' adhesive strength increased for larger animals. The combination of adjustments in relative pad area for distantly related taxa and changes in adhesive strength for closely related groups helps explain how climbing with adhesive pads has evolved in animals varying over seven orders of magnitude in body weight. Our results illustrate the size limits of adhesion-based climbing, with profound implications for large-scale bio-inspired adhesives.},
    }

  • C. Bonneaud, E. Marnocha, A. Herrel, B. Vanhooydonck, D. J. Irschick, and T. B. Smith, “Developmental plasticity affects sexual size dimorphism in an anole lizard,” Functional ecology, vol. 30, iss. 2, pp. 235-243, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    While developmental plasticity has been shown to contribute to sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in laboratory studies, its role in shaping SSD variation in wild vertebrate populations is unclear. Here we use a field study and a laboratory experiment to show that resource availability influences the degree of SSD among insular populations of Anolis sagrei lizards in the Bahamas. Total amounts of food biomass explained variation in male, but not female, body size on six Bahamian islands, giving rise to significant differences in SSD. Laboratory experiments on a captive colony of A.sagrei confirmed that variation in SSD was mediated by the effects of prey biomass on developmental plasticity in males, but not females. Indeed, males grew faster and attained larger sizes as adults under high-food treatments than under restricted diets, whereas adult females retained similar body sizes under both conditions. Our results indicate that the amount of food available can influence intersexual variation in body size within a vertebrate species. Sex-specific developmental plasticity may be favoured if it allows individuals to take advantage of varying levels of food opportunities offered by different habitats, by reducing competition between the sexes. As such, plasticity in response to food availability may have played a role in the invasion success of A.sagrei. This study adds to our growing understanding of the effect of resource availability in shaping SSD in reptiles and lends further support to the condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which the larger sex should display greater plasticity in growth in response to environmental conditions.

    @article{ISI:000370953700009,
    Author = {Bonneaud, Camille and Marnocha, Erin and Herrel, Anthony and Vanhooydonck, Bieke and Irschick, Duncan J. and Smith, Thomas B.},
    Title = {Developmental plasticity affects sexual size dimorphism in an anole lizard},
    Journal = {FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {30},
    Number = {2},
    Pages = {235-243},
    Abstract = {While developmental plasticity has been shown to contribute to sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in laboratory studies, its role in shaping SSD variation in wild vertebrate populations is unclear. Here we use a field study and a laboratory experiment to show that resource availability influences the degree of SSD among insular populations of Anolis sagrei lizards in the Bahamas. Total amounts of food biomass explained variation in male, but not female, body size on six Bahamian islands, giving rise to significant differences in SSD. Laboratory experiments on a captive colony of A.sagrei confirmed that variation in SSD was mediated by the effects of prey biomass on developmental plasticity in males, but not females. Indeed, males grew faster and attained larger sizes as adults under high-food treatments than under restricted diets, whereas adult females retained similar body sizes under both conditions. Our results indicate that the amount of food available can influence intersexual variation in body size within a vertebrate species. Sex-specific developmental plasticity may be favoured if it allows individuals to take advantage of varying levels of food opportunities offered by different habitats, by reducing competition between the sexes. As such, plasticity in response to food availability may have played a role in the invasion success of A.sagrei. This study adds to our growing understanding of the effect of resource availability in shaping SSD in reptiles and lends further support to the condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which the larger sex should display greater plasticity in growth in response to environmental conditions.},
    }

  • S. T. Hsieh, “Tail loss and narrow surfaces decrease locomotor stability in the arboreal green anole lizard (anolis carolinensis),” Journal of experimental biology, vol. 219, iss. 3, pp. 364-373, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Tails play an important role in dynamic stabilization during falling and jumping in lizards. Yet tail autotomy (the voluntary loss of an appendage) is a common mechanism used for predator evasion in these animals. How tail autotomy has an impact on locomotor performance and stability remains poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine how tail loss affects running kinematics and performance in the arboreal green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Lizards were run along four surface widths (9.5 mm, 15.9 mm, 19.0 mm and flat), before and following 75\% tail autotomy. Results indicate that when perturbed with changes in surface breadth and tail condition, surface breadth tends to have greater impacts on locomotor performance than tail loss. Furthermore, while tail loss does have a destabilizing effect during regular running in these lizards, its function during steady locomotion is minimal. Instead, the tail probably plays a more active role during dynamic maneuvers that require dramatic changes in whole body orientation or center of mass trajectories.

    @article{ISI:000369537800016,
    Author = {Hsieh, Shi-Tong Tonia},
    Title = {Tail loss and narrow surfaces decrease locomotor stability in the arboreal green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis)},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {219},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {364-373},
    Abstract = {Tails play an important role in dynamic stabilization during falling and jumping in lizards. Yet tail autotomy (the voluntary loss of an appendage) is a common mechanism used for predator evasion in these animals. How tail autotomy has an impact on locomotor performance and stability remains poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine how tail loss affects running kinematics and performance in the arboreal green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Lizards were run along four surface widths (9.5 mm, 15.9 mm, 19.0 mm and flat), before and following 75\% tail autotomy. Results indicate that when perturbed with changes in surface breadth and tail condition, surface breadth tends to have greater impacts on locomotor performance than tail loss. Furthermore, while tail loss does have a destabilizing effect during regular running in these lizards, its function during steady locomotion is minimal. Instead, the tail probably plays a more active role during dynamic maneuvers that require dramatic changes in whole body orientation or center of mass trajectories.},
    }

  • L. Alibardi, “Immunocalization of telomerase in cells of lizard tail after amputation suggests cell activation for tail regeneration,” Tissue & cell, vol. 48, iss. 1, pp. 63-71, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Tail amputation (autotomy) in most lizards elicits a remarkable regenerative response leading to a new although simplified tail. No information on the trigger mechanism following wounding is known but cells from the stump initiate to proliferate and form a regenerative blastema. The present study shows that telomerases are mainly activated in the nuclei of various connective and muscle satellite cells of the stump, and in other tissues, probably responding to the wound signals. Western blotting detection also indicates that telomerase positive bands increases in the regenerating blastema in comparison to the normal tail. Light and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry localization of telomerase shows that 4-14 days post-amputation in lizards immunopositive nuclei of sparse cells located among the wounded tissues are accumulating into the forming blastema. These cells mainly include fibroblasts and fat cells of the connective tissue and satellite cells of muscles. Also some immature basophilic and polychromatophilic erytroblasts, lymphoblasts and myelocytes present within the Bone Marrow of the vertebrae show telomerase localization in their nuclei, but their contribution to the formation of the regenerative blastema remains undetermined. The study proposes that one of the initial mechanisms triggering cell proliferation for the formation of the blastema in lizards involve gene activation for the production of telomerase that stimulates the following signaling pathways for cell division and migration. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    @article{ISI:000369235800008,
    Author = {Alibardi, L.},
    Title = {Immunocalization of telomerase in cells of lizard tail after amputation suggests cell activation for tail regeneration},
    Journal = {TISSUE \& CELL},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {48},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {63-71},
    Abstract = {Tail amputation (autotomy) in most lizards elicits a remarkable regenerative response leading to a new although simplified tail. No information on the trigger mechanism following wounding is known but cells from the stump initiate to proliferate and form a regenerative blastema. The present study shows that telomerases are mainly activated in the nuclei of various connective and muscle satellite cells of the stump, and in other tissues, probably responding to the wound signals. Western blotting detection also indicates that telomerase positive bands increases in the regenerating blastema in comparison to the normal tail. Light and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry localization of telomerase shows that 4-14 days post-amputation in lizards immunopositive nuclei of sparse cells located among the wounded tissues are accumulating into the forming blastema. These cells mainly include fibroblasts and fat cells of the connective tissue and satellite cells of muscles. Also some immature basophilic and polychromatophilic erytroblasts, lymphoblasts and myelocytes present within the Bone Marrow of the vertebrae show telomerase localization in their nuclei, but their contribution to the formation of the regenerative blastema remains undetermined. The study proposes that one of the initial mechanisms triggering cell proliferation for the formation of the blastema in lizards involve gene activation for the production of telomerase that stimulates the following signaling pathways for cell division and migration. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
    }

  • N. F. de Camargo, W. R. F. de Camargo, D. C. V. do Correa, A. J. A. de Camargo, and E. M. Vieira, “Adult feeding moths (sphingidae) differ from non-adult feeding ones (saturniidae) in activity-timing overlap and temporal niche width,” Oecologia, vol. 180, iss. 2, pp. 313-324, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    According to classic ecology, resource partitioning by segregation along at least one of the three main niche axes (time, food, and space) must take place for the coexistence of species with similar ecological requirements. We used nocturnal light traps to investigate the assemblage structuration of two moth families: Sphingidae (23 species) and Saturniidae (13 species). Because competition for food among adults potentially occurs only among sphingids, only for this family did we expect less overlap of diel activity patterns than expected by chance and also a greater temporal niche width compared to saturniids. Moreover, we expected a greater number of sphingid species pairs to differ in activity timing compared to saturniid pairs. We also hypothesized that in the case of a lack of temporal structuration, sphingids would be morphologically structured in relation to proboscis length. Contrary to what we expected, both families overlapped their activity patterns more than expected by chance alone and sphingid moths were not morphologically structured. Nevertheless, there were 173 significant pairwise differences in temporal activity between sphingids, contrasting with no interspecific differences between saturniids. Sphingid species also showed a wider temporal niche width than saturniids, as expected. Predation risk and abiotic factors may have caused the overall similarities in activity patterns for both families. The temporal niche seemed not to be determinant for the assemblage structuration of moths as a whole for either of the studied families, but segregation along the temporal niche axis of some potentially competing species pairs can be a relevant factor for the coexistence of nectar-feeding species.

    @article{ISI:000368829300002,
    Author = {de Camargo, Nicholas F. and de Camargo, Willian R. F. and Correa, Danilo do C. V. and de Camargo, Amabilio J. A. and Vieira, Emerson M.},
    Title = {Adult feeding moths (Sphingidae) differ from non-adult feeding ones (Saturniidae) in activity-timing overlap and temporal niche width},
    Journal = {OECOLOGIA},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {180},
    Number = {2},
    Pages = {313-324},
    Abstract = {According to classic ecology, resource partitioning by segregation along at least one of the three main niche axes (time, food, and space) must take place for the coexistence of species with similar ecological requirements. We used nocturnal light traps to investigate the assemblage structuration of two moth families: Sphingidae (23 species) and Saturniidae (13 species). Because competition for food among adults potentially occurs only among sphingids, only for this family did we expect less overlap of diel activity patterns than expected by chance and also a greater temporal niche width compared to saturniids. Moreover, we expected a greater number of sphingid species pairs to differ in activity timing compared to saturniid pairs. We also hypothesized that in the case of a lack of temporal structuration, sphingids would be morphologically structured in relation to proboscis length. Contrary to what we expected, both families overlapped their activity patterns more than expected by chance alone and sphingid moths were not morphologically structured. Nevertheless, there were 173 significant pairwise differences in temporal activity between sphingids, contrasting with no interspecific differences between saturniids. Sphingid species also showed a wider temporal niche width than saturniids, as expected. Predation risk and abiotic factors may have caused the overall similarities in activity patterns for both families. The temporal niche seemed not to be determinant for the assemblage structuration of moths as a whole for either of the studied families, but segregation along the temporal niche axis of some potentially competing species pairs can be a relevant factor for the coexistence of nectar-feeding species.},
    }

  • A. R. Gunderson and M. Leal, “A conceptual framework for understanding thermal constraints on ectotherm activity with implications for predicting responses to global change,” Ecology letters, vol. 19, iss. 2, pp. 111-120, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Activity budgets influence the expression of life history traits as well as population dynamics. For ectotherms, a major constraint on activity is environmental temperature. Nonetheless, we currently lack a comprehensive conceptual framework for understanding thermal constraints on activity, which hinders our ability to rigorously apply activity data to answer ecological and evolutionary questions. Here, we integrate multiple aspects of temperature-dependent activity into a single unified framework that has general applicability. We also provide examples of the implementation of this framework to address fundamental questions in ecology relating to climate change vulnerability and species’ distributions using empirical data from a tropical lizard.

    @article{ISI:000368072200001,
    Author = {Gunderson, Alex R. and Leal, Manuel},
    Title = {A conceptual framework for understanding thermal constraints on ectotherm activity with implications for predicting responses to global change},
    Journal = {ECOLOGY LETTERS},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {19},
    Number = {2},
    Pages = {111-120},
    Abstract = {Activity budgets influence the expression of life history traits as well as population dynamics. For ectotherms, a major constraint on activity is environmental temperature. Nonetheless, we currently lack a comprehensive conceptual framework for understanding thermal constraints on activity, which hinders our ability to rigorously apply activity data to answer ecological and evolutionary questions. Here, we integrate multiple aspects of temperature-dependent activity into a single unified framework that has general applicability. We also provide examples of the implementation of this framework to address fundamental questions in ecology relating to climate change vulnerability and species' distributions using empirical data from a tropical lizard.},
    }

  • C. G. P. Voogdt, L. I. Bouwman, M. J. L. Kik, J. A. Wagenaar, and J. P. M. van Putten, “Reptile toll-like receptor 5 unveils adaptive evolution of bacterial flagellin recognition,” Scientific reports, vol. 6, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are ancient innate immune receptors crucial for immune homeostasis and protection against infection. TLRs are present in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish but have not been functionally characterized in reptiles despite the central position of this animal class in vertebrate evolution. Here we report the cloning, characterization, and function of TLR5 of the reptile Anolis carolinensis (Green Anole lizard). The receptor (acTLR5) displays the typical TLR protein architecture with 22 extracellular leucine rich repeats flanked by a N- and C-terminal leucine rich repeat domain, a membrane-spanning region, and an intracellular TIR domain. The receptor is phylogenetically most similar to TLR5 of birds and most distant to fish TLR5. Transcript analysis revealed acTLR5 expression in multiple lizard tissues. Stimulation of acTLR5 with TLR ligands demonstrated unique responsiveness towards bacterial flagellin in both reptile and human cells. Comparison of acTLR5 and human TLR5 using purified flagellins revealed differential sensitivity to Pseudomonas but not Salmonella flagellin, indicating development of species-specific flagellin recognition during the divergent evolution of mammals and reptiles. Our discovery of reptile TLR5 fills the evolutionary gap regarding TLR conservation across vertebrates and provides novel insights in functional evolution of host-microbe interactions.

    @article{ISI:000368175500001,
    Author = {Voogdt, Carlos G. P. and Bouwman, Lieneke I. and Kik, Marja J. L. and Wagenaar, Jaap A. and van Putten, Jos P. M.},
    Title = {Reptile Toll-like receptor 5 unveils adaptive evolution of bacterial flagellin recognition},
    Journal = {SCIENTIFIC REPORTS},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {6},
    Abstract = {Toll-like receptors (TLR) are ancient innate immune receptors crucial for immune homeostasis and protection against infection. TLRs are present in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish but have not been functionally characterized in reptiles despite the central position of this animal class in vertebrate evolution. Here we report the cloning, characterization, and function of TLR5 of the reptile Anolis carolinensis (Green Anole lizard). The receptor (acTLR5) displays the typical TLR protein architecture with 22 extracellular leucine rich repeats flanked by a N- and C-terminal leucine rich repeat domain, a membrane-spanning region, and an intracellular TIR domain. The receptor is phylogenetically most similar to TLR5 of birds and most distant to fish TLR5. Transcript analysis revealed acTLR5 expression in multiple lizard tissues. Stimulation of acTLR5 with TLR ligands demonstrated unique responsiveness towards bacterial flagellin in both reptile and human cells. Comparison of acTLR5 and human TLR5 using purified flagellins revealed differential sensitivity to Pseudomonas but not Salmonella flagellin, indicating development of species-specific flagellin recognition during the divergent evolution of mammals and reptiles. Our discovery of reptile TLR5 fills the evolutionary gap regarding TLR conservation across vertebrates and provides novel insights in functional evolution of host-microbe interactions.},
    }

  • C. Rivero Suarez, M. Angel Rodriguez-Dominguez, and M. Molina-Borja, “Sexual dimorphism in morphological traits and scaling relationships in two populations of gallotia stehlini (fam. lacertidae: squamata) from gran canaria,” African journal of herpetology, vol. 65, iss. 1, pp. 1-20, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Lizards of the genus Gallotia, endemic to the Canary Islands, show morphological and colouration varieties that are related to within island variation in orographic and climatic characteristics. This study examines sexual size dimorphism (SSD) within and between population variation in morphological traits, and scaling relationships in G. sthelini from a southwestern locality (Tasartico) and from another (Galdar) in the northwest of Gran Canaria. Both sites differ in climate and vegetation traits, and we hypothesised that SSD should be manifested by males having relatively larger body traits than females and that hind limb lengths should be relatively larger in individuals from the more open habitat. Results showed that one-third of the largest lizards from both populations did not differ significantly either in snout-to-vent length (SVL) nor in trunk length (TRL), but overall males had significantly larger SVL and TRL than females. Multivariate analysis showed that head width (HW) and hind limb length (HLL) were significantly larger in individuals from Tasartico than in those of Galdar. Hind limb length was the trait that contributed most to differentiate between populations and head parameters between males and females. In both populations head and body traits scaled to TRL, head width (HW) and head depth (HD) of males having a positive allometry, and fore limb length (FLL) and hind limb length (HLL) a negative one. In relation to head length (HL), females had significantly larger TRL and smaller head depths than males; lizards from Galdar had significantly larger trunk length (TRL), but smaller HW and HLL than those of Tasartico. We outline the multiple factors that could affect the evolution of morphometric traits of each sex, taking into account the ecological features of the two zones.

    @article{ISI:000371477900001,
    Author = {Rivero Suarez, Cristina and Angel Rodriguez-Dominguez, Miguel and Molina-Borja, Miguel},
    Title = {Sexual dimorphism in morphological traits and scaling relationships in two populations of Gallotia stehlini (Fam. Lacertidae: Squamata) from Gran Canaria},
    Journal = {AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HERPETOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {65},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {1-20},
    Abstract = {Lizards of the genus Gallotia, endemic to the Canary Islands, show morphological and colouration varieties that are related to within island variation in orographic and climatic characteristics. This study examines sexual size dimorphism (SSD) within and between population variation in morphological traits, and scaling relationships in G. sthelini from a southwestern locality (Tasartico) and from another (Galdar) in the northwest of Gran Canaria. Both sites differ in climate and vegetation traits, and we hypothesised that SSD should be manifested by males having relatively larger body traits than females and that hind limb lengths should be relatively larger in individuals from the more open habitat. Results showed that one-third of the largest lizards from both populations did not differ significantly either in snout-to-vent length (SVL) nor in trunk length (TRL), but overall males had significantly larger SVL and TRL than females. Multivariate analysis showed that head width (HW) and hind limb length (HLL) were significantly larger in individuals from Tasartico than in those of Galdar. Hind limb length was the trait that contributed most to differentiate between populations and head parameters between males and females. In both populations head and body traits scaled to TRL, head width (HW) and head depth (HD) of males having a positive allometry, and fore limb length (FLL) and hind limb length (HLL) a negative one. In relation to head length (HL), females had significantly larger TRL and smaller head depths than males; lizards from Galdar had significantly larger trunk length (TRL), but smaller HW and HLL than those of Tasartico. We outline the multiple factors that could affect the evolution of morphometric traits of each sex, taking into account the ecological features of the two zones.},
    }

  • W. Meesook, T. Artchawakom, A. Aowphol, and P. Tumkiratiwong, “Reproductive pattern and sex hormones of calotes emma gray 1845 and calotes versicolor daudin 1802 (squamata; agamidae),” Turkish journal of zoology, vol. 40, iss. 5, pp. 691-703, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    We monitored testicular and ovarian morphologies, seminiferous tubules, the sexual segments of the kidneys (SSK), follicular histologies, and male testosterone and female estradiol to define the reproductive pattern of Calotes emma and Calotes versicolor. Samples were collected monthly at Sakaerat Environmental Research Station in Thailand for 1 year. Testicular hypertrophies occurred at a time characteristic for each species, with their time course corresponding well to both active spermatogenesis and the hypertrophied SSK. Gravid females were also found at a time characteristic for each species. In active reproductive females, oviductal eggs were concomitantly encountered with ovarian vitellogenic follicles. The previtellogenic and vitellogenic follicles corresponded well to granulosa layer alterations. The distinct large pyriform cells were present in the granulosa layer of previtellogenic follicles but disappeared from the vitellogenic follicles. Male testosterone levels rose during testicular and SSK hypertrophies, and female estradiol levels increased during active reproductive stages of late vitellogenic follicles and gestation. We suggest that the reproductive patterns of C. emma and C. versicolor fall into the same reproductive pattern of annual continual reproduction, but that the time courses of such events are different in the 2 Calotes, and even in individuals of the same Calotes population.

    @article{ISI:000386066600006,
    Author = {Meesook, Worawitoo and Artchawakom, Taksin and Aowphol, Anchalee and Tumkiratiwong, Panas},
    Title = {Reproductive pattern and sex hormones of Calotes emma Gray 1845 and Calotes versicolor Daudin 1802 (Squamata; Agamidae)},
    Journal = {TURKISH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {40},
    Number = {5},
    Pages = {691-703},
    Abstract = {We monitored testicular and ovarian morphologies, seminiferous tubules, the sexual segments of the kidneys (SSK), follicular histologies, and male testosterone and female estradiol to define the reproductive pattern of Calotes emma and Calotes versicolor. Samples were collected monthly at Sakaerat Environmental Research Station in Thailand for 1 year. Testicular hypertrophies occurred at a time characteristic for each species, with their time course corresponding well to both active spermatogenesis and the hypertrophied SSK. Gravid females were also found at a time characteristic for each species. In active reproductive females, oviductal eggs were concomitantly encountered with ovarian vitellogenic follicles. The previtellogenic and vitellogenic follicles corresponded well to granulosa layer alterations. The distinct large pyriform cells were present in the granulosa layer of previtellogenic follicles but disappeared from the vitellogenic follicles. Male testosterone levels rose during testicular and SSK hypertrophies, and female estradiol levels increased during active reproductive stages of late vitellogenic follicles and gestation. We suggest that the reproductive patterns of C. emma and C. versicolor fall into the same reproductive pattern of annual continual reproduction, but that the time courses of such events are different in the 2 Calotes, and even in individuals of the same Calotes population.},
    }

  • E. Ascarrunz, J. Rage, P. Legreneur, and M. Laurin, “Triadobatrachus massinoti, the earliest known lissamphibian (vertebrata: tetrapoda) re-examined by mu ct scan, and the evolution of trunk length in batrachians,” Contributions to zoology, vol. 85, iss. 2, pp. 201-234, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Triadobatrachus massinoti is a batrachian known from a single fossil from the Early Triassic of Madagascar that presents a combination of apomorphic salientian and plesiomorphic batrachian characters. Herein we offer a revised description of the specimen based on X-ray micro-tomography data. We report previously unknown caudal vertebrae, possible mentomeckelians, and hidden parts of other structures. We also confirm the presence of a ventrolateral ledge on the opisthotic, and we rectify some previous interpretations. There are no cervical ribs and the jaw may have had an angular. The presacral region is composed of 15 vertebrae with a unique atlas-axis complex instead of 14 vertebrae with a bipartite atlas. The configuration of the pelvic girdle is not very clear, although it is likely more plesiomorphic than the anuran-like condition previously assumed. Our re-assessment of the saltatorial performance of Triadobatrachus supports the traditional interpretation that this animal was not a specialised jumper. In order to assess the sequence of events in the early evolution of the salientian morphotype, we estimated the ancestral length of the trunk region of batrachians under different hypotheses of lissamphibian relationships and divergence times. Most of our results suggest that some trunk reduction took place before the divergence of caudates and salientians (presumably in the Permian), and that the trunk of Triadobatrachus mostly reflects this ancestral condition. Thus, trunk reduction possibly preceded the anteroposterior elongation of the ilia and the shortening of the tail seen in Triadobatrachus. We also provide an updated review of the data relevant for the use of Triadobatrachus as a calibration constraint in molecular divergence age analyses that meets recently-suggested standards.

    @article{ISI:000386013100001,
    Author = {Ascarrunz, Eduardo and Rage, Jean-Claude and Legreneur, Pierre and Laurin, Michel},
    Title = {Triadobatrachus massinoti, the earliest known lissamphibian (Vertebrata: Tetrapoda) re-examined by mu CT scan, and the evolution of trunk length in batrachians},
    Journal = {CONTRIBUTIONS TO ZOOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {85},
    Number = {2},
    Pages = {201-234},
    Abstract = {Triadobatrachus massinoti is a batrachian known from a single fossil from the Early Triassic of Madagascar that presents a combination of apomorphic salientian and plesiomorphic batrachian characters. Herein we offer a revised description of the specimen based on X-ray micro-tomography data. We report previously unknown caudal vertebrae, possible mentomeckelians, and hidden parts of other structures. We also confirm the presence of a ventrolateral ledge on the opisthotic, and we rectify some previous interpretations. There are no cervical ribs and the jaw may have had an angular. The presacral region is composed of 15 vertebrae with a unique atlas-axis complex instead of 14 vertebrae with a bipartite atlas. The configuration of the pelvic girdle is not very clear, although it is likely more plesiomorphic than the anuran-like condition previously assumed. Our re-assessment of the saltatorial performance of Triadobatrachus supports the traditional interpretation that this animal was not a specialised jumper. In order to assess the sequence of events in the early evolution of the salientian morphotype, we estimated the ancestral length of the trunk region of batrachians under different hypotheses of lissamphibian relationships and divergence times. Most of our results suggest that some trunk reduction took place before the divergence of caudates and salientians (presumably in the Permian), and that the trunk of Triadobatrachus mostly reflects this ancestral condition. Thus, trunk reduction possibly preceded the anteroposterior elongation of the ilia and the shortening of the tail seen in Triadobatrachus. We also provide an updated review of the data relevant for the use of Triadobatrachus as a calibration constraint in molecular divergence age analyses that meets recently-suggested standards.},
    }

  • J. D. Lara-Tufino, A. N. de Oca, A. Ramirez-Bautista, and L. N. Gray, “Resurrection of anolis ustus cope, 1864 from synonymy with anolis sericeus hallowell, 1856 (squamata, dactyloidae),” Zookeys, iss. 619, pp. 147-162, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    In this study, based on a morphological analysis, the resurrection of the name Anolis ustus Cope 1864, is proposed for populations from the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche, Yucatan, and Quintana Roo, Mexico, and Belize), formerly referred as A. sericeus Hallowell, 1856. Anolis ustus differs from A. sericeus by its mean snout-vent length and number of gorgetal scales in males, in tibia length and head width in females, and dorsal and ventral scales for both sexes. In addition, A. ustus has a small dewlap of similar size between males and females, whereas in A. sericeus males have a dewlap much larger than that of the females. These characteristics allow A. ustus to be identified within the A. sericeus complex. In this study, a description of the characteristics of the hemipenis is also provided, and its importance in the taxonomy of Anolis is discussed.

    @article{ISI:000385363300006,
    Author = {Lara-Tufino, Jose Daniel and de Oca, Adrian Nieto-Montes and Ramirez-Bautista, Aurelio and Gray, Levi N.},
    Title = {Resurrection of Anolis ustus Cope, 1864 from synonymy with Anolis sericeus Hallowell, 1856 (Squamata, Dactyloidae)},
    Journal = {ZOOKEYS},
    Year = {2016},
    Number = {619},
    Pages = {147-162},
    Abstract = {In this study, based on a morphological analysis, the resurrection of the name Anolis ustus Cope 1864, is proposed for populations from the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche, Yucatan, and Quintana Roo, Mexico, and Belize), formerly referred as A. sericeus Hallowell, 1856. Anolis ustus differs from A. sericeus by its mean snout-vent length and number of gorgetal scales in males, in tibia length and head width in females, and dorsal and ventral scales for both sexes. In addition, A. ustus has a small dewlap of similar size between males and females, whereas in A. sericeus males have a dewlap much larger than that of the females. These characteristics allow A. ustus to be identified within the A. sericeus complex. In this study, a description of the characteristics of the hemipenis is also provided, and its importance in the taxonomy of Anolis is discussed.},
    }

  • T. J. Ord, G. K. Charles, M. Palmer, and J. A. Stamps, “Plasticity in social communication and its implications for the colonization of novel habitats,” Behavioral ecology, vol. 27, iss. 1, pp. 341-351, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Behavioral plasticity is expected to facilitate the colonization of novel habitats by allowing populations to respond rapidly to abrupt environmental change. We studied contextual plasticity-a form of plasticity that allows an immediate phenotypic response to stimuli-in the territorial communication of Puerto Rican Anolis lizards and considered the role it might play in facilitating colonization. In these lizards, the detection of territorial visual displays by receivers is acutely dependent on fluctuating levels of visual noise from windblown vegetation and ambient light. We quantified the contextual reaction norms of various components of the territorial displays of individual lizards as a function of visual noise and light for one focal population over many weeks of observation. We then compared these contextual reaction norms to the displays given by closely related Anolis species found in other environments to assess the extent to which colonizing lizards might be capable of performing displays similar to those likely to be effective in those environments. Our results suggest that lizards are able to rapidly adjust their territorial displays in ways that might help them communicate in other (but not all) habitat types on Puerto Rico. Given that the contextual plasticity of animal signals can be measured in free-living animals far more easily than other forms of behavioral plasticity, our study presents animal communication as a tractable model for tackling broad questions in how phenotypic plasticity might facilitate colonization, adjustment to environmental change, and adaptation.

    @article{ISI:000374768300047,
    Author = {Ord, Terry J. and Charles, Grace K. and Palmer, Meredith and Stamps, Judy A.},
    Title = {Plasticity in social communication and its implications for the colonization of novel habitats},
    Journal = {BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {27},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {341-351},
    Abstract = {Behavioral plasticity is expected to facilitate the colonization of novel habitats by allowing populations to respond rapidly to abrupt environmental change. We studied contextual plasticity-a form of plasticity that allows an immediate phenotypic response to stimuli-in the territorial communication of Puerto Rican Anolis lizards and considered the role it might play in facilitating colonization. In these lizards, the detection of territorial visual displays by receivers is acutely dependent on fluctuating levels of visual noise from windblown vegetation and ambient light. We quantified the contextual reaction norms of various components of the territorial displays of individual lizards as a function of visual noise and light for one focal population over many weeks of observation. We then compared these contextual reaction norms to the displays given by closely related Anolis species found in other environments to assess the extent to which colonizing lizards might be capable of performing displays similar to those likely to be effective in those environments. Our results suggest that lizards are able to rapidly adjust their territorial displays in ways that might help them communicate in other (but not all) habitat types on Puerto Rico. Given that the contextual plasticity of animal signals can be measured in free-living animals far more easily than other forms of behavioral plasticity, our study presents animal communication as a tractable model for tackling broad questions in how phenotypic plasticity might facilitate colonization, adjustment to environmental change, and adaptation.},
    }

  • V. Gomes, M. A. Carretero, and A. Kaliontzopoulou, “The relevance of morphology for habitat use and locomotion in two species of wall lizards,” Acta oecologica-international journal of ecology, vol. 70, pp. 87-95, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Understanding if morphological differences between organisms that occupy different environments are associated to differences in functional performance can suggest a functional link between environmental and morphological variation. In this study we examined three components of the ecomorphological paradigm morphology, locomotor performance and habitat use using two syntopic wall lizards endemic to the Iberian Peninsula as a case study to establish whether morphological variation is associated with habitat use and determine the potential relevance of locomotor performance for such an association. Differences in habitat use between both lizards matched patterns of morphological variation. Indeed, individuals of Podarcis guadarramae lusitanicus, which are more flattened, used more rocky environments, whereas Podarcis bocagei, which have higher heads, used more vegetation than rocks. These patterns translated into a significant association between morphology and habitat use. Nevertheless, the two species were only differentiated in some of the functional traits quantified, and loco motor performance did not exhibit an association with morphological traits. Our results suggest that the link between morphology and habitat use is mediated by refuge use, rather than locomotor performance, in this system, and advise caution when extrapolating morphology-performance-environment associations across organisms. (C) 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

    @article{ISI:000370100000012,
    Author = {Gomes, Veronica and Carretero, Miguel A. and Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni},
    Title = {The relevance of morphology for habitat use and locomotion in two species of wall lizards},
    Journal = {ACTA OECOLOGICA-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {70},
    Pages = {87-95},
    Abstract = {Understanding if morphological differences between organisms that occupy different environments are associated to differences in functional performance can suggest a functional link between environmental and morphological variation. In this study we examined three components of the ecomorphological paradigm morphology, locomotor performance and habitat use using two syntopic wall lizards endemic to the Iberian Peninsula as a case study to establish whether morphological variation is associated with habitat use and determine the potential relevance of locomotor performance for such an association. Differences in habitat use between both lizards matched patterns of morphological variation. Indeed, individuals of Podarcis guadarramae lusitanicus, which are more flattened, used more rocky environments, whereas Podarcis bocagei, which have higher heads, used more vegetation than rocks. These patterns translated into a significant association between morphology and habitat use. Nevertheless, the two species were only differentiated in some of the functional traits quantified, and loco motor performance did not exhibit an association with morphological traits. Our results suggest that the link between morphology and habitat use is mediated by refuge use, rather than locomotor performance, in this system, and advise caution when extrapolating morphology-performance-environment associations across organisms. (C) 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.},
    }

  • M. A. Abdel-Wahhab, A. Aljawish, A. M. Kenawy, A. A. El-Nekeety, H. S. Hamed, and S. H. Abdel-Aziem, “Grafting of gallic acid onto chitosan nano particles enhances antioxidant activities in vitro and protects against ochratoxin a toxicity in catfish (clarias gariepinus),” Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, vol. 41, pp. 279-288, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    This study aimed to prepare and characterize enzymatic modified chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) with gallic acid (GA) or octyl gallate (OG) to optimize its potential in human application and to evaluate their protective role against ochrtoxiri A (OTA) toxicity in catfish. The modified CSNPs have average size around 90 nm with positive charge and high scavenging activity especially GA-CSNPs. In the in vivo study, catfish were divided into 8 groups and treated for 3 weeks as follow: the control group, OTA-treated group (1 mg/kg b.w.), the groups treated with CSNPs, GA-CSNPs or OG-CSNPs (280 mg/kg b.w.) anole or in combination with OTA. Blood, liver and kidney samples were collected for different analyses. OTA induced a significant biochemical disturbances accompanied with oxidative stress in liver and kidney, histological changes and increase DNA fragmentation in the kidney. Co-treatment with OTA plus the different CSNPs resulted in a significant improvement in all tested parameters and histological picture of the kidney. This improvement was more pronounced in the group treated with GA-CSNPs. It could be concluded that grafting of GA or its ester improved the properties of CSNPs. Moreover, GA-CSNPs showed strong scavenging properties than OG-CSNPs due to the blocking of carboxyl groups responsible of the scavenging activity in OG. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    @article{ISI:000370094500037,
    Author = {Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A. and Aljawish, Abdulhadi and Kenawy, Amany M. and El-Nekeety, Aziza A. and Hamed, Heba S. and Abdel-Aziem, Sekena H.},
    Title = {Grafting of gallic acid onto chitosan nano particles enhances antioxidant activities in vitro and protects against ochratoxin A toxicity in catfish (Clarias gariepinus)},
    Journal = {ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {41},
    Pages = {279-288},
    Abstract = {This study aimed to prepare and characterize enzymatic modified chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) with gallic acid (GA) or octyl gallate (OG) to optimize its potential in human application and to evaluate their protective role against ochrtoxiri A (OTA) toxicity in catfish. The modified CSNPs have average size around 90 nm with positive charge and high scavenging activity especially GA-CSNPs. In the in vivo study, catfish were divided into 8 groups and treated for 3 weeks as follow: the control group, OTA-treated group (1 mg/kg b.w.), the groups treated with CSNPs, GA-CSNPs or OG-CSNPs (280 mg/kg b.w.) anole or in combination with OTA. Blood, liver and kidney samples were collected for different analyses. OTA induced a significant biochemical disturbances accompanied with oxidative stress in liver and kidney, histological changes and increase DNA fragmentation in the kidney. Co-treatment with OTA plus the different CSNPs resulted in a significant improvement in all tested parameters and histological picture of the kidney. This improvement was more pronounced in the group treated with GA-CSNPs. It could be concluded that grafting of GA or its ester improved the properties of CSNPs. Moreover, GA-CSNPs showed strong scavenging properties than OG-CSNPs due to the blocking of carboxyl groups responsible of the scavenging activity in OG. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
    }

  • D. S. Moen, H. Morlon, and J. J. Wiens, “Testing convergence versus history: convergence dominates phenotypic evolution for over 150 million years in frogs,” Systematic biology, vol. 65, iss. 1, pp. 146-160, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning similar to 160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of morphological evolution across a major vertebrate clade and shows that evolution can be repeatable at much greater temporal and spatial scales than commonly thought. It also provides an analytical framework for testing other potential examples of large-scale convergence.

    @article{ISI:000369955500010,
    Author = {Moen, Daniel S. and Morlon, Helene and Wiens, John J.},
    Title = {Testing Convergence Versus History: Convergence Dominates Phenotypic Evolution for over 150 Million Years in Frogs},
    Journal = {SYSTEMATIC BIOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {65},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {146-160},
    Abstract = {Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning similar to 160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of morphological evolution across a major vertebrate clade and shows that evolution can be repeatable at much greater temporal and spatial scales than commonly thought. It also provides an analytical framework for testing other potential examples of large-scale convergence.},
    }

  • L. Alibardi and D. Minelli, “Sites of cell proliferation during scute morphogenesis in turtle and alligator are different from those of lepidosaurian scales,” Acta zoologica, vol. 97, iss. 1, pp. 127-141, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Cell proliferation in forming shield scutes has been studied by immunofluorescence in embryos of turtle, alligator and snake after injection of 5-bromo-deoxyuridine. Hinge regions of scutes in alligator and turtle carapace derive from an initial waving and invagination of the epidermis that contains 5-bromo-deoxyuridine-labelled cells. This suggests that down growth of the epidermis into the dermis is driven by local proliferation in addition to dermal anchorage and stabilization of hinge regions. Few keratinocytes migrate into suprabasal layers 1 day after injection of 5-bromo-deoxy-uridine and keratinocytes reach the precorneous layer in about 5 days. Proliferating keratinocytes are randomly distributed in the outer scale surface of symmetric scutes but are more numerous in the outer scale surface of asymmetric or overlapped scutes indicating epidermal expansion. Higher localization of proliferating cells along hinge regions of embryonic turtle and alligator scutes is maintained in adult scutes where most growth occurs. In snake, skin proliferation becomes prevalent on the elongating outer side of the asymmetric scale. Comparison between proliferation sites in turtle-alligator-chick scales with lepidosaurian scales indicates that placodes are present only in turtle-alligator-chick scales. Conversely, scale primordia detected only using gene markers are found in most crocodilian and lepidosaurians embryonic skin.

    @article{ISI:000368010100012,
    Author = {Alibardi, Lorenzo and Minelli, Daniela},
    Title = {Sites of cell proliferation during scute morphogenesis in turtle and alligator are different from those of lepidosaurian scales},
    Journal = {ACTA ZOOLOGICA},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {97},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {127-141},
    Abstract = {Cell proliferation in forming shield scutes has been studied by immunofluorescence in embryos of turtle, alligator and snake after injection of 5-bromo-deoxyuridine. Hinge regions of scutes in alligator and turtle carapace derive from an initial waving and invagination of the epidermis that contains 5-bromo-deoxyuridine-labelled cells. This suggests that down growth of the epidermis into the dermis is driven by local proliferation in addition to dermal anchorage and stabilization of hinge regions. Few keratinocytes migrate into suprabasal layers 1 day after injection of 5-bromo-deoxy-uridine and keratinocytes reach the precorneous layer in about 5 days. Proliferating keratinocytes are randomly distributed in the outer scale surface of symmetric scutes but are more numerous in the outer scale surface of asymmetric or overlapped scutes indicating epidermal expansion. Higher localization of proliferating cells along hinge regions of embryonic turtle and alligator scutes is maintained in adult scutes where most growth occurs. In snake, skin proliferation becomes prevalent on the elongating outer side of the asymmetric scale. Comparison between proliferation sites in turtle-alligator-chick scales with lepidosaurian scales indicates that placodes are present only in turtle-alligator-chick scales. Conversely, scale primordia detected only using gene markers are found in most crocodilian and lepidosaurians embryonic skin.},
    }

  • J. A. Scales and M. A. Butler, “Adaptive evolution in locomotor performance: how selective pressures and functional relationships produce diversity,” Evolution, vol. 70, iss. 1, pp. 48-61, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Despite the complexity of nature, most comparative studies of phenotypic evolution consider selective pressures in isolation. When competing pressures operate on the same system, it is commonly expected that trade-offs will occur that will limit the evolution of phenotypic diversity, however, it is possible that interactions among selective pressures may promote diversity instead. We explored the evolution of locomotor performance in lizards in relation to possible selective pressures using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Here, we show that a combination of selection based on foraging mode and predator escape is required to explain variation in performance phenotypes. Surprisingly, habitat use contributed little explanatory power. We find that it is possible to evolve very different abilities in performance which were previously thought to be tightly correlated, supporting a growing literature that explores the many-to-one mapping of morphological design. Although we generally find the expected trade-off between maximal exertion and speed, this relationship surprisingly disappears when species experience selection for both performance types. We conclude that functional integration need not limit adaptive potential, and that an integrative approach considering multiple major influences on a phenotype allows a more complete understanding of adaptation and the evolution of diversity.

    @article{ISI:000368249200005,
    Author = {Scales, Jeffrey A. and Butler, Marguerite A.},
    Title = {Adaptive evolution in locomotor performance: How selective pressures and functional relationships produce diversity},
    Journal = {EVOLUTION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {70},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {48-61},
    Abstract = {Despite the complexity of nature, most comparative studies of phenotypic evolution consider selective pressures in isolation. When competing pressures operate on the same system, it is commonly expected that trade-offs will occur that will limit the evolution of phenotypic diversity, however, it is possible that interactions among selective pressures may promote diversity instead. We explored the evolution of locomotor performance in lizards in relation to possible selective pressures using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Here, we show that a combination of selection based on foraging mode and predator escape is required to explain variation in performance phenotypes. Surprisingly, habitat use contributed little explanatory power. We find that it is possible to evolve very different abilities in performance which were previously thought to be tightly correlated, supporting a growing literature that explores the many-to-one mapping of morphological design. Although we generally find the expected trade-off between maximal exertion and speed, this relationship surprisingly disappears when species experience selection for both performance types. We conclude that functional integration need not limit adaptive potential, and that an integrative approach considering multiple major influences on a phenotype allows a more complete understanding of adaptation and the evolution of diversity.},
    }

  • A. Wittorski, J. B. Losos, and A. Herrel, “Proximate determinants of bite force in anolis lizards,” Journal of anatomy, vol. 228, iss. 1, pp. 85-95, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Performance measures associated with the vertebrate jaw system may provide important insights into vertebrate ecology and evolution because of their importance in many ecologically relevant tasks. Previous studies have shown that in many taxa, evolution toward higher bite force has gone hand in hand with the evolution of larger body size. However, independent of differences in overall body size, bite force may vary depending on head size and shape as well. Moreover, the underlying musculature may also drive variation in bite force. Here, we investigate the proximate determinants of bite force in lizards of the genus Anolis. We dissected the jaw muscles and quantified muscle mass, fibre length, and cross-sectional area. Data were analysed for both sexes independently given the sexual dimorphism detected in the dataset. Our results show that the traits that explain bite force are similar in both males and females with overall body size and muscle mass being the principal determinants. Among the different muscles examined, the adductor externus and the pseudotemporalis groups were the best determinants of bite force. However, models run for males predicted the variation in bite force better than models for females, suggesting that selection on morphology improving bite force may be stronger in males.

    @article{ISI:000367681800009,
    Author = {Wittorski, Antoine and Losos, Jonathan B. and Herrel, Anthony},
    Title = {Proximate determinants of bite force in Anolis lizards},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF ANATOMY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {228},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {85-95},
    Abstract = {Performance measures associated with the vertebrate jaw system may provide important insights into vertebrate ecology and evolution because of their importance in many ecologically relevant tasks. Previous studies have shown that in many taxa, evolution toward higher bite force has gone hand in hand with the evolution of larger body size. However, independent of differences in overall body size, bite force may vary depending on head size and shape as well. Moreover, the underlying musculature may also drive variation in bite force. Here, we investigate the proximate determinants of bite force in lizards of the genus Anolis. We dissected the jaw muscles and quantified muscle mass, fibre length, and cross-sectional area. Data were analysed for both sexes independently given the sexual dimorphism detected in the dataset. Our results show that the traits that explain bite force are similar in both males and females with overall body size and muscle mass being the principal determinants. Among the different muscles examined, the adductor externus and the pseudotemporalis groups were the best determinants of bite force. However, models run for males predicted the variation in bite force better than models for females, suggesting that selection on morphology improving bite force may be stronger in males.},
    }

  • J. A. Velasco, E. Martinez-Meyer, O. Flores-Villela, A. E. Garcia, A. C. Algar, G. Koehler, and J. M. Daza, “Climatic niche attributes and diversification in anolis lizards,” Journal of biogeography, vol. 43, iss. 1, pp. 134-144, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Aim The aim of this study was to test the link between climatic niche dynamics and species diversification in Anolis on islands and on the mainland. We tested the hypotheses that lineages in warmer climates and with narrow climate niches diversified more than lineages in cold climates and with broad climate niches. We also tested the hypothesis that species-rich clades exhibit greater niche diversity than species-poor clades. Location Neotropics. Methods We collated occurrence records for 328 Anolis species to estimate niche breadth, niche position and occupied niche space (as a proxy for niche diversity). We compared niche breadth between insular and mainland Anolis species and among Anolis clades, controlling for the potential confounding effect of range size. Using two approaches (clade-based and QuaSSE) we explored the association between niche metrics and diversification rates in Anolis lizards. Results We found that Caribbean Anolis had a narrower niche breadth and niche space occupation compared to mainland anoles after controlling for range size differences. There was a significant association between niche traits (mean niche position and niche breadth) and diversification in anoles. Anole lineages with narrow niche breadths and that occupy warmer areas exhibited higher speciation rates than those with broader niche breadths and that occupy cold areas. Similarly, clades with higher total diversification exhibit more niche diversity than clades with lower total diversification. Main conclusions Climatic niche attributes play a role in anole diversification with some differences between mainland and insular anole lineages. Climatic niche differences between regions and clades likely are related to differences in niche evolutionary rates. This also suggests that climate plays a strong role in shaping species richness between and within mainland and islands.

    @article{ISI:000367691100012,
    Author = {Velasco, Julian A. and Martinez-Meyer, Enrique and Flores-Villela, Oscar and Garcia, Andr Es and Algar, Adam C. and Koehler, Gunther and Daza, Juan M.},
    Title = {Climatic niche attributes and diversification in Anolis lizards},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {43},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {134-144},
    Abstract = {Aim The aim of this study was to test the link between climatic niche dynamics and species diversification in Anolis on islands and on the mainland. We tested the hypotheses that lineages in warmer climates and with narrow climate niches diversified more than lineages in cold climates and with broad climate niches. We also tested the hypothesis that species-rich clades exhibit greater niche diversity than species-poor clades. Location Neotropics. Methods We collated occurrence records for 328 Anolis species to estimate niche breadth, niche position and occupied niche space (as a proxy for niche diversity). We compared niche breadth between insular and mainland Anolis species and among Anolis clades, controlling for the potential confounding effect of range size. Using two approaches (clade-based and QuaSSE) we explored the association between niche metrics and diversification rates in Anolis lizards. Results We found that Caribbean Anolis had a narrower niche breadth and niche space occupation compared to mainland anoles after controlling for range size differences. There was a significant association between niche traits (mean niche position and niche breadth) and diversification in anoles. Anole lineages with narrow niche breadths and that occupy warmer areas exhibited higher speciation rates than those with broader niche breadths and that occupy cold areas. Similarly, clades with higher total diversification exhibit more niche diversity than clades with lower total diversification. Main conclusions Climatic niche attributes play a role in anole diversification with some differences between mainland and insular anole lineages. Climatic niche differences between regions and clades likely are related to differences in niche evolutionary rates. This also suggests that climate plays a strong role in shaping species richness between and within mainland and islands.},
    }

  • H. N. Kerver and J. Wade, “Sexually dimorphic expression of creb binding protein in the green anole brain,” General and comparative endocrinology, vol. 225, pp. 55-60, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Green anoles are seasonally breeding lizards in which male sexual behavior is primarily regulated by an annual increase in testosterone. This hormone activates stereotyped behaviors, as well as morphological and biochemical changes in the brain, with greater effect in the breeding season than in the non-breeding season. This study is the first description of CREB binding protein (CBP) in the reptilian brain, and investigates the possibility that changes in CBP, an androgen receptor coactivator, may facilitate differences in responsiveness to testosterone across seasons. A portion of this gene was cloned for the green anole, and in situ hybridization was performed to examine the expression of CBP in the brains of gonadally intact male and female green anoles across breeding states. Additionally, hormonal regulation of CBP was evaluated across sex and season in animals that were gonadectomized and treated with testosterone or a control. Similar to other vertebrates, CBP was expressed at relatively high levels in steroid-sensitive brain regions. In the anole ventromedial amygdala, CBP mRNA levels were nearly twice as high in gonadally intact females compared to males. In contrast, CBP expression did not differ across seasons or hormone manipulation in this brain region. No significant effects were detected in the preoptic area or ventromedial hypothalamus. This pattern suggests that CBP might influence female-biased functions controlled by the ventromedial amygdala, but is not consistent with a role in mediating seasonal differences in responsiveness to testosterone in these areas associated with reproductive function. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    @article{ISI:000366953000006,
    Author = {Kerver, Halie N. and Wade, Juli},
    Title = {Sexually dimorphic expression of CREB binding protein in the green anole brain},
    Journal = {GENERAL AND COMPARATIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {225},
    Pages = {55-60},
    Abstract = {Green anoles are seasonally breeding lizards in which male sexual behavior is primarily regulated by an annual increase in testosterone. This hormone activates stereotyped behaviors, as well as morphological and biochemical changes in the brain, with greater effect in the breeding season than in the non-breeding season. This study is the first description of CREB binding protein (CBP) in the reptilian brain, and investigates the possibility that changes in CBP, an androgen receptor coactivator, may facilitate differences in responsiveness to testosterone across seasons. A portion of this gene was cloned for the green anole, and in situ hybridization was performed to examine the expression of CBP in the brains of gonadally intact male and female green anoles across breeding states. Additionally, hormonal regulation of CBP was evaluated across sex and season in animals that were gonadectomized and treated with testosterone or a control. Similar to other vertebrates, CBP was expressed at relatively high levels in steroid-sensitive brain regions. In the anole ventromedial amygdala, CBP mRNA levels were nearly twice as high in gonadally intact females compared to males. In contrast, CBP expression did not differ across seasons or hormone manipulation in this brain region. No significant effects were detected in the preoptic area or ventromedial hypothalamus. This pattern suggests that CBP might influence female-biased functions controlled by the ventromedial amygdala, but is not consistent with a role in mediating seasonal differences in responsiveness to testosterone in these areas associated with reproductive function. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.},
    }

  • C. E. Guarnizo, F. P. Werneck, L. G. Giugliano, M. G. Santos, J. Fenker, L. Sousa, A. B. D’Angiolella, A. R. dos Santos, C. Struessmann, M. T. Rodrigues, T. F. Dorado-Rodrigues, T. Gamble, and G. R. Colli, “Cryptic lineages and diversification of an endemic anole lizard (squamata, dactyloidae) of the cerrado hotspot,” Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, vol. 94, iss. A, pp. 279-289, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The Cerrado is a wide Neotropical savanna with tremendously high endemic diversity. Yet, it is not clear what the prevalent processes leading to such diversification are. We used the Cerrado-endemic lizard Norops meridionalis to investigate the main abiotic factors that promoted genetic divergence, the timings of these divergence events, and how these relate to cryptic diversity in the group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from 21 sites of N. meridionalis to generate species tree, divergence time estimations, and estimate species limits. We also performed population-level analysis and estimated distribution models to test the roles of niche conservatism and divergence in the group diversification. We found that N. meridionalis is composed by at least five cryptic species. Divergence time estimations suggest that the deepest branches split back into the early-mid Miocene, when most of the geophysical activity of the Cerrado took place. The deep divergences found in N. meridionalis suggest that beta anoles invaded South America much earlier than previously thought. Recent published evidence supports this view, indicating that the Panama gap closed as early as 15 mya, allowing for an early invasion of Norops into South America. The spatial pattern of diversification within N. meridionalis follows a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent across several species of vertebrates endemic to the Cerrado. Also, we found evidence for non-stationary isolation by distance, which occurs when genetic differentiation depends on space. Our preliminary data in two out of five lineages suggest that niche conservatism is an important mechanism that promoted geographic fragmentation in the group. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    @article{ISI:000365935400025,
    Author = {Guarnizo, Carlos E. and Werneck, Fernanda P. and Giugliano, Lilian G. and Santos, Marcella G. and Fenker, Jessica and Sousa, Lucas and D'Angiolella, Annelise B. and dos Santos, Adriana R. and Struessmann, Christine and Rodrigues, Miguel T. and Dorado-Rodrigues, Taina F. and Gamble, Tony and Colli, Guarino R.},
    Title = {Cryptic lineages and diversification of an endemic anole lizard (Squamata, Dactyloidae) of the Cerrado hotspot},
    Journal = {MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS AND EVOLUTION},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {94},
    Number = {A},
    Pages = {279-289},
    Abstract = {The Cerrado is a wide Neotropical savanna with tremendously high endemic diversity. Yet, it is not clear what the prevalent processes leading to such diversification are. We used the Cerrado-endemic lizard Norops meridionalis to investigate the main abiotic factors that promoted genetic divergence, the timings of these divergence events, and how these relate to cryptic diversity in the group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from 21 sites of N. meridionalis to generate species tree, divergence time estimations, and estimate species limits. We also performed population-level analysis and estimated distribution models to test the roles of niche conservatism and divergence in the group diversification. We found that N. meridionalis is composed by at least five cryptic species. Divergence time estimations suggest that the deepest branches split back into the early-mid Miocene, when most of the geophysical activity of the Cerrado took place. The deep divergences found in N. meridionalis suggest that beta anoles invaded South America much earlier than previously thought. Recent published evidence supports this view, indicating that the Panama gap closed as early as 15 mya, allowing for an early invasion of Norops into South America. The spatial pattern of diversification within N. meridionalis follows a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent across several species of vertebrates endemic to the Cerrado. Also, we found evidence for non-stationary isolation by distance, which occurs when genetic differentiation depends on space. Our preliminary data in two out of five lineages suggest that niche conservatism is an important mechanism that promoted geographic fragmentation in the group. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.},
    }

  • L. Todd, L. Suarez, N. Squires, C. P. Zelinka, K. Gribbins, and A. J. Fischer, “Comparative analysis of glucagonergic cells, glia, and the circumferential marginal zone in the reptilian retina,” Journal of comparative neurology, vol. 524, iss. 1, pp. 74-89, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Retinal progenitors in the circumferential marginal zone (CMZ) and Muller glia-derived progenitors have been well described for the eyes of fish, amphibians, and birds. However, there is no information regarding a CMZ and the nature of retinal glia in species phylogenetically bridging amphibians and birds. The purpose of this study was to examine the retinal glia and investigate whether a CMZ is present in the eyes of reptilian species. We used immunohistochemical analyses to study retinal glia, neurons that could influence CMZ progenitors, the retinal margin, and the nonpigmented epithelium of ciliary body of garter snakes, queen snakes, anole lizards, snapping turtles, and painted turtles. We compare our observations on reptile eyes to the CMZ and glia of fish, amphibians, and birds. In all species, Sox9, Pax6, and the glucocorticoid receptor are expressed by Muller glia and cells at the retinal margin. However, proliferating cells were found only in the CMZ of turtles and not in the eyes of anoles and snakes. Similar to eyes of chickens, the retinal margin in turtles contains accumulations of GLP1/glucagonergic neurites. We find that filamentous proteins, vimentin and GFAP, are expressed by Muller glia, but have different patterns of subcellular localization in the different species of reptiles. We provide evidence that the reptile retina may contain nonastrocytic inner retinal glial cells, similar to those described in the avian retina. We conclude that the retinal glia, glucagonergic neurons, and CMZ of turtles appear to be most similar to those of fish, amphibians, and birds 2016. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    @article{ISI:000365719500006,
    Author = {Todd, Levi and Suarez, Lilianna and Squires, Natalie and Zelinka, Christopher Paul and Gribbins, Kevin and Fischer, Andy J.},
    Title = {Comparative analysis of glucagonergic cells, glia, and the circumferential marginal zone in the reptilian retina},
    Journal = {JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY},
    Year = {2016},
    Volume = {524},
    Number = {1},
    Pages = {74-89},
    Abstract = {Retinal progenitors in the circumferential marginal zone (CMZ) and Muller glia-derived progenitors have been well described for the eyes of fish, amphibians, and birds. However, there is no information regarding a CMZ and the nature of retinal glia in species phylogenetically bridging amphibians and birds. The purpose of this study was to examine the retinal glia and investigate whether a CMZ is present in the eyes of reptilian species. We used immunohistochemical analyses to study retinal glia, neurons that could influence CMZ progenitors, the retinal margin, and the nonpigmented epithelium of ciliary body of garter snakes, queen snakes, anole lizards, snapping turtles, and painted turtles. We compare our observations on reptile eyes to the CMZ and glia of fish, amphibians, and birds. In all species, Sox9, Pax6, and the glucocorticoid receptor are expressed by Muller glia and cells at the retinal margin. However, proliferating cells were found only in the CMZ of turtles and not in the eyes of anoles and snakes. Similar to eyes of chickens, the retinal margin in turtles contains accumulations of GLP1/glucagonergic neurites. We find that filamentous proteins, vimentin and GFAP, are expressed by Muller glia, but have different patterns of subcellular localization in the different species of reptiles. We provide evidence that the reptile retina may contain nonastrocytic inner retinal glial cells, similar to those described in the avian retina. We conclude that the retinal glia, glucagonergic neurons, and CMZ of turtles appear to be most similar to those of fish, amphibians, and birds 2016. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.},
    }

2015

  • G. A. Woolrich-Piña, G. R. Smith, J. A. Lemos-Espinal, and J. P. Ramírez-Silva, “Observations on sexual dimorphism, sex ratio, and reproduction of anolis nebulosus (squamata: dactyloidae) from nayarit, mexico,” Phyllomedusa: journal of herpetology, vol. 14, iss. 1, pp. 67-71, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Woolrich-Pina:2015,
    author = {Woolrich-Pi{\~{n}}a, Guillermo A. and Smith, Geoffrey R. and Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. and Ram{\'{\i}}rez-Silva, Juan P.},
    journal = {Phyllomedusa: Journal of Herpetology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {67--71},
    title = {Observations on sexual dimorphism, sex ratio, and reproduction of Anolis nebulosus (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from Nayarit, Mexico},
    volume = {14},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • G. A. Woolrich-Piña, G. R. Smith, J. A. Lemos-Espinal, and J. P. Ramírez-Silva, “Do gravid female anolis nebulosus thermoregulate differently than males and non-gravid females?,” Journal of thermal biology, vol. 52, pp. 84-89, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Woolrich-Pina:2015a,
    author = {Woolrich-Pi{\~{n}}a, Guillermo A. and Smith, Geoffrey R. and Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. and Ram{\'{\i}}rez-Silva, Juan P.},
    journal = {Journal of thermal biology},
    pages = {84--89},
    title = {Do gravid female Anolis nebulosus thermoregulate differently than males and non-gravid females?},
    volume = {52},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • W. Wilczynski, M. P. Black, S. J. Salem, and C. B. Ezeoke, “Behavioural persistence during an agonistic encounter differentiates winners from losers in green anole lizards,” Behaviour, vol. 152, iss. 5, pp. 563-591, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Wilczynski:2015,
    author = {Wilczynski, Walter and Black, Michael P. and Salem, Scarlett J. and Ezeoke, Chisom B.},
    journal = {Behaviour},
    number = {5},
    pages = {563--591},
    title = {Behavioural persistence during an agonistic encounter differentiates winners from losers in green anole lizards},
    volume = {152},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • D. A. Warner, A. M. Buckelew, P. R. Pearson, and A. Dhawan, “The effect of prey availability on offspring survival depends on maternal food resources,” Biological journal of the linnean society, vol. 115, iss. 2, pp. 437-447, 2015.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Maternal nutrition can strongly influence embryo development and offspring fitness. The environmental matching hypothesis posits that developmental conditions affect offspring in ways that enable them to appropriately deal with similar post-developmental conditions, although mismatches between developmental and post-developmental environments will reduce fitness. To test this hypothesis, reproductive lizards (Anolis sagrei) were reared in environments with high versus low prey availability. The resultant offspring were then reared reciprocally under the same two prey conditions that their mothers experienced. High levels of prey available to mothers increased egg production, although the survival of eggs was low compared to those produced by mothers in the low-prey treatment. Low prey availability to offspring reduced growth, regardless of the amount of prey available to their mothers. Low prey availability also compromised offspring survival, although this negative effect was only present when mothers experienced high-prey conditions, whereas matching of low-prey conditions in maternal and offspring stages resulted in high survival. However, because the mismatch of low maternal and high offspring prey availability resulted in similar offspring survival to the matched treatments, our results do not fully support the environmental matching hypothesis. Nevertheless, the present study highlights the interactive role of maternal and post-hatching environments in generating variation in offspring fitness. \\copyright 2015 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2015, 115, 437–447.

    @article{Warner:2015a,
    abstract = {Maternal nutrition can strongly influence embryo development and offspring fitness. The environmental matching hypothesis posits that developmental conditions affect offspring in ways that enable them to appropriately deal with similar post-developmental conditions, although mismatches between developmental and post-developmental environments will reduce fitness. To test this hypothesis, reproductive lizards (Anolis sagrei) were reared in environments with high versus low prey availability. The resultant offspring were then reared reciprocally under the same two prey conditions that their mothers experienced. High levels of prey available to mothers increased egg production, although the survival of eggs was low compared to those produced by mothers in the low-prey treatment. Low prey availability to offspring reduced growth, regardless of the amount of prey available to their mothers. Low prey availability also compromised offspring survival, although this negative effect was only present when mothers experienced high-prey conditions, whereas matching of low-prey conditions in maternal and offspring stages resulted in high survival. However, because the mismatch of low maternal and high offspring prey availability resulted in similar offspring survival to the matched treatments, our results do not fully support the environmental matching hypothesis. Nevertheless, the present study highlights the interactive role of maternal and post-hatching environments in generating variation in offspring fitness. \\copyright 2015 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2015, 115, 437--447.},
    author = {Warner, Daniel A. and Buckelew, Andrew M. and Pearson, Phillip R. and Dhawan, Agam},
    journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society},
    month = jun,
    number = {2},
    pages = {437--447},
    title = {The effect of prey availability on offspring survival depends on maternal food resources},
    volume = {115},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • D. A. Warner, S. M. Secor, M. S. Johnson, and T. R. Nagy, “A preliminary evaluation of energy and nutrient availability across an island landscape, and its fitness consequences in the brown anole lizard,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2015, p. E349.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Warner:2015,
    author = {Warner, D. A. and Secor, S. M. and Johnson, M. S. and Nagy, T. R.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E349},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {A Preliminary Evaluation of Energy and Nutrient Availability across an Island Landscape, and its Fitness Consequences in the Brown Anole Lizard},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • H. Wakasa, A. Cádiz, L. M. Echenique-Díaz, W. M. Iwasaki, N. Kamiyama, Y. Nishimura, H. Yokoyama, K. Tamura, and M. Kawata, “Developmental stages for the divergence of relative limb length between a twig and a trunk-ground anolis lizard species,” Journal of experimental zoology part b: molecular and developmental evolution, vol. 324, iss. 5, pp. 410-423, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Wakasa:2015,
    author = {Wakasa, Hajime and C{\'{a}}diz, Antonio and Echenique-D{\'{\i}}az, L{\'{a}}zaro M. and Iwasaki, Watal M. and Kamiyama, Namiko and Nishimura, Yuki and Yokoyama, Hitoshi and Tamura, Koji and Kawata, Masakado},
    journal = {Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution},
    number = {5},
    pages = {410--423},
    title = {Developmental stages for the divergence of relative limb length between a twig and a trunk-ground Anolis lizard species},
    volume = {324},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • B. Vazquez and B. Hilje, “How habitat type, sex, and body region influence predatory attacks on norops lizards in a pre-montane wet forest in costa rica: an approach using clay models,” Herpetology notes, vol. 8, pp. 205-212, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Vazquez:2015,
    author = {Vazquez, Britney and Hilje, Branko},
    journal = {Herpetology Notes},
    pages = {205--212},
    title = {How habitat type, sex, and body region influence predatory attacks on Norops lizards in a pre-montane wet forest in Costa Rica: an approach using clay models},
    volume = {8},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • B. Vanhooydonck, K. Huyghe, V. Holá{v n}ová, S. Dongen, and A. Herrel, “Differential growth of naturally and sexually selected traits in an anolis lizard,” Journal of zoology, vol. 296, iss. 4, pp. 231-238, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Vanhooydonck:2015,
    author = {Vanhooydonck, Beatrijs and Huyghe, Katleen and Hol{\'{a}}{v n}ov{\'{a}}, V. and Dongen, S. and Herrel, Anthony},
    journal = {Journal of Zoology},
    number = {4},
    pages = {231--238},
    title = {Differential growth of naturally and sexually selected traits in an Anolis lizard},
    volume = {296},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • M. Toni, F. De Angelis, R. Vaccaro, A. Casini, and C. Cioni, “Synuclein expression in the lizard anolis carolinensis,” Italian journal of anatomy and embryology, vol. 120, iss. 1, p. 193, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Toni:2015,
    author = {Toni, Mattia and De Angelis, Federica and Vaccaro, Rosa and Casini, Arianna and Cioni, Carla},
    journal = {Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {193},
    title = {Synuclein expression in the lizard Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {120},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • M. Tollis, “Diversity and evolution of transposable elements across four anolis lizard genomes,” in Plant and animal genome xxiii conference, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Tollis:2015,
    author = {Tollis, Marc},
    booktitle = {Plant and Animal Genome XXIII Conference},
    publisher = {Plant and Animal Genome},
    title = {Diversity and Evolution of Transposable Elements Across Four Anolis Lizard Genomes},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • R. S. Thorpe, A. Barlow, A. Malhotra, and Y. Surget-Groba, “Widespread parallel population adaptation to climate variation across a radiation: implications for adaptation to climate change,” Molecular ecology, vol. 24, iss. 5, pp. 1019-1030, 2015.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Global warming will impact species in a number of ways, and it is important to know the extent to which natural populations can adapt to anthropogenic climate change by natural selection. Parallel microevolution within separate species can demonstrate natural selection, but several studies of homoplasy have not yet revealed examples of widespread parallel evolution in a generic radiation. Taking into account primary phylogeographic divisions, we investigate numerous quantitative traits (size, shape, scalation, colour pattern and hue) in anole radiations from the mountainous Lesser Antillean islands. Adaptation to climatic differences can lead to very pronounced differences between spatially close populations with all studied traits showing some evidence of parallel evolution. Traits from shape, scalation, pattern and hue (particularly the latter) show widespread evolutionary parallels within these species in response to altitudinal climate variation greater than extreme anthropogenic climate change predicted for 2080. This gives strong evidence of the ability to adapt to climate variation by natural selection throughout this radiation. As anoles can evolve very rapidly, it suggests anthropogenic climate change is likely to be less of a conservation threat than other factors, such as habitat loss and invasive species, in this, Lesser Antillean, biodiversity hot spot.

    @article{Thorpe:2015,
    abstract = {Global warming will impact species in a number of ways, and it is important to know the extent to which natural populations can adapt to anthropogenic climate change by natural selection. Parallel microevolution within separate species can demonstrate natural selection, but several studies of homoplasy have not yet revealed examples of widespread parallel evolution in a generic radiation. Taking into account primary phylogeographic divisions, we investigate numerous quantitative traits (size, shape, scalation, colour pattern and hue) in anole radiations from the mountainous Lesser Antillean islands. Adaptation to climatic differences can lead to very pronounced differences between spatially close populations with all studied traits showing some evidence of parallel evolution. Traits from shape, scalation, pattern and hue (particularly the latter) show widespread evolutionary parallels within these species in response to altitudinal climate variation greater than extreme anthropogenic climate change predicted for 2080. This gives strong evidence of the ability to adapt to climate variation by natural selection throughout this radiation. As anoles can evolve very rapidly, it suggests anthropogenic climate change is likely to be less of a conservation threat than other factors, such as habitat loss and invasive species, in this, Lesser Antillean, biodiversity hot spot.},
    author = {Thorpe, Roger S. and Barlow, Axel and Malhotra, Anita and Surget-Groba, Yann},
    journal = {Molecular Ecology},
    month = mar,
    number = {5},
    pages = {1019--1030},
    title = {Widespread parallel population adaptation to climate variation across a radiation: implications for adaptation to climate change},
    volume = {24},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • H. Sugawara, H. Takahashi, and F. Hayashi, “Microsatellite analysis of the population genetic structure of anolis carolinensis introduced to the ogasawara islands,” Zoological science, vol. 32, iss. 1, pp. 47-52, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Sugawara:2015,
    author = {Sugawara, Hirotaka and Takahashi, Hiroo and Hayashi, Fumio},
    journal = {Zoological science},
    number = {1},
    pages = {47--52},
    title = {Microsatellite Analysis of the Population Genetic Structure of Anolis carolinensis Introduced to the Ogasawara Islands},
    volume = {32},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. M. Stercula, M. S. Patton, L. A. Selznick, and M. A. Johnson, “The role of myoblast fusion in the evolution of muscle fiber size in anolis lizards,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2015, p. E336.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Stercula:2015,
    author = {Stercula, J. M. and Patton, M. S. and Selznick, L. A. and Johnson, M. A.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E336},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {The role of myoblast fusion in the evolution of muscle fiber size in Anolis lizards},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. Stapley, M. Garcia, and R. M. Andrews, “Long-Term data reveal a population decline of the tropical lizard anolis apletophallus, and a negative affect of el nino years on population growth rate,” Plos one, vol. 10, iss. 2, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Stapley:2015,
    author = {Stapley, Jessica and Garcia, Milton and Andrews, Robin M.},
    journal = {PloS one},
    number = {2},
    title = {{Long-Term} Data Reveal a Population Decline of the Tropical Lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a Negative Affect of El Nino Years on Population Growth Rate},
    volume = {10},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • H. H. Siliceo-Cantero and A. García, “Actividad y uso del hábitat de una población insular y una continental de lagartijas anolis nebulosus (squamata: polychrotidae) en un ambiente estacional,” Revista mexicana de biodiversidad, vol. 86, iss. 2, pp. 406-411, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Siliceo-Cantero:2015,
    author = {Siliceo-Cantero, Hector H. and Garc{\'{\i}}a, Andr{\'{e}}s},
    journal = {Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad},
    number = {2},
    pages = {406--411},
    title = {Actividad y uso del h\'{a}bitat de una poblaci\'{o}n insular y una continental de lagartijas Anolis nebulosus (Squamata: Polychrotidae) en un ambiente estacional},
    volume = {86},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • E. A. Sathe and J. F. Husak, “Sprint sensitivity and locomotor trade-offs in green anole (anolis carolinensis) lizards,” Journal of experimental biology, vol. 218, iss. 14, pp. 2174-2179, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Sathe:2015,
    author = {Sathe, Erik A. and Husak, Jerry F.},
    journal = {Journal of Experimental Biology},
    number = {14},
    pages = {2174--2179},
    title = {Sprint sensitivity and locomotor trade-offs in green anole (Anolis carolinensis) lizards},
    volume = {218},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • S. Sánchez, “Depredación de anolis sagrei por dives dives en méxico,” Bolet\\’\\in de la asociación herpetológica española, vol. 26, iss. 1, pp. 16-18, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Sanchez:2015,
    author = {S{\'{a}}nchez, Sa{\'{u}}l},
    journal = {Bolet\\'\\in de la Asociaci\'{o}n Herpetol\'{o}gica Espa\~{n}ola},
    number = {1},
    pages = {16--18},
    title = {Depredaci\'{o}n de Anolis sagrei por Dives dives en M\'{e}xico},
    volume = {26},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • S. M. Rovito, T. J. Devitt, and S. C. Devitt, “First survey of the amphibians and reptiles of the nectandra cloud forest reserve, alajuela, costa rica,” Check list, vol. 11, iss. 2, p. 1570, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Rovito:2015,
    author = {Rovito, Sean M. and Devitt, Thomas J. and Devitt, Susan C.},
    journal = {Check List},
    number = {2},
    pages = {1570},
    title = {First survey of the amphibians and reptiles of the Nectandra Cloud Forest Reserve, Alajuela, Costa Rica},
    volume = {11},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. Robertson, B. Garns, S. Gilpin, M. Jordan, M. Elkins, K. Kusumi, and R. Fisher, “Forelimb anatomy of three anole lizards: anolis equestris, a. frenatus, and a. biporcatus,” The faseb journal, vol. 29, iss. 1 Supplement, pp. 865-12, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Robertson:2015,
    author = {Robertson, Joel and Garns, Ben and Gilpin, Shannon and Jordan, Melissa and Elkins, Molly and Kusumi, Kenro and Fisher, Rebecca},
    journal = {The FASEB Journal},
    number = {1 Supplement},
    pages = {865--12},
    title = {Forelimb anatomy of three anole lizards: Anolis equestris, A. frenatus, and A. biporcatus},
    volume = {29},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • M. A. Ribeiro-Junior, “Catalogue of distribution of lizards (reptilia: squamata) from the brazilian amazonia. i. dactyloidae, hoplocercidae, iguanidae, leiosauridae, polychrotidae, tropiduridae,” Zootaxa, vol. 3983, iss. 1, pp. 1-110, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Ribeiro-Junior:2015,
    author = {Ribeiro-Junior, Marco A.},
    journal = {Zootaxa},
    number = {1},
    pages = {1--110},
    title = {Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. I. Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae},
    volume = {3983},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • L. J. Revell, L. D. Mahler, G. R. Reynolds, and G. J. Slater, “Placing cryptic, recently extinct, or hypothesized taxa into an ultrametric phylogeny using continuous character data: a case study with the lizard anolis roosevelti,” Evolution, vol. 69, iss. 4, pp. 1027-1035, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Revell:2015,
    author = {Revell, Liam J. and Mahler, D. Luke and Reynolds, R. Graham and Slater, Graham J.},
    journal = {Evolution},
    number = {4},
    pages = {1027--1035},
    title = {Placing cryptic, recently extinct, or hypothesized taxa into an ultrametric phylogeny using continuous character data: A case study with the lizard Anolis roosevelti},
    volume = {69},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • M. Rengifo, J. Tailor, F. Castro Herrera, and P. Iraizos, “Uso de hábitat y relaciones ecomorfológicas de un ensamble de anolis (lacertilia: dactyloidae) en la región natural chocoana, colombia,” Acta zoológica mexicana, vol. 31, iss. 2, pp. 159-172, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Rengifo:2015,
    author = {Rengifo, M. and Tailor, Jhon and Castro Herrera, Fernando and Iraizos, Purroy},
    journal = {Acta zool\'{o}gica mexicana},
    number = {2},
    pages = {159--172},
    title = {Uso de h\'{a}bitat y relaciones ecomorfol\'{o}gicas de un ensamble de Anolis (Lacertilia: Dactyloidae) en la regi\'{o}n natural Chocoana, Colombia},
    volume = {31},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • A. M. Reedy, C. L. Cox, A. K. Chung, W. J. Evans, and R. M. Cox, “Both sexes suffer increased parasitism and reduced energy storage as costs of reproduction in the brown anole, anolis sagrei,” Biological journal of the linnean society, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Reedy:2015,
    author = {Reedy, Aaron M. and Cox, Christian L. and Chung, Albert K. and Evans, William J. and Cox, Robert M.},
    journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society},
    title = {Both sexes suffer increased parasitism and reduced energy storage as costs of reproduction in the brown anole, Anolis sagrei},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • D. R. Quirola Rodríguez, “Insights into social interactions in the ecuadorian horned anole, anolis proboscis,” , 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Quirola-Rodriguez:2015,
    author = {Quirola Rodr{\'{\i}}guez, Diego R.},
    title = {Insights into social interactions in the Ecuadorian horned anole, Anolis proboscis},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • D. Quirola, A. Marmol, O. Torres-Carvajal, and I. T. Moore, “Use of the proboscis during social interactions in the ecuadorian horned anole, anolis proboscis,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2015, p. E317.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Quirola:2015,
    author = {Quirola, D. and Marmol, A. and Torres-Carvajal, O. and Moore, I. T.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E317},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Use of the proboscis during social interactions in the Ecuadorian Horned Anole, Anolis proboscis},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • I. Prates, M. T. Rodrigues, P. R. Melo-Sampaio, and A. C. Carnaval, “Phylogenetic relationships of amazonian anole lizards (dactyloa): taxonomic implications, new insights about phenotypic evolution and the timing of diversification,” Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, vol. 82, pp. 258-268, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Prates:2015,
    author = {Prates, Ivan and Rodrigues, Miguel T. and Melo-Sampaio, Paulo R. and Carnaval, Ana C.},
    journal = {Molecular phylogenetics and evolution},
    pages = {258--268},
    title = {Phylogenetic relationships of Amazonian anole lizards (Dactyloa): taxonomic implications, new insights about phenotypic evolution and the timing of diversification},
    volume = {82},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • S. Poe, I. Latella, F. Ayala-Varela, C. Yañez-Miranda, and O. Torres-Carvajal, “A new species of phenacosaur anolis (squamata; iguanidae) from peru and a comprehensive phylogeny of dactyloa-clade anolis based on new DNA sequences and morphology,” Copeia, vol. 103, iss. 3, pp. 639-650, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Poe:2015,
    author = {Poe, Steven and Latella, Ian and Ayala-Varela, Fernando and Ya{\~{n}}ez-Miranda, Christian and Torres-Carvajal, Omar},
    journal = {Copeia},
    number = {3},
    pages = {639--650},
    title = {A New Species of Phenacosaur Anolis (Squamata; Iguanidae) from Peru and a Comprehensive Phylogeny of Dactyloa-clade Anolis Based on New {DNA} Sequences and Morphology},
    volume = {103},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • S. Poe, S. Scarpetta, and E. W. Schaad, “A new species of anolis (squamata: iguanidae) from panama,” Amphibian & reptile conservation, vol. 9, iss. 1, pp. 1-13, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Poe:2015a,
    author = {Poe, S. and Scarpetta, S. and Schaad, E. W.},
    journal = {Amphibian \& Reptile Conservation},
    number = {1},
    pages = {1--13},
    title = {A new species of Anolis (Squamata: Iguanidae) from Panama},
    volume = {9},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • E. Pinilla-Renteria, J. T. Rengifo-Mosquera, and J. Salas Londoño, “Dimorphism, habitat use and diet for anolis maculiventris (lacertilia: dactyloidae), in tropical rainforest in chocó, colombia,” Acta biológica colombiana, vol. 20, iss. 1, pp. 89-100, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{PINILLA-RENTERIA:2015,
    author = {Pinilla-Renteria, Efren and Rengifo-Mosquera, Jhon T. and Salas Londo{\~{n}}o, Jovanny},
    journal = {Acta Biol\'{o}gica Colombiana},
    number = {1},
    pages = {89--100},
    title = {Dimorphism, habitat use and diet for Anolis maculiventris (Lacertilia: Dactyloidae), in tropical rainforest in Choc\'{o}, Colombia},
    volume = {20},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • E. Pinilla-Renteria, J. T. Rengifo-Mosquera, and J. S. A. L. A. S. Londoño, “DIMORFISMO, USO DE HÁBITAT y DIETA DE anolis maculiventris (LACERTILIA: DACTYLOIDAE), EN BOSQUE PLUVIAL TROPICAL DEL CHOCÓ, COLOMBIA dimorphism, habitat use and diet for anolis maculiventris (lacertilia: dactyloidae), in tropical rainforest in chocó, colombia,” Acta biológica colombiana, vol. 20, iss. 1, pp. 89-100, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{PINILLA-RENTERIA:2015a,
    author = {Pinilla-Renteria, Efren and Rengifo-Mosquera, Jhon T. and Londo{\~{n}}o, Jovanny S. A. L. A. S.},
    journal = {Acta Biol\'{o}gica Colombiana},
    number = {1},
    pages = {89--100},
    title = {{DIMORFISMO}, {USO} {DE} {H\'{A}BITAT} Y {DIETA} {DE} Anolis maculiventris ({LACERTILIA}: {DACTYLOIDAE}), {EN} {BOSQUE} {PLUVIAL} {TROPICAL} {DEL} {CHOC\'{O}}, {COLOMBIA} Dimorphism, habitat use and diet for Anolis maculiventris (Lacertilia: Dactyloidae), in tropical rainforest in Choc\'{o}, Colombia},
    volume = {20},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. G. Phillips, J. Deitloff, C. Guyer, S. Huetteman, and K. E. Nicholson, “Biogeography and evolution of a widespread central american lizard species complex: norops humilis, (squamata: dactyloidae),” Bmc evolutionary biology, vol. 15, p. 143, 2015.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Caribbean anole lizards (Dactyloidae) have frequently been used as models to study questions regarding biogeography and adaptive radiations, but the evolutionary history of Central American anoles (particularly those of the genus Norops) has not been well studied. Previous work has hypothesized a north-to-south dispersal pattern of Central American Norops, but no studies have examined dispersal within any Norops lineages. Here we test two major hypotheses for the dispersal of the N. humilis/quaggulus complex (defined herein, forming a subset within Savage and Guyer’s N. humilis group).

    @article{Phillips:2015,
    abstract = {Caribbean anole lizards (Dactyloidae) have frequently been used as models to study questions regarding biogeography and adaptive radiations, but the evolutionary history of Central American anoles (particularly those of the genus Norops) has not been well studied. Previous work has hypothesized a north-to-south dispersal pattern of Central American Norops, but no studies have examined dispersal within any Norops lineages. Here we test two major hypotheses for the dispersal of the N. humilis/quaggulus complex (defined herein, forming a subset within Savage and Guyer's N. humilis group).},
    annote = {Pages 1-13 in PDF},
    author = {Phillips, John G. and Deitloff, Jennifer and Guyer, Craig and Huetteman, Sara and Nicholson, Kirsten E.},
    journal = {BMC Evolutionary Biology},
    pages = {143},
    title = {Biogeography and evolution of a widespread Central American lizard species complex: Norops humilis, (Squamata: Dactyloidae)},
    volume = {15},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • O. Pérez-Beato, “A new subspecies of anolis porcatus (sauna: polychrotidae) from western cuba,” International journal of tropical biology and conservation, vol. 44, iss. 3, pp. 295-299, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Perez-Beato:2015,
    author = {P{\'{e}}rez-Beato, O.},
    journal = {International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation},
    number = {3},
    pages = {295--299},
    title = {A new subspecies of Anolis porcatus (Sauna: Polychrotidae) from Western Cuba},
    volume = {44},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • K. O. Perez and S. B. Munch, “Sustained costs of growth and the trajectory of recovery,” Functional ecology, vol. 29, iss. 3, pp. 393-403, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Perez:2015,
    author = {Perez, Kestrel O. and Munch, Stephan B.},
    journal = {Functional Ecology},
    number = {3},
    pages = {393--403},
    title = {Sustained costs of growth and the trajectory of recovery},
    volume = {29},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • L. M. Otero López and A. M. Sabat, “Reproductive phenology, fecundity, survival and growth of puerto rican anolis lizards in the context of climate warming,” , 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Otero-Lopez:2015,
    author = {Otero L{\'{o}}pez, Luisa M. and Sabat, Alberto M.},
    title = {Reproductive Phenology, Fecundity, Survival and Growth of Puerto Rican Anolis Lizards in the Context of Climate Warming},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • L. M. Otero, R. B. Huey, and G. C. Gorman, “A few meters matter: local habitats drive reproductive cycles in a tropical lizard,” The american naturalist, vol. 186, iss. 3, p. E72–E80, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Otero:2015,
    author = {Otero, Luisa M. and Huey, Raymond B. and Gorman, George C.},
    journal = {The American Naturalist},
    number = {3},
    pages = {E72--E80},
    title = {A Few Meters Matter: Local Habitats Drive Reproductive Cycles in a Tropical Lizard},
    volume = {186},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • T. J. Ord, D. A. Klomp, J. Garcia-Porta, and M. Hagman, “Repeated evolution of exaggerated dewlaps and other throat morphology in lizards,” Journal of evolutionary biology, vol. 28, iss. 11, pp. 1948-1964, 2015.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The existence of elaborate ornamental structures in males is often assumed to reflect the outcome of female mate choice for showy males. However, female mate choice appears weak in many iguanian lizards, but males still exhibit an array of ornament-like structures around the throat. We performed a phylogenetic comparative study to assess whether these structures have originated in response to male–male competition or the need for improved signal efficiency in visually difficult environments. We found little evidence for the influence of male–male competition. Instead, forest species were more likely to exhibit colourful throat appendages than species living in open habitats, suggesting selection for signal efficiency. On at least three independent occasions, throat ornamentation has become further elaborated into a large, conspicuously coloured moving dewlap. Although the function of the dewlap is convergent, the underlying hyoid apparatus has evolved very differently, revealing the same adaptive outcome has been achieved through multiple evolutionary trajectories. More generally, our findings highlight that extravagant, ornament-like morphology can evolve in males without the direct influence of female mate choice and that failure to consider alternative hypotheses for the evolution of these structures can obscure the true origins of signal diversity among closely related taxa.

    @article{Ord:2015,
    abstract = {The existence of elaborate ornamental structures in males is often assumed to reflect the outcome of female mate choice for showy males. However, female mate choice appears weak in many iguanian lizards, but males still exhibit an array of ornament-like structures around the throat. We performed a phylogenetic comparative study to assess whether these structures have originated in response to male--male competition or the need for improved signal efficiency in visually difficult environments. We found little evidence for the influence of male--male competition. Instead, forest species were more likely to exhibit colourful throat appendages than species living in open habitats, suggesting selection for signal efficiency. On at least three independent occasions, throat ornamentation has become further elaborated into a large, conspicuously coloured moving dewlap. Although the function of the dewlap is convergent, the underlying hyoid apparatus has evolved very differently, revealing the same adaptive outcome has been achieved through multiple evolutionary trajectories. More generally, our findings highlight that extravagant, ornament-like morphology can evolve in males without the direct influence of female mate choice and that failure to consider alternative hypotheses for the evolution of these structures can obscure the true origins of signal diversity among closely related taxa.},
    author = {Ord, T. J. and Klomp, D. A. and Garcia-Porta, J. and Hagman, M.},
    journal = {Journal of Evolutionary Biology},
    month = nov,
    number = {11},
    pages = {1948--1964},
    title = {Repeated evolution of exaggerated dewlaps and other throat morphology in lizards},
    volume = {28},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • M. E. Oberndorf, B. K. Kircher, and M. A. Johnson, “Static and dynamic visual displays in anole lizards,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2015, p. E309.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Oberndorf:2015,
    author = {Oberndorf, M. E. and Kircher, B. K. and Johnson, M. A.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E309},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Static and Dynamic Visual Displays in Anole Lizards},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. Nash, J. Price, and R. M. Cox, “Photoperiodic hatching rhythms suggest circadian entrainment of anolis sagrei eggs,” Journal of herpetology, vol. 49, iss. 4, pp. 611-615, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Nash:2015,
    author = {Nash, Joshua and Price, Jennifer and Cox, Robert M.},
    journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
    number = {4},
    pages = {611--615},
    title = {Photoperiodic Hatching Rhythms Suggest Circadian Entrainment of Anolis sagrei Eggs},
    volume = {49},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • M. M. Muñoz, K. E. Crandell, S. C. Campbell-Staton, K. Fenstermacher, H. K. Frank, P. Van Middlesworth, M. Sasa, J. B. Losos, and A. Herrel, “Multiple paths to aquatic specialisation in four species of central american anolis lizards,” Journal of natural history, vol. 49, iss. 27-28, pp. 1717-1730, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Munoz:2015,
    author = {Mu{\~{n}}oz, Martha M. and Crandell, Kristen E. and Campbell-Staton, Shane C. and Fenstermacher, Kristi and Frank, Hannah K. and Van Middlesworth, Paul and Sasa, Mahmood and Losos, Jonathan B. and Herrel, Anthony},
    journal = {Journal of Natural History},
    number = {27-28},
    pages = {1717--1730},
    title = {Multiple paths to aquatic specialisation in four species of Central American Anolis lizards},
    volume = {49},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • R. A. Moreno-Arias and M. L. Calderón-Espinosa, “Patterns of morphological diversification of mainland anolis lizards from northwestern south america,” Zoological journal of the linnean society, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Moreno-Arias:2015,
    author = {Moreno-Arias, Rafael A. and Calder{\'{o}}n-Espinosa, Martha L.},
    journal = {Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society},
    title = {Patterns of morphological diversification of mainland Anolis lizards from northwestern South America},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • N. Mitani, K. Anyoji, Y. Uzuki, and K. Taga, “Feasibility of bait attraction in the green anole (anolis carolinensis),” Current herpetology, vol. 34, iss. 2, pp. 164-171, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Mitani:2015,
    author = {Mitani, Naho and Anyoji, Kazuma and Uzuki, Yasutaka and Taga, Kohta},
    journal = {Current Herpetology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {164--171},
    title = {Feasibility of Bait Attraction in the Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis)},
    volume = {34},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • D. O. Mesquita, G. C. Costa, A. S. Figueredo, F. G. R. Fran{c c}a, A. A. Garda, A. H. Bello Soares, L. Tavares-Bastos, M. M. Vasconcellos, G. H. C. Vieira, L. J. Vitt, and Others, “The autecology of anolis brasiliensis (squamata, dactyloidae) in a neotropical savanna,” The herpetological journal, vol. 25, iss. 4, pp. 233-244, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Mesquita:2015a,
    author = {Mesquita, Daniel O. and Costa, Gabriel C. and Figueredo, Adriano S. and Fran{c c}a, Frederico G. R. and Garda, Adrian A. and Bello Soares, Ana H. and Tavares-Bastos, Leonora and Vasconcellos, Mariana M. and Vieira, Gustavo H. C. and Vitt, Laurie J. and {Others}},
    journal = {The Herpetological Journal},
    number = {4},
    pages = {233--244},
    title = {The autecology of Anolis brasiliensis (Squamata, Dactyloidae) in a Neotropical Savanna},
    volume = {25},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • E. McGrew, “A survey and discussion of the invasive anolis cristatellus and the endemic anolis oculatus,” , 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{McGrew:2015,
    author = {McGrew, Erin},
    title = {A Survey and Discussion of the Invasive Anolis cristatellus and the Endemic Anolis oculatus},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • M. T. Mcelroy, “Gene flow and the" bogert effect": genes move up mountains in the puerto rican crested anole (anolis cristatellus),” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2015, p. E122.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Mcelroy:2015,
    author = {Mcelroy, M. T.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E122},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Gene flow and the" Bogert effect": Genes move up mountains in the Puerto Rican Crested Anole (Anolis cristatellus)},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. R. McCranie, “A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed,” Zootaxa, vol. 3931, iss. 3, pp. 352-386, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{McCranie:2015,
    author = {McCranie, James R.},
    journal = {Zootaxa},
    number = {3},
    pages = {352--386},
    title = {A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed},
    volume = {3931},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. R. McCranie and G. Köhler, “The anoles (reptilia: squamata: dactyloidae: anolis: norops) of honduras. systematics, distribution, and conservation,” Bulletin of the museum of comparative zoology, vol. 14, iss. 1, pp. 1-280, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{McCranie:2015a,
    author = {McCranie, James R. and K{\"{o}}hler, Gunther},
    journal = {Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {1--280},
    title = {The Anoles (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae: Anolis: Norops) of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation},
    volume = {14},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • C. T. McAllister, S. R. Seville, M. B. Connior, and S. E. Trauth, “A new species of eimeria schneider, 1875 (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from the brown anole anolis sagrei duméril & bibron (sauria: dactyloidae) in florida, USA,” Systematic parasitology, vol. 91, iss. 2, pp. 185-189, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{McAllister:2015,
    author = {McAllister, Chris T. and Seville, R. Scott and Connior, Matthew B. and Trauth, Stanley E.},
    journal = {Systematic parasitology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {185--189},
    title = {A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the brown anole Anolis sagrei Dum\'{e}ril \& Bibron (Sauria: Dactyloidae) in Florida, {USA}},
    volume = {91},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • C. T. McAllister, S. R. Seville, M. B. Connior, and S. E. Trauth, “A new species of eimeria (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from brown anole, anolis sagrei (sauria: dactyloidae) from florida, USA,” Systematic parasitology, vol. 91, iss. 2, p. 185, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{McAllister:2015a,
    author = {McAllister, Chris T. and Seville, R. Scott and Connior, Matthew B. and Trauth, Stanley E.},
    journal = {Systematic parasitology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {185},
    title = {A new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from brown anole, Anolis sagrei (Sauria: Dactyloidae) from Florida, {USA}},
    volume = {91},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. M. Macedonia, D. L. Clark, L. E. Cherry, N. E. Mohamed, and B. W. Bartel, “Comparison of headbob displays in Gray-Dewlapped and Red-Dewlapped populations of green anoles (anolis carolinensis),” Herpetologica, vol. 71, iss. 2, pp. 117-124, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Macedonia:2015,
    author = {Macedonia, Joseph M. and Clark, David L. and Cherry, Lauren E. and Mohamed, Natasha E. and Bartel, Bradley W.},
    journal = {Herpetologica},
    number = {2},
    pages = {117--124},
    title = {Comparison of Headbob Displays in {Gray-Dewlapped} and {Red-Dewlapped} Populations of Green Anoles (Anolis carolinensis)},
    volume = {71},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. M. Macedonia, D. L. Clark, N. Z. Brown, S. Gensterblum, L. McNabb, A. B. Myrberg, B. D. Myrberg, M. F. Petroche, and A. Karson, “Responses of anolis grahami males to manipulations of species identity and components of displays in lizard robots,” Herpetologica, vol. 71, iss. 2, pp. 110-116, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Macedonia:2015a,
    author = {Macedonia, Joseph M. and Clark, David L. and Brown, Z. Nicholas and Gensterblum, Sara and McNabb, Lauren and Myrberg, Ashley B. and Myrberg, Brooke D. and Petroche, Maria F. and Karson, Adam},
    journal = {Herpetologica},
    number = {2},
    pages = {110--116},
    title = {Responses of Anolis grahami Males to Manipulations of Species Identity and Components of Displays in Lizard Robots},
    volume = {71},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • T. P. Lozito and R. S. Tuan, “Lizard tail regeneration: regulation of two distinct cartilage regions by indian hedgehog,” Developmental biology, vol. 399, iss. 2, pp. 249-262, 2015.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Lizards capable of caudal autotomy exhibit the remarkable ability to “drop” and then regenerate their tails. However, the regenerated lizard tail ({RLT}) is known as an “imperfect replicate” due to several key anatomical differences compared to the original tail. Most striking of these “imperfections” concerns the skeleton; instead of the vertebrae of the original tail, the skeleton of the {RLT} takes the form of an unsegmented cartilage tube ({CT}). Here we have performed the first detailed staging of skeletal development of the {RLT} {CT}, identifying two distinct mineralization events. {CTs} isolated from {RLTs} of various ages were analyzed by micro-computed tomography to characterize mineralization, and to correlate skeletal development with expression of endochondral ossification markers evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. During early tail regeneration, shortly after {CT} formation, the extreme proximal {CT} in direct contact with the most terminal vertebra of the original tail develops a growth plate-like region that undergoes endochondral ossification. Proximal {CT} chondrocytes enlarge, express hypertrophic markers, including Indian hedgehog (Ihh), apoptose, and are replaced by bone. During later stages of tail regeneration, the distal {CT} mineralizes without endochondral ossification. The sub-perichondrium of the distal {CT} expresses Ihh, and the perichondrium directly calcifies without cartilage growth plate formation. The calcified {CT} perichondrium also contains a population of stem/progenitor cells that forms new cartilage in response to {TGF}-β stimulation. Treatment with the Ihh inhibitor cyclopamine inhibited both proximal {CT} ossification and distal {CT} calcification. Thus, while the two mineralization events are spatially, temporally, and mechanistically very different, they both involve Ihh. Taken together, these results suggest that Ihh regulates {CT} mineralization during two distinct stages of lizard tail regeneration.

    @article{Lozito:2015,
    abstract = {Lizards capable of caudal autotomy exhibit the remarkable ability to ``drop'' and then regenerate their tails. However, the regenerated lizard tail ({RLT}) is known as an ``imperfect replicate'' due to several key anatomical differences compared to the original tail. Most striking of these ``imperfections'' concerns the skeleton; instead of the vertebrae of the original tail, the skeleton of the {RLT} takes the form of an unsegmented cartilage tube ({CT}). Here we have performed the first detailed staging of skeletal development of the {RLT} {CT}, identifying two distinct mineralization events. {CTs} isolated from {RLTs} of various ages were analyzed by micro-computed tomography to characterize mineralization, and to correlate skeletal development with expression of endochondral ossification markers evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. During early tail regeneration, shortly after {CT} formation, the extreme proximal {CT} in direct contact with the most terminal vertebra of the original tail develops a growth plate-like region that undergoes endochondral ossification. Proximal {CT} chondrocytes enlarge, express hypertrophic markers, including Indian hedgehog (Ihh), apoptose, and are replaced by bone. During later stages of tail regeneration, the distal {CT} mineralizes without endochondral ossification. The sub-perichondrium of the distal {CT} expresses Ihh, and the perichondrium directly calcifies without cartilage growth plate formation. The calcified {CT} perichondrium also contains a population of stem/progenitor cells that forms new cartilage in response to {TGF}-β stimulation. Treatment with the Ihh inhibitor cyclopamine inhibited both proximal {CT} ossification and distal {CT} calcification. Thus, while the two mineralization events are spatially, temporally, and mechanistically very different, they both involve Ihh. Taken together, these results suggest that Ihh regulates {CT} mineralization during two distinct stages of lizard tail regeneration.},
    author = {Lozito, Thomas P. and Tuan, Rocky S.},
    journal = {Developmental Biology},
    month = mar,
    number = {2},
    pages = {249--262},
    title = {Lizard tail regeneration: regulation of two distinct cartilage regions by Indian hedgehog},
    volume = {399},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • L. M. López, “Reproductive phenology, fecundity, survival and growth of puerto rican anolis lizards in the context of climate warming.,” PhD Thesis, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @phdthesis{Lopez:2015,
    author = {L{\'{o}}pez, Luisa M.},
    school = {UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO RIO PIEDRAS},
    title = {REPRODUCTIVE PHENOLOGY, FECUNDITY, SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF PUERTO RICAN ANOLIS LIZARDS IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE WARMING.},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • M. L. Logan, S. G. Fernandez, and R. Calsbeek, “Abiotic constraints on the activity of tropical lizards,” Functional ecology, vol. 29, iss. 5, pp. 694-700, 2015.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    * Many tropical ectotherms are considered vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change because they have evolved to become thermal specialists. Indeed, several recent studies have suggested that even small increases in mean operative temperature may lead to a reduction in activity and the subsequent extinction of populations. Within the tropics, lizards are considered particularly vulnerable due to the potential for climate change to directly impact physiology and alter community interactions. However, models usually focus on the effects of mean operative temperature at the expense of other climate variables that may also affect lizard physiology. * We used daily variation in operative temperature, humidity and wind speed to examine how changes in climate influence activity in two species of lizards from the island of Cayo Menor, Honduras. Anolis lemurinus is a forest species, whereas A. allisoni is an open-habitat species. We conducted daily surveys for active lizards in habitat typical to each species, while simultaneously measuring operative thermal environments with physical models. The effects of the thermal environment were considered in the context of the thermal sensitivity of locomotor performance for each species and compared with the effects of the hydric (humidity) and convective (wind) environments. * When all surveys were combined into a single analysis, the activity of the forest species Anolis lemurinus was positively correlated with wind speed, the spatial heterogeneity of operative temperature, and the mismatch between mean operative temperature and the optimal temperature for sprint performance. Mean operative temperature did significantly affect Anolis lemurinus activity, but only when it was above their thermal optimum. Activity of the open-habitat species A. allisoni was negatively correlated with wind speed, but was not related to any other climate variable. * Whereas the mismatch between mean operative temperature and the thermal optimum for performance predicted the activity level of the forest species in ways partially consistent with its use in models for the response of lizards to climate change, the effects of the abiotic environment were habitat dependent. Our results suggest that successfully predicting the biological impacts of climate change will require holistic models that account for more than changes in mean temperature alone.

    @article{Logan:2015,
    abstract = {* Many tropical ectotherms are considered vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change because they have evolved to become thermal specialists. Indeed, several recent studies have suggested that even small increases in mean operative temperature may lead to a reduction in activity and the subsequent extinction of populations. Within the tropics, lizards are considered particularly vulnerable due to the potential for climate change to directly impact physiology and alter community interactions. However, models usually focus on the effects of mean operative temperature at the expense of other climate variables that may also affect lizard physiology. * We used daily variation in operative temperature, humidity and wind speed to examine how changes in climate influence activity in two species of lizards from the island of Cayo Menor, Honduras. Anolis lemurinus is a forest species, whereas A. allisoni is an open-habitat species. We conducted daily surveys for active lizards in habitat typical to each species, while simultaneously measuring operative thermal environments with physical models. The effects of the thermal environment were considered in the context of the thermal sensitivity of locomotor performance for each species and compared with the effects of the hydric (humidity) and convective (wind) environments. * When all surveys were combined into a single analysis, the activity of the forest species Anolis lemurinus was positively correlated with wind speed, the spatial heterogeneity of operative temperature, and the mismatch between mean operative temperature and the optimal temperature for sprint performance. Mean operative temperature did significantly affect Anolis lemurinus activity, but only when it was above their thermal optimum. Activity of the open-habitat species A. allisoni was negatively correlated with wind speed, but was not related to any other climate variable. * Whereas the mismatch between mean operative temperature and the thermal optimum for performance predicted the activity level of the forest species in ways partially consistent with its use in models for the response of lizards to climate change, the effects of the abiotic environment were habitat dependent. Our results suggest that successfully predicting the biological impacts of climate change will require holistic models that account for more than changes in mean temperature alone.},
    author = {Logan, Michael L. and Fernandez, Sarah G. and Calsbeek, Ryan},
    journal = {Functional Ecology},
    month = may,
    number = {5},
    pages = {694--700},
    title = {Abiotic constraints on the activity of tropical lizards},
    volume = {29},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • Y. N. Lee and J. Son, “Effect of steroid hormones on neurogenesis in the brain of the green anole lizard,” , 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Lee:2015,
    author = {Lee, You N. and Son, Jaeyong},
    title = {Effect of Steroid Hormones on Neurogenesis in the Brain of the Green Anole Lizard},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • S. P. Lailvaux, B. K. Kircher, J. Leifer, and M. A. Johnson, “The incredible shrinking dewlap: skin elasticity and secondary sexual signal size in male anolis carolinensis lizards,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2015, p. E104.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Lailvaux:2015,
    author = {Lailvaux, S. P. and Kircher, B. K. and Leifer, J. and Johnson, M. A.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E104},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {The incredible shrinking dewlap: skin elasticity and secondary sexual signal size in male Anolis carolinensis lizards},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • S. P. Lailvaux, J. Leifer, B. K. Kircher, and M. A. Johnson, “The incredible shrinking dewlap: signal size, skin elasticity, and mechanical design in the green anole lizard (anolis carolinensis),” Ecology and evolution, vol. 5, iss. 19, pp. 4400-4409, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Lailvaux:2015a,
    author = {Lailvaux, Simon P. and Leifer, Jack and Kircher, Bonnie K. and Johnson, Michele A.},
    journal = {Ecology and evolution},
    number = {19},
    pages = {4400--4409},
    title = {The incredible shrinking dewlap: signal size, skin elasticity, and mechanical design in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis)},
    volume = {5},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • C. Kuo, D. J. Irschick, and S. P. Lailvaux, “Trait compensation between boldness and the propensity for tail autotomy under different food availabilities in similarly aged brown anole lizards,” Functional ecology, vol. 29, iss. 3, pp. 385-392, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kuo:2015,
    author = {Kuo, Chi-Yun and Irschick, Duncan J. and Lailvaux, Simon P.},
    journal = {Functional Ecology},
    number = {3},
    pages = {385--392},
    title = {Trait compensation between boldness and the propensity for tail autotomy under different food availabilities in similarly aged brown anole lizards},
    volume = {29},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. J. Kolbe, “Effects of hind-limb length and perch diameter on clinging performance in anolis lizards from the british virgin islands,” Journal of herpetology, vol. 49, iss. 2, pp. 284-290, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kolbe:2015,
    author = {Kolbe, Jason J.},
    journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {284--290},
    title = {Effects of hind-limb length and perch diameter on clinging performance in Anolis lizards from the British Virgin Islands},
    volume = {49},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. J. Kolbe, A. C. Battles, and K. J. Avilés-Rodríguez, “City slickers: poor performance does not deter anolis lizards from using artificial substrates in human-modified habitats,” Functional ecology, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kolbe:2015a,
    author = {Kolbe, Jason J. and Battles, Andrew C. and Avil{\'{e}}s-Rodr{\'{\i}}guez, Kevin J.},
    journal = {Functional Ecology},
    title = {City slickers: poor performance does not deter Anolis lizards from using artificial substrates in human-modified habitats},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. J. Köhler, S. Poe, M. J. Ryan, and G. Köhler, “Anolis marsupialis taylor 1956, a valid species from southern pacific costa rica (reptilia, squamata, dactyloidae),” Zootaxa, vol. 3915, iss. 1, pp. 111-122, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kohler:2015,
    author = {K{\"{o}}hler, Johannes J. and Poe, Steven and Ryan, Mason J. and K{\"{o}}hler, Gunther},
    journal = {Zootaxa},
    number = {1},
    pages = {111--122},
    title = {Anolis marsupialis Taylor 1956, a valid species from southern Pacific Costa Rica (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae)},
    volume = {3915},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • G. Köhler and B. S. Hedges, “Case 3672 anolis chlorocyanus duméril & bibron, 1837 and anolis coelestinus cope, 1862 (reptilia, squamata): proposed conservation of the specific names and designation of a neotype for a. chlorocyanus,” Bulletin of zoological nomenclature, vol. 72, p. 1, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kohler:2015a,
    author = {K{\"{o}}hler, Gunther and Hedges, S. Blair},
    journal = {Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature},
    pages = {1},
    title = {Case 3672 Anolis chlorocyanus Dum\'{e}ril \& Bibron, 1837 and Anolis coelestinus Cope, 1862 (Reptilia, Squamata): proposed conservation of the specific names and designation of a neotype for A. chlorocyanus},
    volume = {72},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. Klaczko and Y. Stuart, “Hemipenial allometry in anolis grahami,” Journal of herpetology, vol. 49, iss. 3, pp. 462-467, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Klaczko:2015,
    author = {Klaczko, Julia and Stuart, Yoel},
    journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
    number = {3},
    pages = {462--467},
    title = {Hemipenial allometry in Anolis grahami},
    volume = {49},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • B. K. Kircher, D. J. Castro, C. D. Robinson, and M. A. Johnson, “Androgen receptor expression in anolis lizard muscles: the evolution of endocrine mechanisms of social behavior,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2015, p. E285.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Kircher:2015,
    author = {Kircher, B. K. and Castro, D. J. and Robinson, C. D. and Johnson, M. A.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E285},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Androgen receptor expression in Anolis lizard muscles: the evolution of endocrine mechanisms of social behavior},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • H. N. Kerver and J. Wade, “Hormonal regulation of steroid receptor coactivator-1 mRNA in the male and female green anole brain,” Journal of neuroendocrinology, vol. 27, iss. 3, pp. 223-233, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kerver:2015,
    author = {Kerver, H. N. and Wade, J.},
    journal = {Journal of neuroendocrinology},
    number = {3},
    pages = {223--233},
    title = {Hormonal Regulation of Steroid Receptor Coactivator-1 {mRNA} in the Male and Female Green Anole Brain},
    volume = {27},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • A. Kamath and Y. E. Stuart, “Movement rates of the lizard anolis carolinensis (squamata: dactyloidae) in the presence and absence of anolis sagrei (squamata: dactyloidae),” Breviora, vol. 546, iss. 1, pp. 1-7, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kamath:2015,
    author = {Kamath, Ambika and Stuart, Yoel E.},
    journal = {Breviora},
    number = {1},
    pages = {1--7},
    title = {Movement Rates of the Lizard Anolis carolinensis (Squamata: Dactyloidae) in the Presence and Absence of Anolis sagrei (Squamata: Dactyloidae)},
    volume = {546},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • A. F. Kahrl and R. M. Cox, “Diet affects ejaculate traits in a lizard with condition-dependent fertilization success,” Behavioral ecology, 2015.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Sexually selected traits are often driven to costly extremes by persistent directional selection. Energy acquisition and allocation can therefore influence variation in traits subject to both precopulatory and postcopulatory sexual selection, though the later have received much less attention. We tested the condition dependence of sperm morphology, sperm count, and fertilization success in a promiscuous lizard (Anolis sagrei) by 1) collecting sperm samples from wild males that varied naturally in body condition, 2) experimentally altering the body condition of captive males through dietary restriction, and 3) analyzing genetic paternity data from competitive mating trials between captive males that differed in body condition. In both wild and captive males, the length of the sperm midpiece decreased with body condition. Experimental food restriction decreased sperm production, decreased length of the sperm head, increased length of the sperm midpiece, and increased variance in sperm morphology within individuals. When restricted to a single copulation, males on high-intake diets exhibited a slight but nonsignificant fertilization advantage. Reanalysis of a previous experiment in which high- and low-condition males were sequentially allowed to copulate ad libitum for 1 week revealed a significant fertilization bias in favor of high-condition males. When controlling for mean treatment effects on the proportion of offspring sired and on sperm phenotypes, multiple regression revealed negative correlations between fertilization success and sperm head length, midpiece length, and sperm count. Collectively, our results suggest that condition-dependent fertilization success in A. sagrei may be partially mediated by underlying condition dependence of sperm morphology and sperm count.

    @article{Kahrl:2015,
    abstract = {Sexually selected traits are often driven to costly extremes by persistent directional selection. Energy acquisition and allocation can therefore influence variation in traits subject to both precopulatory and postcopulatory sexual selection, though the later have received much less attention. We tested the condition dependence of sperm morphology, sperm count, and fertilization success in a promiscuous lizard (Anolis sagrei) by 1) collecting sperm samples from wild males that varied naturally in body condition, 2) experimentally altering the body condition of captive males through dietary restriction, and 3) analyzing genetic paternity data from competitive mating trials between captive males that differed in body condition. In both wild and captive males, the length of the sperm midpiece decreased with body condition. Experimental food restriction decreased sperm production, decreased length of the sperm head, increased length of the sperm midpiece, and increased variance in sperm morphology within individuals. When restricted to a single copulation, males on high-intake diets exhibited a slight but nonsignificant fertilization advantage. Reanalysis of a previous experiment in which high- and low-condition males were sequentially allowed to copulate ad libitum for 1 week revealed a significant fertilization bias in favor of high-condition males. When controlling for mean treatment effects on the proportion of offspring sired and on sperm phenotypes, multiple regression revealed negative correlations between fertilization success and sperm head length, midpiece length, and sperm count. Collectively, our results suggest that condition-dependent fertilization success in A. sagrei may be partially mediated by underlying condition dependence of sperm morphology and sperm count.},
    author = {Kahrl, Ariel F. and Cox, Robert M.},
    journal = {Behavioral Ecology},
    month = jul,
    title = {Diet affects ejaculate traits in a lizard with condition-dependent fertilization success},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • R. R. Jiménez and J. A. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, “The relationship between perch type and aggressive behavior in the lizard norops polylepis (squamata: dactyloidae),” Phyllomedusa: journal of herpetology, vol. 14, iss. 1, pp. 43-51, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Jimenez:2015,
    author = {Jim{\'{e}}nez, Randall R. and Rodr{\'{\i}}guez-Rodr{\'{\i}}guez, Jorengeth A.},
    journal = {Phyllomedusa: Journal of Herpetology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {43--51},
    title = {The relationship between perch type and aggressive behavior in the lizard Norops polylepis (Squamata: Dactyloidae)},
    volume = {14},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • A. L. Jaffe, S. C. Campbell-Staton, and J. B. Losos, “Geographical variation in morphology and its environmental correlates in a widespread north american lizard, anolis carolinensis (squamata: dactyloidae),” Biological journal of the linnean society, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Jaffe:2015,
    author = {Jaffe, Alexander L. and Campbell-Staton, Shane C. and Losos, Jonathan B.},
    journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society},
    title = {Geographical variation in morphology and its environmental correlates in a widespread North American lizard, Anolis carolinensis (Squamata: Dactyloidae)},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • E. D. Hutchins, “Connecting the transcriptome, microRNAs, and the proteome in tail regeneration of the green anole lizard, anolis carolinensis,” in Plant and animal genome xxiii conference, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Hutchins:2015b,
    author = {Hutchins, Elizabeth D.},
    booktitle = {Plant and Animal Genome XXIII Conference},
    publisher = {Plant and Animal Genome},
    title = {Connecting the Transcriptome, {microRNAs}, and the Proteome in Tail Regeneration of the Green Anole Lizard, Anolis carolinensis},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • E. Hutchins, “Insights towards developing regenerative therapies: the lizard, anolis carolinensis, as a genetic model for regeneration in amniotes,” PhD Thesis, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @phdthesis{Hutchins:2015,
    author = {Hutchins, Elizabeth},
    school = {Arizona State University},
    title = {Insights Towards Developing Regenerative Therapies: The Lizard, Anolis Carolinensis, as a Genetic Model for Regeneration in Amniotes},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • E. Hutchins, W. Eckalbar, K. Pendarvis, F. McCarthy, D. Lake, and K. Kusumi, “Integrated transcriptomic, proteomic, and MicroRNA data identify key regulators of developmental and repair processes during tail regeneration in the green anole lizard,” The faseb journal, vol. 29, iss. 1 Supplement, pp. 346-3, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Hutchins:2015a,
    author = {Hutchins, Elizabeth and Eckalbar, Walter and Pendarvis, Ken and McCarthy, Fiona and Lake, Douglas and Kusumi, Kenro},
    journal = {The FASEB Journal},
    number = {1 Supplement},
    pages = {346--3},
    title = {Integrated Transcriptomic, Proteomic, and {MicroRNA} Data Identify Key Regulators of Developmental and Repair Processes During Tail Regeneration in the Green Anole Lizard},
    volume = {29},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. F. Husak, A. R. Keith, and B. N. Wittry, “Making olympic lizards: the effects of specialised exercise training on performance,” Journal of experimental biology, vol. 218, iss. 6, pp. 899-906, 2015.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Exercise training is well known to affect a suite of physiological and performance traits in mammals, but effects of training in other vertebrate tetrapod groups have been inconsistent. We examined performance and physiological differences among green anole lizards ( Anolis carolinensis ) that were trained for sprinting or endurance, using an increasingly rigorous training regimen over 8 weeks. Lizards trained for endurance had significantly higher post-training endurance capacity compared with the other treatment groups, but groups did not show post-training differences in sprint speed. Although acclimation to the laboratory environment and training explain some of our results, mechanistic explanations for these results correspond with the observed performance differences. After training, endurance-trained lizards had higher haematocrit and larger fast glycolytic muscle fibres. Despite no detectable change in maximal performance of sprint-trained lizards, we detected that they had significantly larger slow oxidative muscle fibre areas compared with the other treatments. Treatment groups did not differ in the proportion of number of fibre types, nor in the mass of most limb muscles or the heart. Our results offer some caveats for investigators conducting training research on non-model organisms and they reveal that muscle plasticity in response to training may be widespread phylogenetically.

    @article{Husak:2015,
    abstract = {Exercise training is well known to affect a suite of physiological and performance traits in mammals, but effects of training in other vertebrate tetrapod groups have been inconsistent. We examined performance and physiological differences among green anole lizards ( Anolis carolinensis ) that were trained for sprinting or endurance, using an increasingly rigorous training regimen over 8 weeks. Lizards trained for endurance had significantly higher post-training endurance capacity compared with the other treatment groups, but groups did not show post-training differences in sprint speed. Although acclimation to the laboratory environment and training explain some of our results, mechanistic explanations for these results correspond with the observed performance differences. After training, endurance-trained lizards had higher haematocrit and larger fast glycolytic muscle fibres. Despite no detectable change in maximal performance of sprint-trained lizards, we detected that they had significantly larger slow oxidative muscle fibre areas compared with the other treatments. Treatment groups did not differ in the proportion of number of fibre types, nor in the mass of most limb muscles or the heart. Our results offer some caveats for investigators conducting training research on non-model organisms and they reveal that muscle plasticity in response to training may be widespread phylogenetically.},
    author = {Husak, Jerry F. and Keith, Allison R. and Wittry, Beth N.},
    journal = {Journal of Experimental Biology},
    month = mar,
    number = {6},
    pages = {899--906},
    title = {Making Olympic lizards: the effects of specialised exercise training on performance},
    volume = {218},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • H. Hugo Siliceo-Cantero and A. Garcia, “Activity and habitat use of an insular and a mainland populations of the lizard anolis nebulosus (squamata: polychrotidae) in a seasonal environment,” Revista mexicana de biodiversidad, vol. 86, iss. 2, pp. 406-411, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Hugo-Siliceo-Cantero:2015,
    author = {Hugo Siliceo-Cantero, Hector and Garcia, Andres},
    journal = {REVISTA MEXICANA DE BIODIVERSIDAD},
    number = {2},
    pages = {406--411},
    title = {Activity and habitat use of an insular and a mainland populations of the lizard Anolis nebulosus (Squamata: Polychrotidae) in a seasonal environment},
    volume = {86},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • S. B. Hudson, M. W. Robertson, and T. E. Wilcoxen, “Effects of social habituation on coloration and stress in male green anoles, anolis carolinensis (squamata: polychrotidae),” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2015, p. E276.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Hudson:2015,
    author = {Hudson, S. B. and Robertson, M. W. and Wilcoxen, T. E.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E276},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Effects of social habituation on coloration and stress in male green anoles, Anolis carolinensis (Squamata: Polychrotidae)},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • T. S. Hsieh, “Tail loss and narrow surfaces decrease locomotor stability in the arboreal green anole lizard (anolis carolinensis),” Journal of experimental biology, p. jeb–124958, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Hsieh:2015,
    author = {Hsieh, S. Tonia},
    journal = {Journal of Experimental Biology},
    pages = {jeb--124958},
    title = {Tail loss and narrow surfaces decrease locomotor stability in the arboreal green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis)},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • V. Hong and B. Thornton, “Differential protein expression during tail regeneration of anolis carolinensis,” , 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Hong:2015,
    author = {Hong, Victor and Thornton, Benjamin},
    title = {Differential Protein Expression During Tail Regeneration of Anolis carolinensis},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • U. Hernández-Salinas and A. Ramírez-Bautista, “Variation in morphological and reproductive characteristics of females of anolis nebulosus (squamata: dactyloidae) from island and mainland populations near the pacific coast of mexico,” Acta zoologica, vol. 96, iss. 4, pp. 428-435, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Hernandez-Salinas:2015,
    author = {Hern{\'{a}}ndez-Salinas, Uriel and Ram{\'{\i}}rez-Bautista, Aurelio},
    journal = {Acta Zoologica},
    number = {4},
    pages = {428--435},
    title = {Variation in morphological and reproductive characteristics of females of Anolis nebulosus (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from island and mainland populations near the Pacific Coast of Mexico},
    volume = {96},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • O. Hernández-Ordóñez, V. Arroyo-Rodríguez, A. González-Hernández, G. Russildi, R. Luna-Reyes, M. Martínez-Ramos, and V. H. Reynoso, “Range extensions of amphibians and reptiles in the southeastern part of the lacandona rainforest, mexico,” Revista mexicana de biodiversidad, vol. 86, iss. 2, pp. 457-468, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Hernandez-Ordonez:2015,
    author = {Hern{\'{a}}ndez-Ord{\'{o}}{\~{n}}ez, Omar and Arroyo-Rodr{\'{\i}}guez, V{\'{\i}}ctor and Gonz{\'{a}}lez-Hern{\'{a}}ndez, Adriana and Russildi, Giovanni and Luna-Reyes, Roberto and Mart{\'{\i}}nez-Ramos, Miguel and Reynoso, V{\'{\i}}ctor H.},
    journal = {Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad},
    number = {2},
    pages = {457--468},
    title = {Range extensions of amphibians and reptiles in the southeastern part of the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico},
    volume = {86},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • A. S. Harrison, L. J. Revell, and J. B. Losos, “Correlated evolution of microhabitat, morphology, and behavior in west indian anolis lizards: a test of the habitat matrix model,” Behaviour, vol. 152, iss. 9, pp. 1188-1208, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Harrison:2015,
    author = {Harrison, A. S. and Revell, L. J. and Losos, J. B.},
    journal = {Behaviour},
    number = {9},
    pages = {1188--1208},
    title = {Correlated evolution of microhabitat, morphology, and behavior in West Indian Anolis lizards: a test of the habitat matrix model},
    volume = {152},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • S. E. Hackel, “The effect of competition release on the microhabitat use and body size of the introduced species anolis richardii on the island of tobago,” , 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Hackel:2015,
    author = {Hackel, Sean E.},
    title = {The Effect of Competition Release on the Microhabitat Use and Body Size of the Introduced Species Anolis richardii on the Island of Tobago},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • S. M. Griffis and D. H. Jennings, “Sequence comparisons of insulin-like growth factor-1 genes in closely related anolis (sauria, iguanidae) lizards of differing body size,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2015, p. E266.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Griffis:2015,
    author = {Griffis, S. M. and Jennings, D. H.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E266},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Sequence comparisons of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 genes in closely related Anolis (Sauria, Iguanidae) lizards of differing body size},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • N. Greenhawk, “Testing sustainable forestry methods in puerto rico: does the presence of the introduced timber tree blue mahoe, talipariti elatum, affect the abundance of anolis gundlachi?,” Herpetology notes, vol. 8, pp. 141-148, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Greenhawk:2015,
    author = {Greenhawk, Norman},
    journal = {Herpetology Notes},
    pages = {141--148},
    title = {Testing sustainable forestry methods in Puerto Rico: Does the presence of the introduced timber tree Blue Mahoe, Talipariti elatum, affect the abundance of Anolis gundlachi?},
    volume = {8},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • A. González and L. Rodríguez-Shettino, “Reproducción de anolis porcatus gray, 1840,(Sauria: dactyloidae) en condiciones de cautiverio, Cuba/Reproduction of anolis porcatus gray, 1840 (sauria: dactyloidae) in captivity, cuba,” Poeyana, iss. 501, pp. 71-73, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Gonzalez:2015,
    author = {Gonz{\'{a}}lez, Adonis and Rodr{\'{\i}}guez-Shettino, Lourdes},
    journal = {Poeyana},
    number = {501},
    pages = {71--73},
    title = {Reproducci\'{o}n de Anolis porcatus Gray, {1840,(Sauria}: Dactyloidae) en condiciones de cautiverio, {Cuba/Reproduction} of Anolis porcatus Gray, 1840 (Sauria: dactyloidae) in captivity, Cuba},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • A. González and L. Rodrígues-Shettino, “Reproducción de anolis porcatus gray, 1840,(Sauria: dactyloidae) en condiciones de cautiverio, cuba,” , 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Gonzalez:2015a,
    author = {Gonz{\'{a}}lez, Adonis and Rodr{\'{\i}}gues-Shettino, Lourdes},
    title = {Reproducci\'{o}n de Anolis porcatus Gray, {1840,(Sauria}: Dactyloidae) en condiciones de cautiverio, Cuba},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • D. A. Gómez-Hoyos, S. Escobar-Lasso, T. Suarez-Joaqui, and J. A. Velasco, “Predation on the bush anole polychrus gutturosus by the parrot snake leptophis ahaetulla, with a new record of the bush anole for the gorgona island national natural park, colombia,” Herpetology notes, vol. 8, pp. 297-301, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Gomez-Hoyos:2015,
    author = {G{\'{o}}mez-Hoyos, Diego A. and Escobar-Lasso, Sergio and Suarez-Joaqui, Tatiana and Velasco, Juli{\'{a}}n A.},
    journal = {Herpetology Notes},
    pages = {297--301},
    title = {Predation on the bush anole Polychrus gutturosus by the parrot snake Leptophis ahaetulla, with a new record of the bush anole for the Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia},
    volume = {8},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • M. E. Gerace, J. A. Ficklin, and M. S. Rand, “Physiological mechanisms of dorsal crest erections in anole lizards,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2015, p. E261.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Gerace:2015,
    author = {Gerace, M. E. and Ficklin, J. A. and Rand, M. S.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E261},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Physiological Mechanisms of Dorsal Crest Erections in Anole Lizards},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • A. J. Geneva, J. Hilton, S. Noll, and R. E. Glor, “Multilocus phylogenetic analyses of hispaniolan and bahamian trunk anoles (distichus species group),” Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, vol. 87, pp. 105-117, 2015.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The distichus species group includes six species and 21 subspecies of trunk ecomorph anoles distributed across Hispaniola and its satellite islands as well as the northern Bahamas. Although this group has long served as a model system for studies of reproductive character displacement, adaptation, behavior and speciation, it has never been the subject of a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. Our goal here is to generate a multilocus phylogenetic dataset (one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci) and to use this dataset to infer phylogenetic relationships among the majority of the taxa assigned to the distichus species group. We use these phylogenetic trees to address three topics about the group’s evolution. First, we consider longstanding taxonomic controversies about the status of several species and subspecies assigned to the distichus species group. Second, we investigate the biogeographic history of the group and specifically test the hypotheses that historical division of Hispaniola into two paleo-islands contributed to the group’s diversification and that Bahamian and Hispaniolan satellite island populations are derived from colonists from the main Hispaniolan landmass. Finally, third, we use comparative phylogenetic analyses to test the hypothesis that divergence between pale yellow and darkly pigmented orange or red dewlap coloration has occurred repeatedly across the distichus species group.

    @article{Geneva:2015,
    abstract = {The distichus species group includes six species and 21 subspecies of trunk ecomorph anoles distributed across Hispaniola and its satellite islands as well as the northern Bahamas. Although this group has long served as a model system for studies of reproductive character displacement, adaptation, behavior and speciation, it has never been the subject of a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. Our goal here is to generate a multilocus phylogenetic dataset (one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci) and to use this dataset to infer phylogenetic relationships among the majority of the taxa assigned to the distichus species group. We use these phylogenetic trees to address three topics about the group's evolution. First, we consider longstanding taxonomic controversies about the status of several species and subspecies assigned to the distichus species group. Second, we investigate the biogeographic history of the group and specifically test the hypotheses that historical division of Hispaniola into two paleo-islands contributed to the group's diversification and that Bahamian and Hispaniolan satellite island populations are derived from colonists from the main Hispaniolan landmass. Finally, third, we use comparative phylogenetic analyses to test the hypothesis that divergence between pale yellow and darkly pigmented orange or red dewlap coloration has occurred repeatedly across the distichus species group.},
    author = {Geneva, Anthony J. and Hilton, Jared and Noll, Sabina and Glor, Richard E.},
    journal = {Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution},
    month = jun,
    pages = {105--117},
    title = {Multilocus phylogenetic analyses of Hispaniolan and Bahamian trunk anoles (distichus species group)},
    volume = {87},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • B. Gasse, “Les phosphoprotéines sécrétées liant le calcium (SCPP) impliquées dans la formation de l’émail dentaire: expression chez le lézard anolis carolinensis et évolution chez les amniotes,” PhD Thesis, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @phdthesis{Gasse:2015,
    author = {Gasse, Barbara},
    school = {Paris 6},
    title = {Les phosphoprot\'{e}ines s\'{e}cr\'{e}t\'{e}es liant le calcium ({SCPP}) impliqu\'{e}es dans la formation de l'\'{e}mail dentaire: expression chez le l\'{e}zard Anolis carolinensis et \'{e}volution chez les amniotes},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • B. Gasse and J. Sire, “Comparative expression of the four enamel matrix protein genes, amelogenin, ameloblastin, enamelin and amelotin during amelogenesis in the lizard anolis carolinensis,” Evodevo, vol. 6, iss. 1, p. 1, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Gasse:2015a,
    author = {Gasse, Barbara and Sire, Jean-Yves},
    journal = {EvoDevo},
    number = {1},
    pages = {1},
    title = {Comparative expression of the four enamel matrix protein genes, amelogenin, ameloblastin, enamelin and amelotin during amelogenesis in the lizard Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {6},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • K. L. Foster and T. E. Higham, “The mechanical functions of muscle and tendon during arboreal locomotion in anolis lizards,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2015, p. E59.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Foster:2015,
    author = {Foster, K. L. and Higham, T. E.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E59},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {The mechanical functions of muscle and tendon during arboreal locomotion in Anolis lizards},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • L. J. Fleishman, B. Ogas, D. Steinberg, and M. Leal, “Why do anolis dewlaps glow? an analysis of a translucent visual signal,” Functional ecology, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Fleishman:2015,
    author = {Fleishman, Leo J. and Ogas, Brianna and Steinberg, David and Leal, Manuel},
    journal = {Functional Ecology},
    title = {Why do Anolis dewlaps glow? An analysis of a translucent visual signal},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. A. Ficklin, M. E. Gerace, and M. S. Rand, “Tissue morphology of the dorsal crest in the lizard genus anolis,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2015, p. E254.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Ficklin:2015,
    author = {Ficklin, J. A. and Gerace, M. E. and Rand, M. S.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E254},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Tissue Morphology of the Dorsal Crest in the Lizard Genus Anolis},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • B. G. Falk and S. L. Perkins, “17 parasite diversification in caribbean anolis lizards,” Parasite diversity and diversification: evolutionary ecology meets phylogenetics, p. 320, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Falk:2015,
    author = {Falk, Bryan G. and Perkins, Susan L.},
    journal = {Parasite Diversity and Diversification: Evolutionary Ecology Meets Phylogenetics},
    pages = {320},
    title = {17 Parasite diversification in Caribbean Anolis lizards},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • L. A. Dunham, “Arginine vasotocin and social behavior: endocrine effects and reciprocal interactions in anolis carolinensis,” , 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Dunham:2015,
    author = {Dunham, Leslie A.},
    title = {Arginine Vasotocin and Social Behavior: Endocrine Effects and Reciprocal Interactions in Anolis carolinensis},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • T. Driessens, K. Huyghe, B. Vanhooydonck, and R. Van Damme, “Messages conveyed by assorted facets of the dewlap, in both sexes of anolis sagrei,” Behavioral ecology and sociobiology, vol. 69, iss. 8, pp. 1251-1264, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Driessens:2015,
    author = {Driessens, Tess and Huyghe, Katleen and Vanhooydonck, Bieke and Van Damme, Raoul},
    journal = {Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
    number = {8},
    pages = {1251--1264},
    title = {Messages conveyed by assorted facets of the dewlap, in both sexes of Anolis sagrei},
    volume = {69},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • D. M. Delaney, M. B. Lovern, and D. A. Warner, “Does reduced perch availability affect reproduction in the brown anole? an experimental test in the laboratory,” Journal of herpetology, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Delaney:2015,
    author = {Delaney, David M. and Lovern, Matthew B. and Warner, Daniel A.},
    journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
    title = {Does Reduced Perch Availability Affect Reproduction in the Brown Anole? An Experimental Test in the Laboratory},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • R. M. Cox and R. Calsbeek, “Survival of the fattest? indices of body condition do not predict viability in the brown anole (anolis sagrei),” Functional ecology, vol. 29, iss. 3, pp. 404-413, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Cox:2015,
    author = {Cox, Robert M. and Calsbeek, Ryan},
    journal = {Functional Ecology},
    number = {3},
    pages = {404--413},
    title = {Survival of the fattest? Indices of body condition do not predict viability in the brown anole (Anolis sagrei)},
    volume = {29},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • C. L. Cox, R. T. Peaden, and R. M. Cox, “The metabolic cost of mounting an immune response in male brown anoles (anolis sagrei),” Journal of experimental zoology part a: ecological genetics and physiology, vol. 323, iss. 10, pp. 689-695, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Cox:2015b,
    author = {Cox, Christian L. and Peaden, Robert T. and Cox, Robert M.},
    journal = {Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology},
    number = {10},
    pages = {689--695},
    title = {The metabolic cost of mounting an immune response in male brown anoles (Anolis sagrei)},
    volume = {323},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • C. L. Cox, A. F. Hanninen, A. M. Reedy, and R. M. Cox, “Female anoles retain responsiveness to testosterone despite the evolution of androgen-mediated sexual dimorphism,” Functional ecology, vol. 29, iss. 6, pp. 758-767, 2015.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    * The evolution of sexual dimorphism presents a challenge because males and females must express two phenotypes from the same underlying genome. In vertebrates, one solution to this challenge is to link the expression of shared traits to sex steroids. However, even `male-biased’ steroids such as testosterone (T) circulate at biologically significant levels in females, raising the question of whether sexual dimorphism evolves not only through the coupling of trait expression to T in males, but also through the decoupling of trait expression from T in females. * We tested these alternatives by asking whether male and female brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) respond to exogenous T in similar fashion with respect to a suite of sexually dimorphic traits: growth, skeletal morphology, resting metabolism, fat storage, dewlap size and dewlap colour. * First, we established the ontogeny of sexual dimorphism in a colony raised in a laboratory common garden. Next, we treated juveniles of each sex with either T implants or empty implants at 5–8 months of age, when sexual dimorphism first began to develop for most traits. * T stimulated growth in both sexes and largely abolished natural sex differences in growth. This effect was associated with the stimulation of resting metabolism and the diversion of energy from fat and liver stores in both sexes. T also enlarged the dewlap in both sexes, though females never developed dewlaps equal in size to those of males. Finally, T altered the brightness and saturation of the dewlap in both sexes, inducing coloration similar to that of adult males. * Female brown anoles retain many of the same tissue-specific responses to T that occur in males, suggesting that the evolution of androgen-mediated sexual dimorphism has been achieved largely through the coupling of trait expression to sex differences in circulating T, without an associated decoupling of trait expression from T in females.

    @article{Cox:2015a,
    abstract = {* The evolution of sexual dimorphism presents a challenge because males and females must express two phenotypes from the same underlying genome. In vertebrates, one solution to this challenge is to link the expression of shared traits to sex steroids. However, even `male-biased' steroids such as testosterone (T) circulate at biologically significant levels in females, raising the question of whether sexual dimorphism evolves not only through the coupling of trait expression to T in males, but also through the decoupling of trait expression from T in females. * We tested these alternatives by asking whether male and female brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) respond to exogenous T in similar fashion with respect to a suite of sexually dimorphic traits: growth, skeletal morphology, resting metabolism, fat storage, dewlap size and dewlap colour. * First, we established the ontogeny of sexual dimorphism in a colony raised in a laboratory common garden. Next, we treated juveniles of each sex with either T implants or empty implants at 5--8 months of age, when sexual dimorphism first began to develop for most traits. * T stimulated growth in both sexes and largely abolished natural sex differences in growth. This effect was associated with the stimulation of resting metabolism and the diversion of energy from fat and liver stores in both sexes. T also enlarged the dewlap in both sexes, though females never developed dewlaps equal in size to those of males. Finally, T altered the brightness and saturation of the dewlap in both sexes, inducing coloration similar to that of adult males. * Female brown anoles retain many of the same tissue-specific responses to T that occur in males, suggesting that the evolution of androgen-mediated sexual dimorphism has been achieved largely through the coupling of trait expression to sex differences in circulating T, without an associated decoupling of trait expression from T in females.},
    author = {Cox, Christian L. and Hanninen, Amanda F. and Reedy, Aaron M. and Cox, Robert M.},
    journal = {Functional Ecology},
    month = jun,
    number = {6},
    pages = {758--767},
    title = {Female anoles retain responsiveness to testosterone despite the evolution of androgen-mediated sexual dimorphism},
    volume = {29},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • A. E. Conover, E. G. Cook, K. E. Boronow, and M. M. Muñoz, “Effects of ectoparasitism on behavioral thermoregulation in the tropical lizards anolis cybotes (squamata: dactyloidae) and anolis armouri (squamata: dactyloidae),” Breviora, vol. 545, iss. 1, pp. 1-13, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Conover:2015,
    author = {Conover, Asa E. and Cook, Ellee G. and Boronow, Katherine E. and Mu{\~{n}}oz, Martha M.},
    journal = {Breviora},
    number = {1},
    pages = {1--13},
    title = {Effects of Ectoparasitism on Behavioral Thermoregulation in the Tropical lizards Anolis cybotes (Squamata: Dactyloidae) and Anolis armouri (Squamata: Dactyloidae)},
    volume = {545},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • P. Connolly, “Analysis of sex steroid hormone implants on serum levels of two steroid hormones in the green anole lizard,” , 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Connolly:2015,
    author = {Connolly, Patrick},
    title = {Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormone Implants on Serum Levels of Two Steroid Hormones in the Green Anole Lizard},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • C. D. Cates and D. A. Warner, “The adaptive significance of developmental plasticity in the wild: an experimental test using the brown anole lizard (anolis sagrei),” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2015, p. E26.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Cates:2015,
    author = {Cates, C. D. and Warner, D. A.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E26},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {The adaptive significance of developmental plasticity in the wild: an experimental test using the brown anole lizard (Anolis sagrei)},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • J. R. Cassani, D. A. Croshaw, J. Bozzo, B. Brooks, E. M. Iii, D. W. Ceilley, and D. Hanson, “Herpetofaunal community change in multiple habitats after fifteen years in a southwest florida preserve, USA,” Plos one, vol. 10, iss. 5, 2015.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Herpetofaunal declines have been documented globally, and southern Florida, {USA}, is an especially vulnerable region because of high impacts from hydrological perturbations and nonindigenous species. To assess the extent of recent change in herpetofauna community composition, we established a baseline inventory during 1995-97 at a managed preserve in a habitat rich area of southwest Florida, and repeated our sampling methods fifteen years later (2010-11). Nine drift fence arrays were placed in four habitat types: mesic flatwood, mesic hammock, depression marsh, and wet prairie. Trapping occurred daily for one week during 7-8 sampling runs in each period (57 and 49 total sampling days, respectively). Species richness was maintained in mesic hammock habitats but varied in the others. Catch rates of several native species ( Anaxyrus terrestris , Lithobates grylio , Anolis carolinensis , Nerodia fasciata ) declined significantly. Other native species ( Lithobates sphenocephalus , Siren lacertian , and Notophthalmus viridescens piaropicola ) that were abundant in 1995-97 declined by greater than 50\%. Catch rate of only two species (the nonindigenous Anolis sagrei and the native Diadophis punctatus ) increased significantly. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated similarity within habitat types but significant dissimilarity between sampling periods, confirming shifts in community composition. Analysis of individual species’ contributions to overall similarity across habitats shows a shift from dominance of native species in the 1990s to increased importance of nonindigenous species in 2010-11. Although natural population fluctuations may have influenced differences between the two sampling periods, our results suggest considerable recent change in the structure and composition of this southwest Florida herpetofaunal community. The causes are unknown, but hydrological shifts and ecological impacts of nonindigenous species may have contributed.

    @article{Cassani:2015,
    abstract = {Herpetofaunal declines have been documented globally, and southern Florida, {USA}, is an especially vulnerable region because of high impacts from hydrological perturbations and nonindigenous species. To assess the extent of recent change in herpetofauna community composition, we established a baseline inventory during 1995-97 at a managed preserve in a habitat rich area of southwest Florida, and repeated our sampling methods fifteen years later (2010-11). Nine drift fence arrays were placed in four habitat types: mesic flatwood, mesic hammock, depression marsh, and wet prairie. Trapping occurred daily for one week during 7-8 sampling runs in each period (57 and 49 total sampling days, respectively). Species richness was maintained in mesic hammock habitats but varied in the others. Catch rates of several native species ( Anaxyrus terrestris , Lithobates grylio , Anolis carolinensis , Nerodia fasciata ) declined significantly. Other native species ( Lithobates sphenocephalus , Siren lacertian , and Notophthalmus viridescens piaropicola ) that were abundant in 1995-97 declined by greater than 50\%. Catch rate of only two species (the nonindigenous Anolis sagrei and the native Diadophis punctatus ) increased significantly. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated similarity within habitat types but significant dissimilarity between sampling periods, confirming shifts in community composition. Analysis of individual species' contributions to overall similarity across habitats shows a shift from dominance of native species in the 1990s to increased importance of nonindigenous species in 2010-11. Although natural population fluctuations may have influenced differences between the two sampling periods, our results suggest considerable recent change in the structure and composition of this southwest Florida herpetofaunal community. The causes are unknown, but hydrological shifts and ecological impacts of nonindigenous species may have contributed.},
    author = {Cassani, John R. and Croshaw, Dean A. and Bozzo, Joseph and Brooks, Brenda and Iii, Edwin M. and Ceilley, David W. and Hanson, Deborah},
    journal = {PLOS ONE},
    month = may,
    number = {5},
    title = {Herpetofaunal Community Change in Multiple Habitats after Fifteen Years in a Southwest Florida Preserve, {USA}},
    volume = {10},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • S. C. Campbell-Staton, “Phylogeographic history and Temperature-Mediated evolution of the green anole, anolis carolinensis,” PhD Thesis, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @phdthesis{Campbell-Staton:2015,
    author = {Campbell-Staton, Shane C.},
    title = {Phylogeographic History and {Temperature-Mediated} Evolution of the Green Anole, Anolis Carolinensis},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • R. Calsbeek, M. C. Duryea, D. Goedert, P. Bergeron, and R. M. Cox, “Intralocus sexual conflict, adaptive sex allocation, and the heritability of fitness,” Journal of evolutionary biology, vol. 28, iss. 11, pp. 1975-1985, 2015.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Intralocus sexual conflict arises when selection favours alternative fitness optima in males and females. Unresolved conflict can create negative between-sex genetic correlations for fitness, such that high-fitness parents produce high-fitness progeny of their same sex, but low-fitness progeny of the opposite sex. This cost of sexual conflict could be mitigated if high-fitness parents bias sex allocation to produce more offspring of their same sex. Previous studies of the brown anole lizard (Anolis sagrei) show that viability selection on body size is sexually antagonistic, favouring large males and smaller females. However, sexual conflict over body size may be partially mitigated by adaptive sex allocation: large males sire more sons than daughters, whereas small males sire more daughters than sons. We explored the evolutionary implications of these phenomena by assessing the additive genetic (co)variance of fitness within and between sexes in a wild population. We measured two components of fitness: viability of adults over the breeding season, and the number of their progeny that survived to sexual maturity, which includes components of parental reproductive success and offspring viability ({RSV}). Viability of parents was not correlated with adult viability of their sons or daughters. {RSV} was positively correlated between sires and their offspring, but not between dams and their offspring. Neither component of fitness was significantly heritable, and neither exhibited negative between-sex genetic correlations that would indicate unresolved sexual conflict. Rather, our results are more consistent with predictions regarding adaptive sex allocation in that, as the number of sons produced by a sire increased, the adult viability of his male progeny increased.

    @article{Calsbeek:2015,
    abstract = {Intralocus sexual conflict arises when selection favours alternative fitness optima in males and females. Unresolved conflict can create negative between-sex genetic correlations for fitness, such that high-fitness parents produce high-fitness progeny of their same sex, but low-fitness progeny of the opposite sex. This cost of sexual conflict could be mitigated if high-fitness parents bias sex allocation to produce more offspring of their same sex. Previous studies of the brown anole lizard (Anolis sagrei) show that viability selection on body size is sexually antagonistic, favouring large males and smaller females. However, sexual conflict over body size may be partially mitigated by adaptive sex allocation: large males sire more sons than daughters, whereas small males sire more daughters than sons. We explored the evolutionary implications of these phenomena by assessing the additive genetic (co)variance of fitness within and between sexes in a wild population. We measured two components of fitness: viability of adults over the breeding season, and the number of their progeny that survived to sexual maturity, which includes components of parental reproductive success and offspring viability ({RSV}). Viability of parents was not correlated with adult viability of their sons or daughters. {RSV} was positively correlated between sires and their offspring, but not between dams and their offspring. Neither component of fitness was significantly heritable, and neither exhibited negative between-sex genetic correlations that would indicate unresolved sexual conflict. Rather, our results are more consistent with predictions regarding adaptive sex allocation in that, as the number of sons produced by a sire increased, the adult viability of his male progeny increased.},
    author = {Calsbeek, R. and Duryea, M. C. and Goedert, D. and Bergeron, P. and Cox, R. M.},
    journal = {Journal of Evolutionary Biology},
    month = nov,
    number = {11},
    pages = {1975--1985},
    title = {Intralocus sexual conflict, adaptive sex allocation, and the heritability of fitness},
    volume = {28},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • N. Booker and N. Hart, “The role of steroid hormones on neuron number and size in the green anole lizard,” , 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Booker:2015,
    author = {Booker, Nicholas and Hart, Nicholas},
    title = {The Role of Steroid Hormones on Neuron Number and Size in the Green Anole Lizard},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • C. Bonneaud, E. Marnocha, A. Herrel, B. Vanhooydonck, D. J. Irschick, and T. B. Smith, “Developmental plasticity affects sexual size dimorphism in an anole lizard,” Functional ecology, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Bonneaud:2015,
    author = {Bonneaud, Camille and Marnocha, Erin and Herrel, Anthony and Vanhooydonck, Bieke and Irschick, Duncan J. and Smith, Thomas B.},
    journal = {Functional Ecology},
    title = {Developmental plasticity affects sexual size dimorphism in an anole lizard},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • C. Bochaton, S. Grouard, R. Cornette, I. Ineich, A. Lenoble, A. Tresset, and S. Bailon, “Fossil and subfossil herpetofauna from cadet 2 cave (Marie-Galante, guadeloupe islands, f. w. i.): evolution of an insular herpetofauna since the late pleistocene,” Comptes rendus palevol, vol. 14, iss. 2, pp. 101-110, 2015.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    This study deals with the herpetofaunal fossil and subfossil remains from the Cadet 2 site ({Marie-Galante}, Guadeloupean Archipelago). This study provides new data concerning the herpetofaunal community since the Late Pleistocene by revealing the early local occurrence of some taxa (Eleutherodactylus sp., cf. Sphaerodactylus sp., Ameiva sp., cf. Capitellum mariagalantae, Anolis cf. ferreus, cf. Antillotyphlops sp., cf. Alsophis sp. and Colubroidea sp. 1) and possible Pleistocene extinctions (Boa sp. and Colubroidea sp. 2). Moreover, the first metric data for fossil {Marie-Galante} anoles show clear size stability throughout time. As regards the evolution of the island herpetofaunal biodiversity, our work points to the long-term stability of the fauna before human colonization and subsequently to the marked impact of human-caused environmental disturbances during colonial but also {Pre-Columbian} periods.

    @article{Bochaton:2015,
    abstract = {This study deals with the herpetofaunal fossil and subfossil remains from the Cadet 2 site ({Marie-Galante}, Guadeloupean Archipelago). This study provides new data concerning the herpetofaunal community since the Late Pleistocene by revealing the early local occurrence of some taxa (Eleutherodactylus sp., cf. Sphaerodactylus sp., Ameiva sp., cf. Capitellum mariagalantae, Anolis cf. ferreus, cf. Antillotyphlops sp., cf. Alsophis sp. and Colubroidea sp. 1) and possible Pleistocene extinctions (Boa sp. and Colubroidea sp. 2). Moreover, the first metric data for fossil {Marie-Galante} anoles show clear size stability throughout time. As regards the evolution of the island herpetofaunal biodiversity, our work points to the long-term stability of the fauna before human colonization and subsequently to the marked impact of human-caused environmental disturbances during colonial but also {Pre-Columbian} periods.},
    author = {Bochaton, Corentin and Grouard, Sandrine and Cornette, Rapha{\"{e}}l and Ineich, Ivan and Lenoble, Arnaud and Tresset, Anne and Bailon, Salvador},
    journal = {Comptes Rendus Palevol},
    month = feb,
    number = {2},
    pages = {101--110},
    title = {Fossil and subfossil herpetofauna from Cadet 2 Cave ({Marie-Galante}, Guadeloupe Islands, F. W. I.): Evolution of an insular herpetofauna since the Late Pleistocene},
    volume = {14},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • E. Boada Viteri, “Ecolog\\’\\ia de una comunidad de lagartijas del género anolis (iguanidae: dactyloinae) de un bosque pie-montano del ecuador occidenta,” , 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Boada-Viteri:2015,
    author = {Boada Viteri, Estefan{\'{\i}}a},
    title = {Ecolog\\'\\ia de una comunidad de lagartijas del g\'{e}nero Anolis (Iguanidae: Dactyloinae) de un bosque pie-montano del Ecuador Occidenta},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • I. C. Beltran and A. Amézquita, “First report of tail display during agonistic interaction in an anole species and a comment on its existence in various groups of lizards,” Herpetology notes, vol. 8, pp. 357-359, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Beltran:2015,
    author = {Beltran, Ivan C. and Am{\'{e}}zquita, Adolfo},
    journal = {Herpetology Notes},
    pages = {357--359},
    title = {First report of tail display during agonistic interaction in an anole species and a comment on its existence in various groups of lizards},
    volume = {8},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • W. A. Beckles, “Signal evolution in an invasive species of tropical lizard, anolis distichus,” in 2015 aaas annual meeting (12-16 february 2015), 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Beckles:2015,
    author = {Beckles, Winter A.},
    booktitle = {2015 AAAS Annual Meeting (12-16 February 2015)},
    publisher = {aaas},
    title = {Signal Evolution in an Invasive Species of Tropical Lizard, Anolis Distichus},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • E. M. Baruch, M. A. Manger, and J. L. Stynoski, “Ground anoles (anolis humilis) discriminate between aposematic and cryptic model insects,” Journal of herpetology, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Baruch:2015,
    author = {Baruch, Ethan M. and Manger, Morgan A. and Stynoski, Jennifer L.},
    journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
    title = {Ground Anoles (Anolis humilis) Discriminate between Aposematic and Cryptic Model Insects},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • F. Ayala-Varela, J. A. Velasco, M. Calderón-Espinosa, A. F. Arteaga, Y. Sagredo, and S. Valverde, “First records of anolis ventrimaculatus bou-lenger, 1911 (squamata: iguanidae) in ecuador,” Amphibian & reptile conservation, vol. 8, iss. 1, pp. 136-140, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Ayala-Varela:2015,
    author = {Ayala-Varela, F. and Velasco, J. A. and Calder{\'{o}}n-Espinosa, M. and Arteaga, A. F. and Sagredo, Y. and Valverde, S.},
    journal = {Amphibian \& Reptile Conservation},
    number = {1},
    pages = {136--140},
    title = {First records of Anolis ventrimaculatus Bou-lenger, 1911 (Squamata: Iguanidae) in Ecuador},
    volume = {8},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • K. J. Aviles-Rodriguez, “Do urban environments influence antipredator and foraging behavior of the lizard anolis cristatellus?,” , 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Aviles-Rodriguez:2015a,
    author = {Aviles-Rodriguez, Kevin J.},
    title = {Do urban environments influence antipredator and foraging behavior of the lizard Anolis cristatellus?},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • K. Aviles-Rodriguez and J. Kolbe, “Does urban environment impact anolis cristatellus antipredator behavior?,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2015, p. E215.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Aviles-Rodriguez:2015,
    author = {Aviles-Rodriguez, K. and Kolbe, J.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E215},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Does urban environment impact Anolis cristatellus antipredator behavior?},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • W. Anzai, A. Cádiz, and H. Endo, “Sexual dimorphisms of appendicular musculoskeletal morphology related to social display in cuban anolis lizards,” Zoological science, vol. 32, iss. 5, pp. 438-446, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Anzai:2015,
    author = {Anzai, Wataru and C{\'{a}}diz, Antonio and Endo, Hideki},
    journal = {Zoological science},
    number = {5},
    pages = {438--446},
    title = {Sexual Dimorphisms of Appendicular Musculoskeletal Morphology Related to Social Display in Cuban Anolis Lizards},
    volume = {32},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • L. Alibardi, “Review: mapping epidermal beta-protein distribution in the lizard anolis carolinensis shows a specific localization for the formation of scales, pads, and claws,” Protoplasma, pp. 1-16, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Alibardi:2015,
    author = {Alibardi, Lorenzo},
    journal = {Protoplasma},
    pages = {1--16},
    title = {Review: mapping epidermal beta-protein distribution in the lizard Anolis carolinensis shows a specific localization for the formation of scales, pads, and claws},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • L. Alibardi, “Immunolocalization of large corneous beta-proteins in the green anole lizard (anolis carolinensis) suggests that they form filaments that associate to the smaller beta-proteins in the beta-layer of the epidermis,” Journal of morphology, vol. 276, iss. 10, pp. 1244-1257, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Alibardi:2015c,
    author = {Alibardi, Lorenzo},
    journal = {Journal of morphology},
    number = {10},
    pages = {1244--1257},
    title = {Immunolocalization of large corneous beta-proteins in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) suggests that they form filaments that associate to the smaller beta-proteins in the beta-layer of the epidermis},
    volume = {276},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • L. Alibardi, “Immunocytochemical detection of beta-defensins and cathelicidins in the secretory granules of the tongue in the lizard anolis carolinensis,” Acta histochemica, vol. 117, iss. 3, pp. 223-227, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Alibardi:2015b,
    author = {Alibardi, Lorenzo},
    journal = {Acta histochemica},
    number = {3},
    pages = {223--227},
    title = {Immunocytochemical detection of beta-defensins and cathelicidins in the secretory granules of the tongue in the lizard Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {117},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • L. Alibardi, B. Strasser, and L. Eckhart, “Immunolocalization of loricrin in the maturing α-layer of normal and regenerating epidermis of the lizard anolis carolinensis,” Journal of experimental zoology part b: molecular and developmental evolution, vol. 324, iss. 2, pp. 159-167, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Alibardi:2015a,
    author = {Alibardi, Lorenzo and Strasser, Bettina and Eckhart, Leopold},
    journal = {Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution},
    number = {2},
    pages = {159--167},
    title = {Immunolocalization of loricrin in the maturing α-layer of normal and regenerating epidermis of the lizard Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {324},
    year = {2015}
    }

  • A. C. Algar and L. D. Mahler, “Area, climate heterogeneity, and the response of climate niches to ecological opportunity in island radiations of anolis lizards,” Global ecology and biogeography, 2015.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Algar:2015,
    author = {Algar, Adam C. and Mahler, D. Luke},
    journal = {Global Ecology and Biogeography},
    title = {Area, climate heterogeneity, and the response of climate niches to ecological opportunity in island radiations of Anolis lizards},
    year = {2015}
    }

2014

  • K. C. Wollenberg, M. Veith, and S. Lötters, “Expanding the understanding of local community assembly in adaptive radiations,” Ecology and evolution, vol. 4, iss. 2, pp. 174-185, 2014.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Communities are thought to be assembled by two types of filters: by the environment relating to the fundamental niche and by biotic interactions relating to the realized niche. Both filters include parameters related to functional traits and their variation along environmental gradients. Here, we infer the general importance of environmental filtering of a functional trait determining local community assembly within insular adaptive radiations on the example of Caribbean Anolis lizards. We constructed maps for the probability of presence of Anolis ecomorphs (ecology-morphology-behavior specialists) on the Greater Antilles and overlaid these to estimate ecomorph community completeness ({ECC}) over the landscape. We then tested for differences in environmental parameter spaces among islands for real and cross-fitted {ECC} values to see whether the underlying assembly filters are deterministic (i.e., similar among islands). We then compared information-theoretic models of climatic and landscape parameters among Greater Antillean islands and inferred whether body mass as functional trait determines {ECC}. We found areas with high {ECC} to be strongly correlated with environmental filters, partly related to elevation. The environmental parameters influencing high {ECC} differed among islands. With the exception of the Jamaican twig ecomorph (which we suspect to be misclassified), smaller ecomorphs were more restricted to higher elevations than larger ones which might reflect filtering on the basis of differential physiological restrictions of ecomorphs. Our results in Anolis show that local community assembly within adaptive island radiations of animals can be determined by environmental filtering of functional traits, independently from species composition and realized environmental niche space.

    @article{Wollenberg:2014,
    abstract = {Communities are thought to be assembled by two types of filters: by the environment relating to the fundamental niche and by biotic interactions relating to the realized niche. Both filters include parameters related to functional traits and their variation along environmental gradients. Here, we infer the general importance of environmental filtering of a functional trait determining local community assembly within insular adaptive radiations on the example of Caribbean Anolis lizards. We constructed maps for the probability of presence of Anolis ecomorphs (ecology-morphology-behavior specialists) on the Greater Antilles and overlaid these to estimate ecomorph community completeness ({ECC}) over the landscape. We then tested for differences in environmental parameter spaces among islands for real and cross-fitted {ECC} values to see whether the underlying assembly filters are deterministic (i.e., similar among islands). We then compared information-theoretic models of climatic and landscape parameters among Greater Antillean islands and inferred whether body mass as functional trait determines {ECC}. We found areas with high {ECC} to be strongly correlated with environmental filters, partly related to elevation. The environmental parameters influencing high {ECC} differed among islands. With the exception of the Jamaican twig ecomorph (which we suspect to be misclassified), smaller ecomorphs were more restricted to higher elevations than larger ones which might reflect filtering on the basis of differential physiological restrictions of ecomorphs. Our results in Anolis show that local community assembly within adaptive island radiations of animals can be determined by environmental filtering of functional traits, independently from species composition and realized environmental niche space.},
    author = {Wollenberg, Katharina C. and Veith, Michael and L{\"{o}}tters, Stefan},
    journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
    month = jan,
    number = {2},
    pages = {174--185},
    title = {Expanding the understanding of local community assembly in adaptive radiations},
    volume = {4},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • J. E. Wegener, G. E. A. Gartner, and J. B. Losos, “Lizard scales in an adaptive radiation: variation in scale number follows climatic and structural habitat diversity in anolis lizards,” Biological journal of the linnean society, vol. 113, iss. 2, pp. 570-579, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Wegener:2014,
    author = {Wegener, Johanna E. and Gartner, Gabriel E. A. and Losos, Jonathan B.},
    journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society},
    number = {2},
    pages = {570--579},
    title = {Lizard scales in an adaptive radiation: variation in scale number follows climatic and structural habitat diversity in Anolis lizards},
    volume = {113},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • D. A. Warner, A. Harrison, and A. Reedy, “Spatial and temporal variation in phenotypic selection in the lizard anolis sagrei,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2014, p. E220.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Warner:2014,
    author = {Warner, D. A. and Harrison, A. and Reedy, A.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E220},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Spatial and temporal variation in phenotypic selection in the lizard Anolis sagrei},
    volume = {54},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • F. B. Vickowski, “Importance of the tail in anolis carolinensis for controlling in-air stability,” PhD Thesis, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @phdthesis{Vickowski:2014,
    author = {Vickowski, Flynn B.},
    title = {IMPORTANCE OF THE TAIL IN ANOLIS CAROLINENSIS FOR CONTROLLING IN-AIR STABILITY},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • J. A. Velasco and J. P. A. B. L. O. Hurtado-Gómez, “A new green anole lizard of the" dactyloa" clade (squamata: dactyloidae) from the magdalena river valley of colombia,” Zootaxa, vol. 3785, iss. 2, pp. 201-216, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Velasco:2014,
    author = {Velasco, Julian A. and Hurtado-G{\'{o}}mez, Juan P. A. B. L. O.},
    journal = {Zootaxa},
    number = {2},
    pages = {201--216},
    title = {A new green anole lizard of the" Dactyloa" clade (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from the Magdalena river valley of Colombia},
    volume = {3785},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • S. I. Vega-Castillo, “Ecological interactions of anolis cristatellus and anolis krugi in two secondary tropical karst forests at the northern karst belt of puerto rico: occupancy estimates and degree of Omnivory/Frugivory,” PhD Thesis, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @phdthesis{Vega-Castillo:2014,
    author = {Vega-Castillo, Sondra I.},
    school = {UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO RIO PIEDRAS},
    title = {Ecological Interactions of Anolis Cristatellus and Anolis Krugi in Two Secondary Tropical Karst Forests at the Northern Karst Belt of Puerto Rico: Occupancy Estimates and Degree of {Omnivory/Frugivory}},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. Vargas-Ramírez and R. Moreno-Arias, “Unknown evolutionary lineages and population differentiation in anolis heterodermus (squamata: dactyloidae) from the eastern and central cordilleras of colombia revealed by DNA sequence data,” South american journal of herpetology, vol. 9, iss. 2, pp. 131-141, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Vargas-Ramirez:2014,
    author = {Vargas-Ram{\'{\i}}rez, Mario and Moreno-Arias, Rafael},
    journal = {South American Journal of Herpetology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {131--141},
    title = {Unknown evolutionary lineages and population differentiation in Anolis heterodermus (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from the eastern and central Cordilleras of Colombia revealed by {DNA} sequence data},
    volume = {9},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • J. Torres, C. Pérez-Penichet, and O. Torres, “Predation attempt by tropidophis melanurus (serpentes, tropidophiidae) on anolis porcus (sauria, dactyloidae),” Herpetology notes, vol. 7, pp. 527-529, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Torres:2014,
    author = {Torres, Javier and P{\'{e}}rez-Penichet, Carlos and Torres, Orlando},
    journal = {Herpetology Notes},
    pages = {527--529},
    title = {Predation attempt by Tropidophis melanurus (Serpentes, Tropidophiidae) on Anolis porcus (Sauria, Dactyloidae)},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • J. Torres and M. Acosta, “Predation attempt by anolis porcatus (sauria, dactyloidae) on mus musculus (rodentia, muridae),” Herpetology notes, vol. 7, pp. 525-526, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Torres:2014a,
    author = {Torres, Javier and Acosta, Mart{\'{\i}}n},
    journal = {Herpetology Notes},
    pages = {525--526},
    title = {Predation attempt by Anolis porcatus (Sauria, Dactyloidae) on Mus musculus (Rodentia, Muridae)},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. Tollis, “Mining the most Species-Rich amniote genus: de novo sequencing of three anole lizards for comparative genomic analysis,” in Plant and animal genome xxii conference, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Tollis:2014,
    author = {Tollis, Marc},
    booktitle = {Plant and Animal Genome XXII Conference},
    publisher = {Plant and Animal Genome},
    title = {Mining the Most {Species-Rich} Amniote Genus: de novo Sequencing of Three Anole Lizards for Comparative Genomic Analysis},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. Tollis and S. Boissinot, “Genetic variation in the green anole lizard (anolis carolinensis) reveals island refugia and a fragmented florida during the quaternary,” Genetica, vol. 142, iss. 1, pp. 59-72, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Tollis:2014a,
    author = {Tollis, Marc and Boissinot, St{\'{e}}phane},
    journal = {Genetica},
    number = {1},
    pages = {59--72},
    title = {Genetic variation in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) reveals island refugia and a fragmented Florida during the quaternary},
    volume = {142},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • J. Sunyer, “An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of nicaragua,” Mesoamerican herpetology, vol. 1, iss. 2, pp. 186-202, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Sunyer:2014,
    author = {Sunyer, Javier},
    journal = {Mesoamerican Herpetology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {186--202},
    title = {An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua},
    volume = {1},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • D. Sumiyama, H. Izumiya, T. Kanazawa, and K. Murata, “Salmonella infection in green anoles (anolis carolinensis), an invasive alien species on chichi island of the ogasawara archipelago in japan,” The journal of veterinary medical science, vol. 76, iss. 3, p. 461, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Sumiyama:2014,
    author = {Sumiyama, Daisuke and Izumiya, Hidemasa and Kanazawa, Tomoko and Murata, Koichi},
    journal = {The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science},
    number = {3},
    pages = {461},
    title = {Salmonella Infection in Green Anoles (Anolis carolinensis), an Invasive Alien Species on Chichi Island of the Ogasawara Archipelago in Japan},
    volume = {76},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • Y. E. Stuart, T. S. Campbell, P. A. Hohenlohe, R. G. Reynolds, L. J. Revell, and J. B. Losos, “Rapid evolution of a native species following invasion by a congener,” Science, vol. 346, iss. 6208, pp. 463-466, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Stuart:2014,
    author = {Stuart, Yoel E. and Campbell, T. S. and Hohenlohe, P. A. and Reynolds, Robert G. and Revell, L. J. and Losos, J. B.},
    journal = {Science},
    number = {6208},
    pages = {463--466},
    title = {Rapid evolution of a native species following invasion by a congener},
    volume = {346},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • T. Strickland, “Lizards bridging the gap: phylogeography of the puerto rican crested anole (anolis cristatellus) across the puerto rican bank,” PhD Thesis, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @phdthesis{Strickland:2014,
    author = {Strickland, Tanner},
    school = {Harvard University},
    title = {Lizards Bridging the Gap: Phylogeography of the Puerto Rican Crested Anole (Anolis Cristatellus) Across the Puerto Rican Bank},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • D. S. Steinberg, J. B. Losos, T. W. Schoener, D. A. Spiller, J. J. Kolbe, and M. Leal, “Predation-associated modulation of movement-based signals by a bahamian lizard,” Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, vol. 111, iss. 25, pp. 9187-9192, 2014.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Signaling individuals must effectively capture and hold the attention of intended conspecific receivers while limiting eavesdropping by potential predators. A possible mechanism for achieving this balance is for individuals to modulate the physical properties of their signals or to alter the proportion of time spent signaling, depending upon local levels of predation pressure. We test the hypothesis that prey can alter their visual signaling behavior to decrease conspicuousness and potentially limit predation risk via modulation of signal properties or display rate. To do so, we conducted a manipulative experiment in nature to evaluate the possible effect of predation pressure on the physical properties of movement-based signals and on the proportion of time spent signaling by using a well-understood predator–prey system in the Bahamas, the semiarboreal lizard Anolis sagrei, and one of its main predators, the curly-tailed lizard Leiocephalus carinatus. We find that on islands onto which the predator was introduced, male anoles reduce the maximum amplitude of head-bob displays but not the proportion of time spent signaling, in comparison with control islands lacking the predator. This reduction of amplitude also decreases signal active space, which might alter the reproductive success of signaling individuals. We suggest that future studies of predator–prey interactions consider the risk effects generated by changes in signals or signaling behavior to fully determine the influence of predation pressure on the dynamics of prey populations.

    @article{Steinberg:2014,
    abstract = {Signaling individuals must effectively capture and hold the attention of intended conspecific receivers while limiting eavesdropping by potential predators. A possible mechanism for achieving this balance is for individuals to modulate the physical properties of their signals or to alter the proportion of time spent signaling, depending upon local levels of predation pressure. We test the hypothesis that prey can alter their visual signaling behavior to decrease conspicuousness and potentially limit predation risk via modulation of signal properties or display rate. To do so, we conducted a manipulative experiment in nature to evaluate the possible effect of predation pressure on the physical properties of movement-based signals and on the proportion of time spent signaling by using a well-understood predator--prey system in the Bahamas, the semiarboreal lizard Anolis sagrei, and one of its main predators, the curly-tailed lizard Leiocephalus carinatus. We find that on islands onto which the predator was introduced, male anoles reduce the maximum amplitude of head-bob displays but not the proportion of time spent signaling, in comparison with control islands lacking the predator. This reduction of amplitude also decreases signal active space, which might alter the reproductive success of signaling individuals. We suggest that future studies of predator--prey interactions consider the risk effects generated by changes in signals or signaling behavior to fully determine the influence of predation pressure on the dynamics of prey populations.},
    author = {Steinberg, David S. and Losos, Jonathan B. and Schoener, Thomas W. and Spiller, David A. and Kolbe, Jason J. and Leal, Manuel},
    journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
    month = jun,
    number = {25},
    pages = {9187--9192},
    title = {Predation-associated modulation of movement-based signals by a Bahamian lizard},
    volume = {111},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • J. E. Steffen and C. C. Guyer, “Display behaviour and dewlap colour as predictors of contest success in brown anoles,” Biological journal of the linnean society, vol. 111, iss. 3, pp. 646-655, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Steffen:2014,
    author = {Steffen, John E. and Guyer, Craig C.},
    journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society},
    number = {3},
    pages = {646--655},
    title = {Display behaviour and dewlap colour as predictors of contest success in brown anoles},
    volume = {111},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • J. M. Solís, L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend, “An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of honduras, with comments on their nomenclature,” Mesoamerican herpetology, vol. 1, pp. 123-144, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Solis:2014,
    author = {Sol{\'{\i}}s, J. M. and Wilson, L. D. and Townsend, J. H.},
    journal = {Mesoamerican Herpetology},
    pages = {123--144},
    title = {An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature},
    volume = {1},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • H. H. Siliceo-Cantero and A. García, “Differences in growth rate, body condition, habitat use and food availability between island and mainland lizard populations of anolis nebulosus in jalisco, mexico,” Journal of tropical ecology, vol. 30, iss. 05, pp. 493-501, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Siliceo-Cantero:2014,
    author = {Siliceo-Cantero, H{\'{e}}ctor H. and Garc{\'{\i}}a, Andr{\'{e}}s},
    journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
    number = {05},
    pages = {493--501},
    title = {Differences in growth rate, body condition, habitat use and food availability between island and mainland lizard populations of Anolis nebulosus in Jalisco, Mexico},
    volume = {30},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • G. Senczuk, A. García, P. Colangelo, F. Annesi, and R. Castiglia, “Morphometric and genetic divergence in island and mainland populations of anolis nebulosus (squamata: polychrotidae) from jalisco (mexico): an instance of insular gigantism,” Italian journal of zoology, vol. 81, iss. 2, pp. 204-214, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Senczuk:2014,
    author = {Senczuk, G. and Garc{\'{\i}}a, A. and Colangelo, P. and Annesi, F. and Castiglia, R.},
    journal = {Italian Journal of Zoology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {204--214},
    title = {Morphometric and genetic divergence in island and mainland populations of Anolis nebulosus (Squamata: Polychrotidae) from Jalisco (Mexico): an instance of insular gigantism},
    volume = {81},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • A. C. Sanz Ochotorena and Y. Rodríguez Gómez, “Anolis sagrei (reptilia: polychrotinae): exitoso e invasor,” Revista cubana de ciencias biológicas, vol. 3, iss. 1, pp. 15-21, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Sanz-Ochotorena:2014,
    author = {Sanz Ochotorena, Ana C. and Rodr{\'{\i}}guez G{\'{o}}mez, Yamilka},
    journal = {Revista Cubana de Ciencias Biol\'{o}gicas},
    number = {1},
    pages = {15--21},
    title = {Anolis sagrei (Reptilia: Polychrotinae): exitoso e invasor},
    volume = {3},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • T. J. Sanger, S. M. Seav, M. Tokita, B. R. Langerhans, L. M. Ross, J. B. Losos, and A. Abzhanov, “The oestrogen pathway underlies the evolution of exaggerated male cranial shapes in anolis lizards,” Proceedings of the royal society of london b: biological sciences, vol. 281, iss. 1784, p. 20140329, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Sanger:2014,
    author = {Sanger, Thomas J. and Seav, Susan M. and Tokita, Masayoshi and Langerhans, R. Brian and Ross, Lela M. and Losos, Jonathan B. and Abzhanov, Arhat},
    journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences},
    number = {1784},
    pages = {20140329},
    title = {The oestrogen pathway underlies the evolution of exaggerated male cranial shapes in Anolis lizards},
    volume = {281},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • A. Sandoval-Comte, A. P. Degante-González, and D. Santiago-Alarcon, “Predation of white anole (anolis laeviventris) by blue-crowned motmot (momotus momota) in a montane forest reserve in veracruz, mexico.,” Herpetology notes, vol. 7, pp. 721-722, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Sandoval-Comte:2014,
    author = {Sandoval-Comte, Adriana and Degante-Gonz{\'{a}}lez, Alma P. and Santiago-Alarcon, Diego},
    journal = {Herpetology Notes},
    pages = {721--722},
    title = {Predation of White Anole (Anolis laeviventris) by Blue-crowned motmot (Momotus momota) in a montane forest reserve in Veracruz, Mexico.},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. J. Ryan and S. Poe, “Seasonal shifts in relative density of the lizard anolis polylepis (squamata, dactyloidae) in forest and riparian habitats,” Journal of herpetology, vol. 48, iss. 4, pp. 495-499, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Ryan:2014,
    author = {Ryan, Mason J. and Poe, Steven},
    journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
    number = {4},
    pages = {495--499},
    title = {Seasonal Shifts in Relative Density of the Lizard Anolis polylepis (Squamata, Dactyloidae) in Forest and Riparian Habitats},
    volume = {48},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. Rovatsos, M. Altmanová, M. J. Pokorná, and L. Kratochvíl, “Novel x-linked genes revealed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the green anole, anolis carolinensis,” G3: genes\\textbar genomes\\textbar genetics, vol. 4, iss. 11, pp. 2107-2113, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Rovatsos:2014,
    author = {Rovatsos, Michail and Altmanov{\'{a}}, Marie and Pokorn{\'{a}}, Martina J. and Kratochv{\'{\i}}l, Luk{\'{a}}{v}},
    journal = {G3: Genes\\textbar Genomes\\textbar Genetics},
    number = {11},
    pages = {2107--2113},
    title = {Novel X-linked genes revealed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {4},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. Rovatsos, M. Altmanová, M. Pokorná, and L. Kratochvíl, “Conserved sex chromosomes across adaptively radiated anolis lizards,” Evolution, vol. 68, iss. 7, pp. 2079-2085, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Rovatsos:2014a,
    author = {Rovatsos, Michail and Altmanov{\'{a}}, Marie and Pokorn{\'{a}}, Martina and Kratochv{\'{\i}}l, Luk{\'{a}}{v}},
    journal = {Evolution},
    number = {7},
    pages = {2079--2085},
    title = {Conserved sex chromosomes across adaptively radiated Anolis lizards},
    volume = {68},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. Rosario Castañeda, E. Sherratt, and J. B. Losos, “The mexican amber anole, anolis electrum, within a phylogenetic context: implications for the origins of caribbean anoles,” Zoological journal of the linnean society, vol. 172, iss. 1, pp. 133-144, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Rosario-Castaneda:2014,
    author = {Rosario Casta{\~{n}}eda, Mar{\'{\i}}a and Sherratt, Emma and Losos, Jonathan B.},
    journal = {Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society},
    number = {1},
    pages = {133--144},
    title = {The Mexican amber anole, Anolis electrum, within a phylogenetic context: implications for the origins of Caribbean anoles},
    volume = {172},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • C. D. Robinson, B. K. Kircher, and M. A. Johnson, “Communal nesting in the cuban twig anole (anolis angusticeps) from south bimini, bahamas,” Reptiles & amphibians, vol. 21, iss. 2, p. 71, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Robinson:2014,
    author = {Robinson, Christopher D. and Kircher, Bonnie K. and Johnson, Michele A.},
    journal = {Reptiles \& Amphibians},
    number = {2},
    pages = {71},
    title = {Communal Nesting in the Cuban Twig Anole (Anolis angusticeps) from South Bimini, Bahamas},
    volume = {21},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • J. T. Rengifo, F. C. Castro, and F. J. Purryo, “Diversidad de una comunidad de anolis (iguana: dactyloidae) en la selva pluvial central del chocó, colombia,” Basic appl herpet, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Rengifo:2014,
    author = {Rengifo, J. T. and Castro, F. C. and Purryo, F. J.},
    journal = {Basic Appl Herpet},
    title = {Diversidad de una comunidad de Anolis (Iguana: Dactyloidae) en la selva pluvial central del Choc\'{o}, Colombia},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. M. Quinn, J. M. Bush, A. K. Dill, E. C. Balreira, and M. A. Johnson, “Mathematical model of the dynamic energy budget of the green anole lizard (anolis carolinensis),” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2014, p. E335.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Quinn:2014,
    author = {Quinn, M. M. and Bush, J. M. and Dill, A. K. and Balreira, E. C. and Johnson, M. A.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E335},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Mathematical model of the dynamic energy budget of the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis)},
    volume = {54},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • Z. Prokopiak and C. Steglich, “Isolation and characterization of two cDNAs expressed in the harderian gland of the anole lizard (anolis carolinensis)(589.4),” The faseb journal, vol. 28, iss. 1 Supplement, pp. 589-4, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Prokopiak:2014,
    author = {Prokopiak, Zoey and Steglich, Carolyn},
    journal = {The FASEB Journal},
    number = {1 Supplement},
    pages = {589--4},
    title = {Isolation and characterization of two {cDNAs} expressed in the Harderian gland of the anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis)(589.4)},
    volume = {28},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • B. J. Powell and M. Leal, “Brain organization and habitat complexity in anolis lizards,” Brain, behavior and evolution, vol. 84, iss. 1, pp. 8-18, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Powell:2014,
    author = {Powell, Brian J. and Leal, Manuel},
    journal = {Brain, behavior and evolution},
    number = {1},
    pages = {8--18},
    title = {Brain Organization and Habitat Complexity in Anolis Lizards},
    volume = {84},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • S. Poe, “The travels of thomas barbour on the ship utowana in 1931 and the taxonomic status of anolis utowanae,” Breviora, pp. 1-9, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Poe:2014,
    author = {Poe, Steven},
    journal = {Breviora},
    pages = {1--9},
    title = {The travels of Thomas Barbour on the ship Utowana in 1931 and the taxonomic status of Anolis utowanae},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • S. Poe, “Comparison of natural and nonnative two-species communities of anolis lizards,” The american naturalist, vol. 184, iss. 1, pp. 132-140, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Poe:2014a,
    author = {Poe, Steven},
    journal = {The American Naturalist},
    number = {1},
    pages = {132--140},
    title = {Comparison of natural and nonnative two-species communities of Anolis lizards},
    volume = {184},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • S. Park, C. R. Infante, L. C. Rivera-Davila, and D. B. Menke, “Conserved regulation of hoxc11 by pitx1 in anolis lizards,” Journal of experimental zoology part b: molecular and developmental evolution, vol. 322, iss. 3, pp. 156-165, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Park:2014,
    author = {Park, Sungdae and Infante, Carlos R. and Rivera-Davila, Laura C. and Menke, Douglas B.},
    journal = {Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution},
    number = {3},
    pages = {156--165},
    title = {Conserved regulation of hoxc11 by pitx1 in Anolis lizards},
    volume = {322},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • T. J. Ord and D. A. Klomp, “Habitat partitioning and morphological differentiation: the southeast asian draco lizards and caribbean anolis lizards compared,” Oecologia, vol. 175, iss. 2, pp. 651-666, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Ord:2014,
    author = {Ord, Terry J. and Klomp, Danielle A.},
    journal = {Oecologia},
    number = {2},
    pages = {651--666},
    title = {Habitat partitioning and morphological differentiation: the Southeast Asian Draco lizards and Caribbean Anolis lizards compared},
    volume = {175},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • G. Norval, “The morphology, reproductive biology and habitat utilisation of the exotic invasive lizard, the brown anole (anolis sagrei), in taiwan,” , 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Norval:2014,
    author = {Norval, Gerrut},
    title = {The morphology, reproductive biology and habitat utilisation of the exotic invasive lizard, the brown anole (Anolis sagrei), in Taiwan},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • G. Norval, S. R. Goldberg, C. R. Bursey, J. J. Mao, and K. Slater, “Internal parasites of lizards from taiwan,” Herpetological conservation and biology, vol. 9, iss. 3, pp. 484-494, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Norval:2014a,
    author = {Norval, Gerrut and Goldberg, Stephen R. and Bursey, Charles R. and Mao, Jean J. and Slater, Kerry},
    journal = {Herpetological Conservation and Biology},
    number = {3},
    pages = {484--494},
    title = {Internal parasites of lizards from Taiwan},
    volume = {9},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • K. E. Nicholson and G. Köhler, “A new species of the genus norops from darién, panama, with comments on n. sulcifrons (cope 1899)(Reptilia, squamata, dactyloidae),” Zootaxa, vol. 3895, iss. 2, pp. 225-237, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Nicholson:2014,
    author = {Nicholson, Kirsten E. and K{\"{o}}hler, Gunther},
    journal = {Zootaxa},
    number = {2},
    pages = {225--237},
    title = {A new species of the genus Norops from Dari\'{e}n, Panama, with comments on N. sulcifrons (Cope {1899)(Reptilia}, Squamata, Dactyloidae)},
    volume = {3895},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • K. E. Nicholson, B. I. Crother, C. Guyer, and J. M. Savage, “Anole classification: a response to poe,” Zootaxa, vol. 3814, iss. 1, pp. 109-120, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Nicholson:2014a,
    author = {Nicholson, K. E. and Crother, B. I. and Guyer, C. and Savage, J. M.},
    journal = {Zootaxa},
    number = {1},
    pages = {109--120},
    title = {Anole classification: A response to Poe},
    volume = {3814},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. M. Munoz and J. B. Losos, “Behavior simultaneously drives and impedes evolution: an empirical test using the tropical lizard, anolis cybotes,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2014, p. E147.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Munoz:2014d,
    author = {Munoz, M. M. and Losos, J. B.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E147},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Behavior simultaneously drives and impedes evolution: An empirical test using the tropical lizard, Anolis cybotes},
    volume = {54},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. M. Munoz, “A multidimensional perspective on the role of behavior in evolution,” PhD Thesis, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @phdthesis{Munoz:2014,
    author = {Munoz, Martha M.},
    title = {A multidimensional perspective on the role of behavior in evolution},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. M. Muñoz, J. E. Wegener, and A. C. Algar, “Untangling intra-and interspecific effects on body size clines reveals divergent processes structuring convergent patterns in anolis lizards,” The american naturalist, vol. 184, iss. 5, pp. 636-646, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Munoz:2014c,
    author = {Mu{\~{n}}oz, Martha M. and Wegener, Johanna E. and Algar, Adam C.},
    journal = {The American Naturalist},
    number = {5},
    pages = {636--646},
    title = {Untangling intra-and interspecific effects on body size clines reveals divergent processes structuring convergent patterns in Anolis lizards},
    volume = {184},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. M. Muñoz, M. A. Stimola, A. C. Algar, A. Conover, A. J. Rodriguez, M. A. Landestoy, G. S. Bakken, and J. B. Losos, “Evolutionary stasis and lability in thermal physiology in a group of tropical lizards,” Proceedings of the royal society of london b: biological sciences, vol. 281, iss. 1778, p. 20132433, 2014.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Understanding how quickly physiological traits evolve is a topic of great interest, particularly in the context of how organisms can adapt in response to climate warming. Adjustment to novel thermal habitats may occur either through behavioural adjustments, physiological adaptation or both. Here, we test whether rates of evolution differ among physiological traits in the cybotoids, a clade of tropical Anolis lizards distributed in markedly different thermal environments on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. We find that cold tolerance evolves considerably faster than heat tolerance, a difference that results because behavioural thermoregulation more effectively shields these organisms from selection on upper than lower temperature tolerances. Specifically, because lizards in very different environments behaviourally thermoregulate during the day to similar body temperatures, divergent selection on body temperature and heat tolerance is precluded, whereas night-time temperatures can only be partially buffered by behaviour, thereby exposing organisms to selection on cold tolerance. We discuss how exposure to selection on physiology influences divergence among tropical organisms and its implications for adaptive evolutionary response to climate warming.

    @article{Munoz:2014b,
    abstract = {Understanding how quickly physiological traits evolve is a topic of great interest, particularly in the context of how organisms can adapt in response to climate warming. Adjustment to novel thermal habitats may occur either through behavioural adjustments, physiological adaptation or both. Here, we test whether rates of evolution differ among physiological traits in the cybotoids, a clade of tropical Anolis lizards distributed in markedly different thermal environments on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. We find that cold tolerance evolves considerably faster than heat tolerance, a difference that results because behavioural thermoregulation more effectively shields these organisms from selection on upper than lower temperature tolerances. Specifically, because lizards in very different environments behaviourally thermoregulate during the day to similar body temperatures, divergent selection on body temperature and heat tolerance is precluded, whereas night-time temperatures can only be partially buffered by behaviour, thereby exposing organisms to selection on cold tolerance. We discuss how exposure to selection on physiology influences divergence among tropical organisms and its implications for adaptive evolutionary response to climate warming.},
    author = {Mu{\~{n}}oz, Martha M. and Stimola, Maureen A. and Algar, Adam C. and Conover, Asa and Rodriguez, Anthony J. and Landestoy, Miguel A. and Bakken, George S. and Losos, Jonathan B.},
    journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences},
    month = mar,
    number = {1778},
    pages = {20132433},
    title = {Evolutionary stasis and lability in thermal physiology in a group of tropical lizards},
    volume = {281},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. M. Muñoz and J. B. Losos, “Behavioral inertia meets behavioral drive: behavioral shifts induce physiological stasis and morphological divergence,” A multidimensional perspective, p. 7, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Munoz:2014a,
    author = {Mu{\~{n}}oz, Martha M. and Losos, J. B.},
    journal = {A multidimensional perspective},
    pages = {7},
    title = {Behavioral inertia meets behavioral drive: behavioral shifts induce physiological stasis and morphological divergence},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • E. Mueller and D. H. Jennings, “Endocrine mechanisms of evolutionary changes in body size of anolis lizards,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2014, p. E321.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Mueller:2014,
    author = {Mueller, E. and Jennings, D. H.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E321},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Endocrine mechanisms of evolutionary changes in body size of Anolis lizards},
    volume = {54},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • S. F. McCracken and M. R. J. Forstner, “Herpetofaunal community of a high canopy tank bromeliad,” Aechmea zebrina, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{McCracken:2014,
    author = {McCracken, S. F. and Forstner, M. R. J.},
    journal = {Aechmea zebrina},
    title = {Herpetofaunal community of a high canopy tank bromeliad},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • C. T. McAllister, S. R. Seville, and M. B. Connior, “A new caryosporan and eimerian (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from green anoles, anolis carolinensis (sauria: dactyloidae), from arkansas and louisiana, with a summary of the coccidia of dactyloidae,” The journal of parasitology, vol. 100, iss. 4, pp. 480-484, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{McAllister:2014,
    author = {McAllister, Chris T. and Seville, R. Scott and Connior, Matthew B.},
    journal = {The Journal of parasitology},
    number = {4},
    pages = {480--484},
    title = {A new caryosporan and eimerian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from green anoles, Anolis carolinensis (Sauria: Dactyloidae), from Arkansas and Louisiana, with a summary of the coccidia of Dactyloidae},
    volume = {100},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • E. Maynard, “The effects of caudal autotomy on the kinematics of anolis carolinensis running on an Arboreal-Like substrate,” PhD Thesis, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @phdthesis{Maynard:2014,
    author = {Maynard, Eleanor},
    title = {The Effects of Caudal Autotomy on the Kinematics of Anolis carolinensis Running on an {Arboreal-Like} Substrate},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • A. C. Mármol Guijarro, “Análisis comparativo funcional de las garras y almohadillas adherentes entre lagartijas del género anolis del parque nacional yasun\\’\\i,” , 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Marmol-Guijarro:2014,
    author = {M{\'{a}}rmol Guijarro, Andr{\'{e}}s C.},
    title = {An\'{a}lisis comparativo funcional de las garras y almohadillas adherentes entre lagartijas del g\'{e}nero Anolis del Parque Nacional Yasun\\'\\i},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • J. M. Macedonia, D. L. Clark, and A. L. Tamasi, “Does selection favor dewlap colors that maximize detectability? a test with five species of jamaican anolis lizards,” Herpetologica, vol. 70, iss. 2, pp. 157-170, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Macedonia:2014,
    author = {Macedonia, Joseph M. and Clark, David L. and Tamasi, Alison L.},
    journal = {Herpetologica},
    number = {2},
    pages = {157--170},
    title = {Does selection favor dewlap colors that maximize detectability? A test with five species of Jamaican Anolis lizards},
    volume = {70},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • S. Lotzkat, A. Batista, M. Ponce, and A. Hertz, “Distribution extension for anolis pseudokemptoni köhler, ponce, sunyer & batista, 2007 (reptilia: squamata: dactyloidae), a microendemic species in the serran\\’\\ia de tabasará of the comarca Ngöbe-Buglé of western panama,” Check list, vol. 10, iss. 1, pp. 189-194, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Lotzkat:2014,
    author = {Lotzkat, Sebastian and Batista, Abel and Ponce, Marcos and Hertz, Andreas},
    journal = {Check List},
    number = {1},
    pages = {189--194},
    title = {Distribution extension for Anolis pseudokemptoni K\"{o}hler, Ponce, Sunyer \& Batista, 2007 (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae), a microendemic species in the Serran\\'\\ia de Tabasar\'{a} of the Comarca {Ng\"{o}be-Bugl\'{e}} of western Panama},
    volume = {10},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • B. Losos and A. Abzhanov, “The oestrogen pathway underlies the evolution of exaggerated,” , 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Losos:2014,
    author = {Losos, B. and Abzhanov, Arhat},
    title = {The oestrogen pathway underlies the evolution of exaggerated},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • A. M. Les, M. E. Gifford, J. S. Parmerlee, and R. Powell, “Do polymorphic female brown anoles (anolis sagrei) differ in sprint speed or escape behavior?,” Herpetologica, vol. 70, iss. 1, pp. 47-55, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Les:2014,
    author = {Les, Angela M. and Gifford, Matthew E. and Parmerlee, John S. and Powell, Robert},
    journal = {Herpetologica},
    number = {1},
    pages = {47--55},
    title = {Do Polymorphic Female Brown Anoles (Anolis sagrei) Differ in Sprint Speed or Escape Behavior?},
    volume = {70},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • E. A. Leiva, Y. N. Romero, E. Tercero, and O. M. Castellón, “Comparación de la diversidad faunística (herpetofauna) en cacaotales y rastrojos, siuna 2011,” Ciencia e interculturalidad, vol. 14, iss. 1, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Leiva:2014,
    author = {Leiva, Edwin A. and Romero, Yoicelin N. and Tercero, Efra{\'{\i}}n and Castell{\'{o}}n, Oscar M.},
    journal = {Ciencia e Interculturalidad},
    number = {1},
    title = {COMPARACI\'{O}N DE LA DIVERSIDAD FAUN\'{I}STICA (HERPETOFAUNA) EN CACAOTALES Y RASTROJOS, SIUNA 2011},
    volume = {14},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • G. J. Langford, J. M. Macedonia, C. W. Bessette, J. L. Matey, B. A. Raboin, A. E. Schiffmacher, and B. J. Reynolds, “Phenotypic plasticity in the relative hind-limb growth of lab-reared anolis sagrei: replication of experimental results and a test of perch diameter preference,” Journal of herpetology, vol. 48, iss. 2, pp. 228-232, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Langford:2014,
    author = {Langford, Gabriel J. and Macedonia, Joseph M. and Bessette, Christopher W. and Matey, Jennifer L. and Raboin, Brittany A. and Schiffmacher, Ashley E. and Reynolds, Brett J.},
    journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {228--232},
    title = {Phenotypic plasticity in the relative hind-limb growth of lab-reared Anolis sagrei: replication of experimental results and a test of perch diameter preference},
    volume = {48},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • K. Kusumi, “Anole lizard genomes: a window into amniote regeneration and understanding the genetic etiology of human musculoskeletal disorders,” in Plant and animal genome xxii conference, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Kusumi:2014,
    author = {Kusumi, Kenro},
    booktitle = {Plant and Animal Genome XXII Conference},
    publisher = {Plant and Animal Genome},
    title = {Anole Lizard Genomes: A Window into Amniote Regeneration and Understanding the Genetic Etiology of Human Musculoskeletal Disorders},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • E. Kurganov, Y. Zhou, S. Saito, and M. Tominaga, “Heat and AITC activate green anole TRPA1 in a membrane-delimited manner,” Pflügers archiv-european journal of physiology, vol. 466, iss. 10, pp. 1873-1884, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kurganov:2014,
    author = {Kurganov, Erkin and Zhou, Yiming and Saito, Shigeru and Tominaga, Makoto},
    journal = {Pfl\"{u}gers Archiv-European Journal of Physiology},
    number = {10},
    pages = {1873--1884},
    title = {Heat and {AITC} activate green anole {TRPA1} in a membrane-delimited manner},
    volume = {466},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • J. J. Kolbe, J. C. Ehrenberger, H. A. Moniz, and M. J. Angilletta, “Physiological variation among invasive populations of the brown anole (anolis sagrei)*,” Physiological and biochemical zoology, vol. 87, iss. 1, pp. 92-104, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kolbe:2014,
    author = {Kolbe, Jason J. and Ehrenberger, Joseph C. and Moniz, Haley A. and Angilletta, Michael J.},
    journal = {Physiological and Biochemical Zoology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {92--104},
    title = {Physiological Variation among Invasive Populations of the Brown Anole (Anolis sagrei)*},
    volume = {87},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • G. Koehler, “Characters of external morphology used in anolis taxonomy–Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples,” Zootaxa, vol. 3774, iss. 3, pp. 201-257, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Koehler:2014,
    author = {Koehler, Gunther},
    journal = {Zootaxa},
    number = {3},
    pages = {201--257},
    title = {Characters of external morphology used in Anolis {taxonomy--Definition} of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples},
    volume = {3774},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • G. Koehler, R. G. Pérez, C. B. Petersen, and F. R. de la Cruz, “A revision of the mexican anolis (reptilia, squamata, dactyloidae) from the pacific versant west of the isthmus de tehuantepec in the states of oaxaca, guerrero, and puebla, with the description of six new species,” Zootaxa, vol. 3862, iss. 1, pp. 1-210, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Koehler:2014a,
    author = {Koehler, Gunther and P{\'{e}}rez, Ra{\'{u}}l G. and Petersen, Claus B. and de la Cruz, Fausto R.},
    journal = {Zootaxa},
    number = {1},
    pages = {1--210},
    title = {A revision of the Mexican Anolis (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species},
    volume = {3862},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • H. N. Kerver and J. Wade, “Relationships among sex, season and testosterone in the expression of androgen receptor mRNA and protein in the green anole forebrain,” Brain, behavior and evolution, vol. 84, iss. 4, pp. 303-314, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kerver:2014,
    author = {Kerver, Halie N. and Wade, Juli},
    journal = {Brain, behavior and evolution},
    number = {4},
    pages = {303--314},
    title = {Relationships among Sex, Season and Testosterone in the Expression of Androgen Receptor {mRNA} and Protein in the Green Anole Forebrain},
    volume = {84},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • D. Kabelik and S. D. Magruder, “Involvement of different mesotocin (oxytocin homologue) populations in sexual and aggressive behaviours of the brown anole,” Biology letters, vol. 10, iss. 8, p. 20140566, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kabelik:2014,
    author = {Kabelik, David and Magruder, D. Sumner},
    journal = {Biology letters},
    number = {8},
    pages = {20140566},
    title = {Involvement of different mesotocin (oxytocin homologue) populations in sexual and aggressive behaviours of the brown anole},
    volume = {10},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • D. Kabelik, V. C. Alix, L. J. Singh, A. L. Johnson, S. C. Choudhury, C. C. Elbaum, and M. R. Scott, “Neural activity in catecholaminergic populations following sexual and aggressive interactions in the brown anole, anolis sagrei,” Brain research, vol. 1553, pp. 41-58, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kabelik:2014a,
    author = {Kabelik, David and Alix, Veronica C. and Singh, Leah J. and Johnson, Alyssa L. and Choudhury, Shelley C. and Elbaum, Caroline C. and Scott, Madeline R.},
    journal = {Brain research},
    pages = {41--58},
    title = {Neural activity in catecholaminergic populations following sexual and aggressive interactions in the brown anole, Anolis sagrei},
    volume = {1553},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. A. Johnson, M. V. Lopez, T. K. Whittle, B. K. Kircher, A. K. Dill, D. Varghese, and J. Wade, “The evolution of copulation frequency and the mechanisms of reproduction in male anolis lizards,” Current zoology, vol. 60, iss. 6, p. 768, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Johnson:2014a,
    author = {Johnson, Michele A. and Lopez, Maria V. and Whittle, Tara K. and Kircher, Bonnie K. and Dill, Alisa K. and Varghese, Divina and Wade, Juli},
    journal = {Current Zoology},
    number = {6},
    pages = {768},
    title = {The evolution of copulation frequency and the mechanisms of reproduction in male Anolis lizards},
    volume = {60},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. A. Johnson, “The evolution of muscle physiology and social behavior in caribbean anolis lizards,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2014, p. E102.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Johnson:2014,
    author = {Johnson, M. A.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E102},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {The Evolution of Muscle Physiology and Social Behavior in Caribbean Anolis Lizards},
    volume = {54},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • C. R. Infante, S. Park, A. Mihala, and D. B. Menke, “Using ChIP-seq to identify limb enhancers in the lizard genus anolis,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2014, p. E99.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Infante:2014,
    author = {Infante, C. R. and Park, S. and Mihala, A. and Menke, D. B.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E99},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Using {ChIP}-Seq to identify limb enhancers in the lizard genus Anolis},
    volume = {54},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • E. D. Hutchins, “RNA-seq analysis of the regenerating tail in the green anole lizard,” in Plant and animal genome xxii conference, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Hutchins:2014,
    author = {Hutchins, Elizabeth D.},
    booktitle = {Plant and Animal Genome XXII Conference},
    publisher = {Plant and Animal Genome},
    title = {{RNA}-Seq Analysis of the Regenerating Tail in the Green Anole Lizard},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • E. D. Hutchins, G. J. Markov, W. L. Eckalbar, R. M. George, J. M. King, M. A. Tokuyama, L. A. Geiger, N. Emmert, M. J. Ammar, A. N. Allen, and Others, “Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms,” Plos one, vol. 9, iss. 8, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Hutchins:2014a,
    author = {Hutchins, Elizabeth D. and Markov, Glenn J. and Eckalbar, Walter L. and George, Rajani M. and King, Jesse M. and Tokuyama, Minami A. and Geiger, Lauren A. and Emmert, Nataliya and Ammar, Michael J. and Allen, April N. and {Others}},
    journal = {PloS one},
    number = {8},
    title = {Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms},
    volume = {9},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • J. F. Husak and E. A. Sathe, “Maximal locomotor performance and sprint sensitivity in green anole lizards (anolis carolinensis),” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2014, p. E98.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Husak:2014,
    author = {Husak, J. F. and Sathe, E. A.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E98},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Maximal locomotor performance and sprint sensitivity in green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis)},
    volume = {54},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • J. F. Husak and M. B. Lovern, “Variation in steroid hormone levels among caribbean anolis lizards: endocrine system convergence?,” Hormones and behavior, vol. 65, iss. 4, pp. 408-415, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Husak:2014a,
    author = {Husak, Jerry F. and Lovern, Matthew B.},
    journal = {Hormones and behavior},
    number = {4},
    pages = {408--415},
    title = {Variation in steroid hormone levels among Caribbean Anolis lizards: Endocrine system convergence?},
    volume = {65},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • U. Hernández-Salinas, A. Ramírez-Bautista, N. P. Pavón, and L. F. Pacheco, “Morphometric variation in island and mainland populations of two lizard species from the pacific coast of mexico,” Revista chilena de historia natural, vol. 87, iss. 1, p. 21, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Hernandez-Salinas:2014,
    author = {Hern{\'{a}}ndez-Salinas, Uriel and Ram{\'{\i}}rez-Bautista, Aurelio and Pav{\'{o}}n, Numa P. and Pacheco, Luis F.},
    journal = {Revista chilena de historia natural},
    number = {1},
    pages = {21},
    title = {Morphometric variation in island and mainland populations of two lizard species from the Pacific Coast of Mexico},
    volume = {87},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • U. Hernández-Salinas, A. Ramírez-Bautista, and V. Mata-Silva, “Species richness of squamate reptiles from two islands in the mexican pacific,” Check list, vol. 10, iss. 6, pp. 1264-1269, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Hernandez-Salinas:2014a,
    author = {Hern{\'{a}}ndez-Salinas, Uriel and Ram{\'{\i}}rez-Bautista, Aurelio and Mata-Silva, Vicente},
    journal = {Check List},
    number = {6},
    pages = {1264--1269},
    title = {Species richness of squamate reptiles from two islands in the Mexican Pacific},
    volume = {10},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • O. Hernández-Ordóñez, M. Martínez-Ramos, V. Arroyo-Rodríguez, A. González-Hernández, A. González-Zamora, D. A. Zárate, and V. H. Reynoso, “Distribution and conservation status of amphibian and reptile species in the lacandona rainforest, mexico: an update after 20 years of research,” Tropical conservation science, vol. 1, pp. 1-25, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Hernandez-Ordonez:2014,
    author = {Hern{\'{a}}ndez-Ord{\'{o}}{\~{n}}ez, Omar and Mart{\'{\i}}nez-Ramos, Miguel and Arroyo-Rodr{\'{\i}}guez, V{\'{\i}}ctor and Gonz{\'{a}}lez-Hern{\'{a}}ndez, Adriana and Gonz{\'{a}}lez-Zamora, Arturo and Z{\'{a}}rate, Diego A. and Reynoso, V{\'{\i}}ctor H.},
    journal = {Tropical Conservation Science},
    pages = {1--25},
    title = {Distribution and conservation status of amphibian and reptile species in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: an update after 20 years of research},
    volume = {1},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • T. Hattori and W. Wilczynski, “Differences in forebrain androgen receptor expression in winners and losers of male anole aggressive interactions,” Brain research, vol. 1582, pp. 45-54, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Hattori:2014,
    author = {Hattori, Tomoko and Wilczynski, Walter},
    journal = {Brain research},
    pages = {45--54},
    title = {Differences in forebrain androgen receptor expression in winners and losers of male anole aggressive interactions},
    volume = {1582},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • A. S. Harrison, “The evolution and diversity of the anolis dewlap,” PhD Thesis, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @phdthesis{Harrison:2014,
    author = {Harrison, Alexis S.},
    title = {The evolution and diversity of the Anolis dewlap},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. L. Gredler, T. J. Sanger, and M. J. Cohn, “Development of the cloaca, hemipenes, and hemiclitores in the green anole, anolis carolinensis,” Sexual development, vol. 9, iss. 1, pp. 21-33, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Gredler:2014,
    author = {Gredler, Marissa L. and Sanger, Thomas J. and Cohn, Martin J.},
    journal = {Sexual Development},
    number = {1},
    pages = {21--33},
    title = {Development of the cloaca, hemipenes, and hemiclitores in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {9},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • C. A. Gilman, A. J. Geneva, R. E. Glor, R. C. Albertson, and D. J. Irschick, “Preliminary analysis of hemiclitoris development in the lizard anolis distichus,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2014, p. E279.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Gilman:2014,
    author = {Gilman, C. A. and Geneva, A. J. and Glor, R. E. and Albertson, R. C. and Irschick, D. J.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E279},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Preliminary Analysis of Hemiclitoris Development in the Lizard Anolis distichus},
    volume = {54},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • B. Gilbert, P. Connolly, and S. Gilbert, “The effect of steroid hormones on brain regions in the green anole lizard,” , 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Gilbert:2014,
    author = {Gilbert, Brian and Connolly, Patrick and Gilbert, Steven},
    title = {The Effect of Steroid Hormones on Brain Regions in the Green Anole Lizard},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • C. H. Gerhardt, “Predation reduces visual communication distance in an anolis lizard,” Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, vol. 111, iss. 25, pp. 9026-9027, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Gerhardt:2014,
    author = {Gerhardt, H. Carl},
    journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
    number = {25},
    pages = {9026--9027},
    title = {Predation reduces visual communication distance in an Anolis lizard},
    volume = {111},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. J. Garcia, J. Murphree, J. Wilson, and R. L. Earley, “Mechanisms of decision making during contests in green anole lizards: prior experience and assessment,” Animal behaviour, vol. 92, pp. 45-54, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Garcia:2014,
    author = {Garcia, Mark J. and Murphree, Joseph and Wilson, Jonathan and Earley, Ryan L.},
    journal = {Animal Behaviour},
    pages = {45--54},
    title = {Mechanisms of decision making during contests in green anole lizards: prior experience and assessment},
    volume = {92},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • T. Gamble, A. J. Geneva, R. E. Glor, and D. Zarkower, “Anolis sex chromosomes are derived from a single ancestral pair,” Evolution, vol. 68, iss. 4, pp. 1027-1041, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Gamble:2014,
    author = {Gamble, Tony and Geneva, Anthony J. and Glor, Richard E. and Zarkower, David},
    journal = {Evolution},
    number = {4},
    pages = {1027--1041},
    title = {Anolis sex chromosomes are derived from a single ancestral pair},
    volume = {68},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • C. A. Gallego-Carmona, J. Castro-Arango, J. S. Forero-Rodríguez, C. Castro-Morales, Y. Tolosa, S. Castillo-Trujillo, K. Torres-Bonilla, D. H. Hernández-Trujillo, M. C. Silva-de-la Fuente, and M. H. Bernal-Bautista, “Infestación ectoparásitaria en la lagartija anolis antonii (squamata: dactyloidae) en dos hábitat con diferente grado de perturbación-resumen,” in Memorias de la conferencia interna en medicina y aprovechamiento de fauna silvestre, exótica y no convencional, 2014, pp. 170-171.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Gallego-Carmona:2014,
    author = {Gallego-Carmona, Cristian A. and Castro-Arango, Johana and Forero-Rodr{\'{\i}}guez, Juan S. and Castro-Morales, Cristian and Tolosa, Y. and Castillo-Trujillo, S. and Torres-Bonilla, K. and Hern{\'{a}}ndez-Trujillo, H. Daniel and Silva-de-la Fuente, M. C. and Bernal-Bautista, M. H.},
    booktitle = {Memorias de la Conferencia Interna en Medicina y Aprovechamiento de Fauna Silvestre, Ex\'{o}tica y no Convencional},
    pages = {170--171},
    title = {Infestaci\'{o}n Ectopar\'{a}sitaria en la lagartija Anolis antonii (Squamata: Dactyloidae) en dos H\'{a}bitat con Diferente Grado de Perturbaci\'{o}n-resumen},
    volume = {10},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • A. M. Gainsbury and G. R. Colli, “Effects of abandoned eucalyptus plantations on lizard communities in the brazilian cerrado,” Biodiversity and conservation, vol. 23, iss. 13, pp. 3155-3170, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Gainsbury:2014,
    author = {Gainsbury, Alison M. and Colli, Guarino R.},
    journal = {Biodiversity and conservation},
    number = {13},
    pages = {3155--3170},
    title = {Effects of abandoned Eucalyptus plantations on lizard communities in the Brazilian Cerrado},
    volume = {23},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • K. L. Foster and T. E. Higham, “Context-dependent changes in motor control and kinematics during locomotion: modulation and decoupling,” Proceedings of the royal society of london b: biological sciences, vol. 281, iss. 1782, p. 20133331, 2014.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Successful locomotion through complex, heterogeneous environments requires the muscles that power locomotion to function effectively under a wide variety of conditions. Although considerable data exist on how animals modulate both kinematics and motor pattern when confronted with orientation (i.e. incline) demands, little is known about the modulation of muscle function in response to changes in structural demands like substrate diameter, compliance and texture. Here, we used high-speed videography and electromyography to examine how substrate incline and perch diameter affected the kinematics and muscle function of both the forelimb and hindlimb in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis). Surprisingly, we found a decoupling of the modulation of kinematics and motor activity, with kinematics being more affected by perch diameter than by incline, and muscle function being more affected by incline than by perch diameter. Also, muscle activity was most stereotyped on the broad, vertical condition, suggesting that, despite being classified as a trunk-crown ecomorph, this species may prefer trunks. These data emphasize the complex interactions between the processes that underlie animal movement and the importance of examining muscle function when considering both the evolution of locomotion and the impacts of ecology on function.

    @article{Foster:2014,
    abstract = {Successful locomotion through complex, heterogeneous environments requires the muscles that power locomotion to function effectively under a wide variety of conditions. Although considerable data exist on how animals modulate both kinematics and motor pattern when confronted with orientation (i.e. incline) demands, little is known about the modulation of muscle function in response to changes in structural demands like substrate diameter, compliance and texture. Here, we used high-speed videography and electromyography to examine how substrate incline and perch diameter affected the kinematics and muscle function of both the forelimb and hindlimb in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis). Surprisingly, we found a decoupling of the modulation of kinematics and motor activity, with kinematics being more affected by perch diameter than by incline, and muscle function being more affected by incline than by perch diameter. Also, muscle activity was most stereotyped on the broad, vertical condition, suggesting that, despite being classified as a trunk-crown ecomorph, this species may prefer trunks. These data emphasize the complex interactions between the processes that underlie animal movement and the importance of examining muscle function when considering both the evolution of locomotion and the impacts of ecology on function.},
    author = {Foster, Kathleen L. and Higham, Timothy E.},
    journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences},
    month = may,
    number = {1782},
    pages = {20133331},
    title = {Context-dependent changes in motor control and kinematics during locomotion: modulation and decoupling},
    volume = {281},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • L. Forgan, B. McNeill, S. Edwards, and J. Donald, “Constitutive nitric oxide synthase gene and protein expression in the green anole lizard (anolis carolinensis)(879.18),” The faseb journal, vol. 28, iss. 1 Supplement, pp. 879-18, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Forgan:2014,
    author = {Forgan, Leonard and McNeill, Bryony and Edwards, Susan and Donald, John},
    journal = {The FASEB Journal},
    number = {1 Supplement},
    pages = {879--18},
    title = {Constitutive nitric oxide synthase gene and protein expression in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis)(879.18)},
    volume = {28},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • S. P. Flanagan and C. R. Bevier, “Do male activity level and territory quality affect female association time in the brown anole, anolis sagrei?,” Ethology, vol. 120, iss. 4, pp. 365-374, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Flanagan:2014,
    author = {Flanagan, Sarah P. and Bevier, Catherine R.},
    journal = {Ethology},
    number = {4},
    pages = {365--374},
    title = {Do Male Activity Level And Territory Quality Affect Female Association Time in The Brown Anole, Anolis sagrei?},
    volume = {120},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • I. C. Figueroa Forero and Others, “Estudio preliminar de la comunidad de lagartos en diferentes unidades de paisaje de la microcuenca guanayas-upin.(Colombia: meta),” , 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Figueroa-Forero:2014,
    author = {Figueroa Forero, Ilba C. and {Others}},
    title = {Estudio preliminar de la comunidad de lagartos en diferentes unidades de paisaje de la microcuenca {guanayas-upin.(Colombia}: meta)},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • C. M. Duryea, Sexual selection and sexual conflict in anolis lizards: from molecules to populations, DARTMOUTH COLLEGE, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @book{Duryea:2014a,
    author = {Duryea, M. Catherine},
    publisher = {DARTMOUTH COLLEGE},
    title = {Sexual selection and sexual conflict in Anolis lizards: From molecules to populations},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. C. Duryea, R. Calsbeek, and A. D. Kern, “Females bite back: sexual conflict and the evolution of venom proteins in the reproductive tract of female anole lizards,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2014, p. E55.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Duryea:2014,
    author = {Duryea, M. C. and Calsbeek, R. and Kern, A. D.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E55},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Females bite back: Sexual conflict and the evolution of venom proteins in the reproductive tract of female anole lizards},
    volume = {54},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • L. A. Dunham and W. Wilczynski, “Arginine vasotocin, steroid hormones and social behavior in the green anole lizard (anolis carolinensis),” Journal of experimental biology, vol. 217, iss. 20, pp. 3670-3676, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Dunham:2014a,
    author = {Dunham, Leslie A. and Wilczynski, Walter},
    journal = {Journal of Experimental Biology},
    number = {20},
    pages = {3670--3676},
    title = {Arginine vasotocin, steroid hormones and social behavior in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis)},
    volume = {217},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • L. A. Dunham and W. Wilczynski, “Arginine vasotocin and social behavior in anolis carolinensis,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2014, p. E54.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Dunham:2014,
    author = {Dunham, L. A. and Wilczynski, W.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E54},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Arginine vasotocin and social behavior in Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {54},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • T. Driessens, B. Vanhooydonck, and R. Van Damme, “Deterring predators, daunting opponents or drawing partners? signaling rates across diverse contexts in the lizard anolis sagrei,” Behavioral ecology and sociobiology, vol. 68, iss. 2, pp. 173-184, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Driessens:2014a,
    author = {Driessens, Tess and Vanhooydonck, Beatrijs and Van Damme, Raoul},
    journal = {Behavioral ecology and sociobiology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {173--184},
    title = {Deterring predators, daunting opponents or drawing partners? Signaling rates across diverse contexts in the lizard Anolis sagrei},
    volume = {68},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • T. Driessens, B. Vanhooydonck, and R. Van Damme, “A functional approach to the dewlap in anolis sagrei,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2014, p. E53.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Driessens:2014,
    author = {Driessens, T. and Vanhooydonck, B. and Van Damme, R.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E53},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {A functional approach to the dewlap in Anolis sagrei},
    volume = {54},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • D. P. de Oliveira, S. M. Souza, L. Frazão, A. P. de Almeida, and T. Hrbek, “Lizards from central jatapú river, amazonas, brazil,” Check list, vol. 10, iss. 1, pp. 46-53, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Oliveira:2014,
    author = {de Oliveira, Deyla P. and Souza, Sergio M. and Fraz{\~{a}}o, Luciana and de Almeida, Alexandre P. and Hrbek, Tomas},
    journal = {Check List},
    number = {1},
    pages = {46--53},
    title = {Lizards from central Jatap\'{u} River, Amazonas, Brazil},
    volume = {10},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • A. N. De Oca, G. Koehler, and M. Feria-Ortiz, “Anolis boulengerianus thominot, 1887, a senior synonym of anolis isthmicus fitch, 1978 (squamata: dactyloidae),” Zootaxa, vol. 3794, iss. 1, pp. 125-133, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{De-Oca:2014,
    author = {De Oca, Adrian N. and Koehler, Gunther and Feria-Ortiz, Manuel},
    journal = {Zootaxa},
    number = {1},
    pages = {125--133},
    title = {Anolis boulengerianus Thominot, 1887, a senior synonym of Anolis isthmicus Fitch, 1978 (Squamata: Dactyloidae)},
    volume = {3794},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • F. R. De la Cruz, “A new species of pine anole from the sierra madre del sur in oaxaca, mexico (reptilia, squamata, dactyloidae: anolis),” Zootaxa, vol. 3753, iss. 5, pp. 453-468, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{DE-LA-CRUZ:2014,
    author = {De la Cruz, Fausto R.},
    journal = {Zootaxa},
    number = {5},
    pages = {453--468},
    title = {A new species of pine anole from the Sierra Madre del Sur in Oaxaca, Mexico (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae: Anolis)},
    volume = {3753},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • K. E. Crandell, A. Herrel, M. Sasa, J. B. Losos, and K. Autumn, “Stick or grip? co-evolution of adhesive toepads and claws in anolis lizards,” Zoology, vol. 117, iss. 6, pp. 363-369, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Crandell:2014,
    author = {Crandell, Kristen E. and Herrel, Anthony and Sasa, Mahmood and Losos, Jonathan B. and Autumn, Kellar},
    journal = {Zoology},
    number = {6},
    pages = {363--369},
    title = {Stick or grip? Co-evolution of adhesive toepads and claws in Anolis lizards},
    volume = {117},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • R. M. Cox, M. B. Lovern, and R. Calsbeek, “Experimentally decoupling reproductive investment from energy storage to test the functional basis of a life-history trade-off,” Journal of animal ecology, vol. 83, iss. 4, pp. 888-898, 2014.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    * The ubiquitous life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival has long been hypothesized to reflect underlying energy-allocation trade-offs between reproductive investment and processes related to self-maintenance. Although recent work has questioned whether energy-allocation models provide sufficient explanations for the survival cost of reproduction, direct tests of this hypothesis are rare, especially in wild populations. * This hypothesis was tested in a wild population of brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) using a two-step experiment. First, stepwise variation in reproductive investment was created using unilateral and bilateral ovariectomy ({OVX}) along with intact ({SHAM}) control. Next, this manipulation was decoupled from its downstream effects on energy storage by surgically ablating the abdominal fat stores from half of the females in each reproductive treatment. * As predicted, unilateral {OVX} (intermediate reproductive investment) induced levels of growth, body condition, fat storage and breeding-season survival that were intermediate between the high levels of bilateral {OVX} (no reproductive investment) and the low levels of {SHAM} (full reproductive investment). * Ablation of abdominal fat bodies had a strong and persistent effect on energy stores, but it did not influence post-breeding survival in any of the three reproductive treatments. This suggests that the energetic savings of reduced reproductive investment do not directly enhance post-breeding survival, with the caveat that only one aspect of energy storage was manipulated and {OVX} itself had no overall effect on post-breeding survival. * This study supports the emerging view that simple energy-allocation models may often be insufficient as explanations for the life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival.

    @article{Cox:2014,
    abstract = {* The ubiquitous life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival has long been hypothesized to reflect underlying energy-allocation trade-offs between reproductive investment and processes related to self-maintenance. Although recent work has questioned whether energy-allocation models provide sufficient explanations for the survival cost of reproduction, direct tests of this hypothesis are rare, especially in wild populations. * This hypothesis was tested in a wild population of brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) using a two-step experiment. First, stepwise variation in reproductive investment was created using unilateral and bilateral ovariectomy ({OVX}) along with intact ({SHAM}) control. Next, this manipulation was decoupled from its downstream effects on energy storage by surgically ablating the abdominal fat stores from half of the females in each reproductive treatment. * As predicted, unilateral {OVX} (intermediate reproductive investment) induced levels of growth, body condition, fat storage and breeding-season survival that were intermediate between the high levels of bilateral {OVX} (no reproductive investment) and the low levels of {SHAM} (full reproductive investment). * Ablation of abdominal fat bodies had a strong and persistent effect on energy stores, but it did not influence post-breeding survival in any of the three reproductive treatments. This suggests that the energetic savings of reduced reproductive investment do not directly enhance post-breeding survival, with the caveat that only one aspect of energy storage was manipulated and {OVX} itself had no overall effect on post-breeding survival. * This study supports the emerging view that simple energy-allocation models may often be insufficient as explanations for the life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival.},
    author = {Cox, Robert M. and Lovern, Matthew B. and Calsbeek, Ryan},
    journal = {Journal of Animal Ecology},
    month = jul,
    number = {4},
    pages = {888--898},
    title = {Experimentally decoupling reproductive investment from energy storage to test the functional basis of a life-history trade-off},
    volume = {83},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • S. C. Campbell-Staton, Z. A. Cheviron, A. C. Bare, J. B. Losos, and S. Edwards, “Physiological and genomic underpinnings of cold tolerance variation in the green anole, anolis carolinensis,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2014, p. E31.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Campbell-Staton:2014,
    author = {Campbell-Staton, S. C. and Cheviron, Z. A. and Bare, A. C. and Losos, J. B. and Edwards, S.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E31},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Physiological and genomic underpinnings of cold tolerance variation in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {54},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • R. Calsbeek, M. C. Duryea, E. Parker, and R. M. Cox, “Sex-biased juvenile dispersal is adaptive but does not create genetic structure in island lizards,” Behavioral ecology, vol. 25, iss. 5, pp. 1157-1163, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Calsbeek:2014,
    author = {Calsbeek, Ryan and Duryea, M. C. and Parker, Elizabeth and Cox, Robert M.},
    journal = {Behavioral Ecology},
    number = {5},
    pages = {1157--1163},
    title = {Sex-biased juvenile dispersal is adaptive but does not create genetic structure in island lizards},
    volume = {25},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • M. L. Calderón-Espinosa and L. A. Barragán-Contreras, “GEOGRAPHIC BODY SIZE AND SHAPE VARIATION IN a MAINLAND anolis (SQUAMATA: DACTYLOIDAE) FROM NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA (COLOMBIA),” Acta biológica colombiana, vol. 19, iss. 2, pp. 167-174, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{CALDERON-ESPINOSA:2014,
    author = {Calder{\'{o}}n-Espinosa, Martha L. and Barrag{\'{a}}n-Contreras, Leidy A.},
    journal = {Acta Biol\'{o}gica Colombiana},
    number = {2},
    pages = {167--174},
    title = {{GEOGRAPHIC} {BODY} {SIZE} {AND} {SHAPE} {VARIATION} {IN} A {MAINLAND} Anolis ({SQUAMATA}: {DACTYLOIDAE}) {FROM} {NORTHWESTERN} {SOUTH} {AMERICA} ({COLOMBIA})},
    volume = {19},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • E. Cabrera-Guzmán and L. Garrido-Olvera, “Helminth parasites of the lesser scaly anole, anolis uniformis (squamata: dactyloidae), from los tuxtlas, southern mexico: evidence of diet and habitat use,” South american journal of herpetology, vol. 9, iss. 3, pp. 183-189, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Cabrera-Guzman:2014,
    author = {Cabrera-Guzm{\'{a}}n, Elisa and Garrido-Olvera, Lorena},
    journal = {South American Journal of Herpetology},
    number = {3},
    pages = {183--189},
    title = {Helminth Parasites of the Lesser Scaly Anole, Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Dactyloidae), from Los Tuxtlas, Southern Mexico: Evidence of Diet and Habitat Use},
    volume = {9},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • J. M. Bush, “Analysis of social dominance in the green anole,” , 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Bush:2014a,
    author = {Bush, Jordan M.},
    title = {Analysis of Social Dominance in the Green Anole},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • J. M. Bush, M. M. Quinn, M. A. Johnson, and E. C. Balreira, “Mathematical analysis of social dominance in the green anole lizard,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2014, p. E247.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Bush:2014,
    author = {Bush, J. M. and Quinn, M. M. and Johnson, M. A. and Balreira, E. C.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E247},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Mathematical Analysis of Social Dominance in the Green Anole Lizard},
    volume = {54},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • I. Ball, H. Behncke, V. Schmidt, T. Papp, A. C. Stöhr, and R. E. Marschang, “Partial characterization of new adenoviruses found in lizards,” Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine, vol. 45, iss. 2, pp. 287-297, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Ball:2014,
    author = {Ball, Inna and Behncke, Helge and Schmidt, Volker and Papp, Tibor and St{\"{o}}hr, Anke C. and Marschang, Rachel E.},
    journal = {Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine},
    number = {2},
    pages = {287--297},
    title = {Partial characterization of new adenoviruses found in lizards},
    volume = {45},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • F. P. Ayala-Varela, D. Troya-Rodríguez, X. Talero-Rodríguez, and O. Torres-Carvajal, “A new andean anole species of the dactyloa clade (squamata: iguanidae) from western ecuador,” Amphibian & reptile conservation, vol. 8, pp. 8-24, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Ayala-Varela:2014,
    author = {Ayala-Varela, F. P. and Troya-Rodr{\'{\i}}guez, D. and Talero-Rodr{\'{\i}}guez, X. and Torres-Carvajal, O.},
    journal = {Amphibian \& Reptile Conservation},
    pages = {8--24},
    title = {A new Andean anole species of the Dactyloa clade (Squamata: Iguanidae) from western Ecuador},
    volume = {8},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • F. P. Ayala-Varela, D. Troya-Rodríguez, X. Talero-Rodríguez, and O. Torres-Carvajal, “A new andean anole species of the dactyloa clade (squa,” , 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Ayala-Varela:2014a,
    author = {Ayala-Varela, F. P. and Troya-Rodr{\'{\i}}guez, D. and Talero-Rodr{\'{\i}}guez, X. and Torres-Carvajal, O.},
    title = {A new Andean anole species of the Dactyloa clade (Squa},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • K. Archer, “Effects of gene methylation on behavior in green anole lizards (anolis carolinensis),” , 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Archer:2014,
    author = {Archer, Krystal},
    title = {Effects of Gene Methylation on Behavior in Green Anole Lizards (Anolis carolinensis)},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • W. Anzai, A. Omura, A. C. Diaz, M. Kawata, and H. Endo, “Functional morphology and comparative anatomy of appendicular musculature in cuban anolis lizards with different locomotor habits,” Zoological science, vol. 31, iss. 7, pp. 454-463, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Anzai:2014,
    author = {Anzai, Wataru and Omura, Ayano and Diaz, Antonio C. and Kawata, Masakado and Endo, Hideki},
    journal = {Zoological science},
    number = {7},
    pages = {454--463},
    title = {Functional morphology and comparative anatomy of appendicular musculature in Cuban Anolis lizards with different locomotor habits},
    volume = {31},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • A. Álvarez-Fonseca, L. Chávez-Suárez, Y. Montecelos-Zamora, R. Ramírez-Fernández, and L. Licea-Castro, “T\\’\\itulo: primer reporte de las especies de reptiles del refugio de fauna “monte palmarito”.,” Revista granma ciencia. vol, vol. 18, iss. 3, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{AlvarezFonseca:2014,
    author = {{\'{A}}lvarez-Fonseca, Alexander and Ch{\'{a}}vez-Su{\'{a}}rez, Licet and Montecelos-Zamora, Yalina and Ram{\'{\i}}rez-Fern{\'{a}}ndez, Ramiro and Licea-Castro, Luis},
    journal = {Revista Granma Ciencia. Vol},
    number = {3},
    title = {T\\'\\itulo: Primer reporte de las especies de reptiles del Refugio de Fauna ``Monte Palmarito''.},
    volume = {18},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • L. Alibardi, “Ultrastructural immunolocalization of chatelicidin-like peptides in granulocytes of normal and regenerating lizard tissues,” Acta histochemica, vol. 116, iss. 2, pp. 363-371, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Alibardi:2014,
    author = {Alibardi, Lorenzo},
    journal = {Acta histochemica},
    number = {2},
    pages = {363--371},
    title = {Ultrastructural immunolocalization of chatelicidin-like peptides in granulocytes of normal and regenerating lizard tissues},
    volume = {116},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • L. Alibardi, “Immunolocalization of specific beta-proteins in pad lamellae of the digits in the lizard anolis carolinensis suggests that cysteine-rich beta-proteins provides flexibility,” Journal of morphology, vol. 275, iss. 5, pp. 504-513, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Alibardi:2014c,
    author = {Alibardi, Lorenzo},
    journal = {Journal of morphology},
    number = {5},
    pages = {504--513},
    title = {Immunolocalization of specific beta-proteins in pad lamellae of the digits in the lizard Anolis carolinensis suggests that cysteine-rich beta-proteins provides flexibility},
    volume = {275},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • L. Alibardi, “Immunocytochemical localization of cysteine-rich beta-proteins in the extensible epidermis of the dewlap in the lizard anolis carolinensis,” Acta zoologica, vol. 95, iss. 4, pp. 465-471, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Alibardi:2014b,
    author = {Alibardi, Lorenzo},
    journal = {Acta Zoologica},
    number = {4},
    pages = {465--471},
    title = {Immunocytochemical localization of cysteine-rich beta-proteins in the extensible epidermis of the dewlap in the lizard Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {95},
    year = {2014}
    }

  • L. Alibardi, “The corneous layer of the claw in the lizard anolis carolinensis mainly contains the glycine–cysteine-rich beta-protein HgGC3 in addition to hard keratins,” Tissue and cell, vol. 46, iss. 5, pp. 326-333, 2014.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Alibardi:2014a,
    author = {Alibardi, L.},
    journal = {Tissue and Cell},
    number = {5},
    pages = {326--333},
    title = {The corneous layer of the claw in the lizard Anolis carolinensis mainly contains the glycine--cysteine-rich beta-protein {HgGC3} in addition to hard keratins},
    volume = {46},
    year = {2014}
    }

2011

  • B. G. Falk, L. D. Mahler, and S. L. Perkins, “Tree-based delimitation of morphologically ambiguous taxa: a study of the lizard malaria parasites on the caribbean island of hispaniola,” International journal for parasitology, vol. 41, iss. 9, pp. 967-980, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Falk:,
    author = {Falk, Bryan G. and Mahler, D. Luke and Perkins, Susan L.},
    journal = {International journal for parasitology},
    number = {9},
    pages = {967--980},
    title = {Tree-based delimitation of morphologically ambiguous taxa: A study of the lizard malaria parasites on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola},
    volume = {41},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. Powell and R. W. Henderson, “The st. vincent (lesser antilles) herpetofauna: conservation concerns,” Conservation of caribbean island herpetofaunas, vol. 2, pp. 359-376, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Powell:i,
    author = {Powell, Robert and Henderson, Robert W.},
    journal = {Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas},
    pages = {359--376},
    title = {The St. Vincent (Lesser Antilles) herpetofauna: Conservation concerns},
    volume = {2},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. C. Echternacht, F. J. Burton, and J. M. Blumenthal, The amphibians and reptiles of the cayman islands: conservation issues in the face of invasions, Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas, 2011, vol. 2.
    [BibTeX]
    @book{Echternacht:,
    author = {Echternacht, A. C. and Burton, F. J. and Blumenthal, J. M.},
    publisher = {Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas},
    title = {The amphibians and reptiles of the Cayman Islands: Conservation issues in the face of invasions},
    volume = {2},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. Engeman, E. Jacobson, M. L. Avery, W. E. Meshaka, and Others, “The aggressive invasion of exotic reptiles in florida with a focus on prominent species: a review,” Current zoology, vol. 57, iss. 5, pp. 599-612, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Engeman:,
    author = {Engeman, Richard and Jacobson, Elliott and Avery, Michael L. and Meshaka, Walter E. and {Others}},
    journal = {Current zoology},
    number = {5},
    pages = {599--612},
    title = {The aggressive invasion of exotic reptiles in Florida with a focus on prominent species: A review},
    volume = {57},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • G. R. Reynolds, A. Hailey, B. S. Wilson, and J. A. Horrocks, “Status, conservation, and introduction of amphibians and reptiles in the turks and caicos islands, british west indies,” Conservation of caribbean island herpetofaunas, vol. 2, pp. 377-406, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Reynolds:,
    author = {Reynolds, R. Graham and Hailey, A. and Wilson, B. S. and Horrocks, J. A.},
    journal = {Conservation of Caribbean island herpetofaunas},
    pages = {377--406},
    title = {Status, conservation, and introduction of amphibians and reptiles in the Turks and Caicos Islands, British West Indies},
    volume = {2},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • F. M. da Silva, A. C. Menks, A. L. Prudente, J. Carlos, L. Costa, A. E. Travassos, and U. Galatti, “Squamate reptiles from municipality of barcarena and surroundings, state of pará, north of brazil,” Check list, vol. 7, iss. 3, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Silva:,
    author = {da Silva, Fernanda M. and Menks, Alessandro C. and Prudente, Ana L. and Carlos, Jo{\~{a}}o and Costa, Lopes and Travassos, Alessandra E. and Galatti, Ulisses},
    journal = {Check List},
    number = {3},
    title = {Squamate Reptiles from municipality of Barcarena and surroundings, state of Par\'{a}, north of Brazil},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • G. R. Winck, D. Vrcibradic, F. B. da Silva Telles, V. N. Borges-Júnior, M. Van Sluys, and C. F. Rocha, “Squamata, iguania, anolis punctatus daudin, 1802 and tropidurus torquatus (wied, 1820): distribution extension and new records for ilha grande, state of rio de janeiro, southeastern brazil,” Check list, vol. 7, iss. 3, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Winck:,
    author = {Winck, Gisele R. and Vrcibradic, Davor and da Silva Telles, Felipe B. and Borges-J{\'{u}}nior, Vitor N. and Van Sluys, Monique and Rocha, Carlos F.},
    journal = {Check List},
    number = {3},
    title = {Squamata, Iguania, Anolis punctatus Daudin, 1802 and Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820): Distribution extension and new records for Ilha Grande, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. K. Crouch, J. Ma, and P. H. Tang, “Rpe65 is present within the inner segments of cones in the cone-dominant retina, suggesting its role in the cone visual cycle,” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, vol. 52, iss. 14, p. 3646, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Crouch:,
    author = {Crouch, Rosalie K. and Ma, Jian-Xing and Tang, Peter H.},
    journal = {Investigative Ophthalmology \& Visual Science},
    number = {14},
    pages = {3646},
    title = {Rpe65 Is Present Within The Inner Segments Of Cones In The Cone-dominant Retina, Suggesting Its Role In The Cone Visual Cycle},
    volume = {52},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • I. Suazo-Ortuño, J. Alvarado-Díaz, and M. Martínez-Ramos, “Riparian areas and conservation of herpetofauna in a tropical dry forest in western mexico,” Biotropica, vol. 43, iss. 2, pp. 237-245, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Suazo-Ortuno:,
    author = {Suazo-Ortu{\~{n}}o, Ireri and Alvarado-D{\'{\i}}az, Javier and Mart{\'{\i}}nez-Ramos, Miguel},
    journal = {Biotropica},
    number = {2},
    pages = {237--245},
    title = {Riparian areas and conservation of herpetofauna in a tropical dry forest in western Mexico},
    volume = {43},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. Wade, “Relationships among hormones, brain and motivated behaviors in lizards,” Hormones and behavior, vol. 59, iss. 5, pp. 637-644, 2011.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Lizards provide a rich opportunity for investigating the mechanisms associated with arousal and the display of motivated behaviors. They exhibit diverse mating strategies and modes of conspecific communication. This review focuses on anole lizards, of which green anoles (Anolis carolinensis) have been most extensively studied. Research from other species is discussed in that context. By considering mechanisms collectively, we can begin to piece together neural and endocrine factors mediating the stimulation of sexual and aggressive behaviors in this group of vertebrates.

    @article{Wade:b,
    abstract = {Lizards provide a rich opportunity for investigating the mechanisms associated with arousal and the display of motivated behaviors. They exhibit diverse mating strategies and modes of conspecific communication. This review focuses on anole lizards, of which green anoles (Anolis carolinensis) have been most extensively studied. Research from other species is discussed in that context. By considering mechanisms collectively, we can begin to piece together neural and endocrine factors mediating the stimulation of sexual and aggressive behaviors in this group of vertebrates.},
    author = {Wade, Juli},
    journal = {Hormones and Behavior},
    number = {5},
    pages = {637--644},
    series = {Special Issue on Research on Sexual Arousal},
    title = {Relationships among hormones, brain and motivated behaviors in lizards},
    volume = {59},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. M. Cox, C. M. Duryea, M. Najarro, and R. Calsbeek, “Paternal condition drives progeny sex-ratio bias in a lizard that lacks parental care,” Evolution, vol. 65, iss. 1, pp. 220-230, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Cox:h,
    author = {Cox, Robert M. and Duryea, M. Catherine and Najarro, Michael and Calsbeek, Ryan},
    journal = {Evolution},
    number = {1},
    pages = {220--230},
    title = {PATERNAL CONDITION DRIVES PROGENY SEX-RATIO BIAS IN A LIZARD THAT LACKS PARENTAL CARE},
    volume = {65},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • {. L. Travers, {. H. Townsend, {. Sunyer, {. A. Obando, {. Wilson, and M. A. Nickerson, “New and noteworthy records of amphibians and reptiles from reserva de la biósfera bosawas, nicaragua,” Herpetological review, vol. 42, iss. 3, p. 399, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Travers:,
    author = {Travers, {Scott} L. and Townsend, {Josiah} H. and Sunyer, {Javier} and Obando, {Lenin} A. and Wilson, {Larry} and Nickerson, M. A.},
    journal = {Herpetological Review},
    number = {3},
    pages = {399},
    title = {New and noteworthy records of amphibians and reptiles from Reserva de la Bi\'{o}sfera Bosawas, Nicaragua},
    volume = {42},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • Y. Rodríguez Gómez and A. Sanz Ochotorena, “LA LONGITUD DE LA CABEZA DE LOS ESPERMATOZOIDES COMO INDICADOR DE LA EFICIENCIA REPRODUCTIVA DE CUATRO ESPECIES DE LAGARTOS DEL GÉNERO anolis (sauria: polychrotidae),” Revista cubana de ciencias biológicas, vol. 19, iss. 1, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Rodriguez-Gomez:,
    author = {Rodr{\'{\i}}guez G{\'{o}}mez, Yamilka and Sanz Ochotorena, Ana},
    journal = {Revista Cubana de Ciencias Biol\'{o}gicas},
    number = {1},
    title = {{LA} {LONGITUD} {DE} {LA} {CABEZA} {DE} {LOS} {ESPERMATOZOIDES} {COMO} {INDICADOR} {DE} {LA} {EFICIENCIA} {REPRODUCTIVA} {DE} {CUATRO} {ESPECIES} {DE} {LAGARTOS} {DEL} {G\'{E}NERO} Anolis (Sauria: Polychrotidae)},
    volume = {19},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • L. C. Alworth, S. M. Hernandez, and S. J. Divers, “Laboratory reptile surgery: principles and techniques,” Journal of the american association for laboratory animal science, vol. 50, iss. 1, pp. 11-26, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Alworth:,
    author = {Alworth, Leanne C. and Hernandez, Sonia M. and Divers, Stephen J.},
    journal = {Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science},
    number = {1},
    pages = {11--26},
    title = {Laboratory reptile surgery: principles and techniques},
    volume = {50},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • D. J. Brown, T. M. Swannack, J. R. Dixon, and M. Forstner, “Herpetofaunal survey of the griffith league ranch in the lost pines ecoregion of texas.,” Texas journal of science, vol. 63, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Brown:,
    author = {Brown, Donald J. and Swannack, Todd M. and Dixon, James R. and Forstner, Michael},
    journal = {Texas Journal of Science},
    title = {HERPETOFAUNAL SURVEY OF THE GRIFFITH LEAGUE RANCH IN THE LOST PINES ECOREGION OF TEXAS.},
    volume = {63},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. Pedroza-Banda and T. Angarita-Sierra, “Herpetofauna de los humedales la bolsa y charco de oro, andaluc\\’\\ia, valle del cauca, colombia,” Revista de la academia colombiana de ciencias exactas, f\\’\\isicas y naturales, vol. 35, iss. 135, pp. 243-260, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Pedroza-Banda:,
    author = {Pedroza-Banda, Ra{\'{u}}l and Angarita-Sierra, Teddy},
    journal = {Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, F\\'\\isicas y Naturales},
    number = {135},
    pages = {243--260},
    title = {Herpetofauna de los humedales la Bolsa y Charco de Oro, Andaluc\\'\\ia, Valle del Cauca, Colombia},
    volume = {35},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. W. Ávila and R. J. Da Silva, “Helminths of lizards (reptilia: squamata) from mato grosso state, brazil,” Comparative parasitology, vol. 78, iss. 1, pp. 129-139, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Avila:,
    author = {{\'{A}}vila, Robson W. and Da Silva, Reinaldo J.},
    journal = {Comparative Parasitology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {129--139},
    title = {Helminths of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from Mato Grosso State, Brazil},
    volume = {78},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. S. Voronov, D. V. Shibalev, and N. S. Kupriyanova, “Evolutionary relationships between reptiles inferred from the comparison of their ITS2 sequences,” Russian journal of genetics, vol. 47, iss. 7, pp. 864-873, 2011.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The reptile phylogeny is poorly studied, and many existing hypotheses are controversial. In this study, the {ITS2} regions of 43 species of lizards, snakes, turtles, and crocodiles were cloned and sequenced in addition to eight {ITS2} sequences of amphibians, reptiles, and birds already present in the database. The {ITS2} of reptiles, similarly to other vertebrates, contain short conserved (consensus) regions, alternating with variable regions ({DI}, {DII}, and {DIII}), which are potentially capable of forming stable secondary structures. These functionally neutral {rDNA} regions, separating the consensus regions, are substantially different in size, as well as in the primary and secondary structure. Sequences of the {ITS2} variable regions were aligned using the {GeneBee} Molecular Biology Server software program with subsequent automated construction of prescribed trees. The trees for all three variable regions were highly similar, enabling certain conclusions on the evolutionary history of reptiles.

    @article{Voronov:,
    abstract = {The reptile phylogeny is poorly studied, and many existing hypotheses are controversial. In this study, the {ITS2} regions of 43 species of lizards, snakes, turtles, and crocodiles were cloned and sequenced in addition to eight {ITS2} sequences of amphibians, reptiles, and birds already present in the database. The {ITS2} of reptiles, similarly to other vertebrates, contain short conserved (consensus) regions, alternating with variable regions ({DI}, {DII}, and {DIII}), which are potentially capable of forming stable secondary structures. These functionally neutral {rDNA} regions, separating the consensus regions, are substantially different in size, as well as in the primary and secondary structure. Sequences of the {ITS2} variable regions were aligned using the {GeneBee} Molecular Biology Server software program with subsequent automated construction of prescribed trees. The trees for all three variable regions were highly similar, enabling certain conclusions on the evolutionary history of reptiles.},
    author = {Voronov, A. S. and Shibalev, D. V. and Kupriyanova, N. S.},
    journal = {Russian Journal of Genetics},
    number = {7},
    pages = {864--873},
    title = {Evolutionary relationships between reptiles inferred from the comparison of their {ITS2} sequences},
    volume = {47},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • Y. Rodríguez Gómez, A. Sanz Ochotorena, and N. Almaguer Cuenca, “EL CONTEO ESPERMÁTICO EN CINCO ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO anolis (sauria: polychrotidae) y SU RELACIÓN CON LA EFICIENCIA REPRODUCTIVA,” Revista cubana de ciencias biológicas, vol. 20, iss. 1, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Rodriguez-Gomez:a,
    author = {Rodr{\'{\i}}guez G{\'{o}}mez, Yamilka and Sanz Ochotorena, Ana and Almaguer Cuenca, Nilda},
    journal = {Revista Cubana de Ciencias Biol\'{o}gicas},
    number = {1},
    title = {{EL} {CONTEO} {ESPERM\'{A}TICO} {EN} {CINCO} {ESPECIES} {DEL} {G\'{E}NERO} Anolis (Sauria: Polychrotidae) Y {SU} {RELACI\'{O}N} {CON} {LA} {EFICIENCIA} {REPRODUCTIVA}},
    volume = {20},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. Piovia-Scott, D. A. Spiller, and T. W. Schoener, “Effects of experimental seaweed deposition on lizard and ant predation in an island food web,” Science, vol. 331, iss. 6016, pp. 461-463, 2011.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The effect of environmental change on ecosystems is mediated by species interactions. Environmental change may remove or add species and shift life-history events, altering which species interact at a given time. However, environmental change may also reconfigure multispecies interactions when both species composition and phenology remain intact. In a Caribbean island system, a major manifestation of environmental change is seaweed deposition, which has been linked to eutrophication, overfishing, and hurricanes. Here, we show in a whole-island field experiment that without seaweed two predators—lizards and ants—had a substantially greater-than-additive effect on herbivory. When seaweed was added to mimic deposition by hurricanes, no interactive predator effect occurred. Thus environmental change can substantially restructure food-web interactions, complicating efforts to predict anthropogenic changes in ecosystem processes. In a simple island ecosystem, a rare pulse of resource input alters the interaction between predator species. In a simple island ecosystem, a rare pulse of resource input alters the interaction between predator species.

    @article{Piovia-Scott:,
    abstract = {The effect of environmental change on ecosystems is mediated by species interactions. Environmental change may remove or add species and shift life-history events, altering which species interact at a given time. However, environmental change may also reconfigure multispecies interactions when both species composition and phenology remain intact. In a Caribbean island system, a major manifestation of environmental change is seaweed deposition, which has been linked to eutrophication, overfishing, and hurricanes. Here, we show in a whole-island field experiment that without seaweed two predators---lizards and ants---had a substantially greater-than-additive effect on herbivory. When seaweed was added to mimic deposition by hurricanes, no interactive predator effect occurred. Thus environmental change can substantially restructure food-web interactions, complicating efforts to predict anthropogenic changes in ecosystem processes. In a simple island ecosystem, a rare pulse of resource input alters the interaction between predator species. In a simple island ecosystem, a rare pulse of resource input alters the interaction between predator species.},
    author = {Piovia-Scott, Jonah and Spiller, David A. and Schoener, Thomas W.},
    journal = {Science},
    number = {6016},
    pages = {461--463},
    title = {Effects of Experimental Seaweed Deposition on Lizard and Ant Predation in an Island Food Web},
    volume = {331},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • L. F. de Armas, “Depredación de chicharras (hemiptera: auchenorhincha: cicadidae) por anolis spp.(Reptilia: polychrotidae) en cuba,” Bolet\\’\\in de la sea, iss. 49, p. 222, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Armas:,
    author = {de Armas, Luis F.},
    journal = {Bolet\\'\\in de la SEA},
    number = {49},
    pages = {222},
    title = {Depredaci\'{o}n de chicharras (Hemiptera: Auchenorhincha: Cicadidae) por Anolis {spp.(Reptilia}: Polychrotidae) en Cuba},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. Joglar, A. O. Álvarez, M. T. Aide, D. Barber, P. A. Burrowes, M. A. García, A. León-Cardona, A. V. Longo, N. Pérez-Buitrago, A. Puente, and Others, “Conserving the puerto rican herpetofauna,” Conservation of caribbean island herpetofaunas, vol. 2, pp. 339-358, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Joglar:,
    author = {Joglar, R. and {\'{A}}lvarez, Alberto O. and Aide, T. Mitchell and Barber, Diane and Burrowes, Patricia A. and Garc{\'{\i}}a, Miguel A. and Le{\'{o}}n-Cardona, Abimael and Longo, Ana V. and P{\'{e}}rez-Buitrago, N{\'{e}}stor and Puente, Alberto and {Others}},
    journal = {Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas},
    pages = {339--358},
    title = {Conserving the Puerto Rican herpetofauna},
    volume = {2},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. Powell, “Conservation of the herpetofauna on the dutch windward islands: st. eustatius, saba, and st. maarten,” Conservation of caribbean island herpetofaunas, vol. 2, pp. 189-204, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Powell:h,
    author = {Powell, Robert},
    journal = {Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas},
    pages = {189--204},
    title = {Conservation of the herpetofauna on the Dutch Windward Islands: St. Eustatius, Saba, and St. Maarten},
    volume = {2},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • G. Perry and G. P. Gerber, “Conservation of amphibians and reptiles in the british virgin islands: status and patterns,” Conservation of caribbean island herpetofaunas, vol. 2, pp. 105-127, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Perry:,
    author = {Perry, G. and Gerber, G. P.},
    journal = {Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas},
    pages = {105--127},
    title = {Conservation of amphibians and reptiles in the British Virgin Islands: Status and patterns},
    volume = {2},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. Malhotra, R. S. Thorpe, E. Hypolite, A. James, A. Hailey, B. S. Wilson, and J. A. Horrocks, “A report on the status of the herpetofauna of the commonwealth of dominica, west indies,” Conservation of caribbean island herpetofaunas, vol. 2, pp. 149-166, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Malhotra:f,
    author = {Malhotra, Anita and Thorpe, Roger S. and Hypolite, Eric and James, Arlington and Hailey, A. and Wilson, B. S. and Horrocks, J. A.},
    journal = {Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas},
    pages = {149--166},
    title = {A report on the status of the herpetofauna of the Commonwealth of Dominica, West Indies},
    volume = {2},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • E. Paemelaere, C. Guyer, and S. F. Dobson, “A phylogenetic framework for the evolution of female polymorphism in anoles,” Biological journal of the linnean society, vol. 104, iss. 2, pp. 303-317, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Paemelaere:,
    author = {Paemelaere, Evi and Guyer, Craig and Dobson, F. Stephen},
    journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society},
    number = {2},
    pages = {303--317},
    title = {A phylogenetic framework for the evolution of female polymorphism in anoles},
    volume = {104},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. Davis, A. Almendáriz, A. Carvajal, L. Gray, F. Ayala, and S. Poe, “Anolis soinii poe y Yañez-Miranda, 2008 (squamata: iguanidae: polychrotinae): distribution extensión, first records for ecuador and notes on geographic variation,” , 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Davis:,
    author = {Davis, Julian and Almend{\'{a}}riz, Ana and Carvajal, Amaranta and Gray, Levi and Ayala, Fernando and Poe, Steven},
    title = {Anolis soinii Poe y {Ya\~{n}ez-Miranda}, 2008 (Squamata: Iguanidae: Polychrotinae): Distribution extensi\'{o}n, first records for Ecuador and notes on geographic variation},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. M. Cox and R. Calsbeek, “An experimental test for alternative reproductive strategies underlying a female-limited polymorphism,” Journal of evolutionary biology, vol. 24, iss. 2, pp. 343-353, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Cox:g,
    author = {Cox, R. M. and Calsbeek, R.},
    journal = {Journal of evolutionary biology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {343--353},
    title = {An experimental test for alternative reproductive strategies underlying a female-limited polymorphism},
    volume = {24},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • S. A. Morato, A. M. de Lima, D. C. Staut, R. G. Faria, J. P. de Souza-Alves, S. F. Gouveia, M. R. Scupino, R. Gomes, and M. J. da Silva, “Amphibians and reptiles of the refúgio de vida silvestre mata do junco, municipality of capela, state of sergipe, northeastern brazil,” Check list, vol. 7, iss. 6, pp. 756-762, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Morato:,
    author = {Morato, S{\'{e}}rgio A. and de Lima, Andr{\'{e}} M. and Staut, Daniele C. and Faria, Renato G. and de Souza-Alves, Jo{\~{a}}o P. and Gouveia, Sidney F. and Scupino, Michela R. and Gomes, Ramon and da Silva, Marcelo J.},
    journal = {Check List},
    number = {6},
    pages = {756--762},
    title = {Amphibians and Reptiles of the Ref\'{u}gio de Vida Silvestre Mata do Junco, municipality of Capela, state of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. Jusufi, Y. Zeng, R. J. Full, and R. Dudley, “Aerial righting reflexes in flightless animals,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 51, iss. 6, pp. 937-943, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Jusufi:,
    author = {Jusufi, Ardian and Zeng, Yu and Full, Robert J. and Dudley, Robert},
    journal = {Integrative and comparative biology},
    number = {6},
    pages = {937--943},
    title = {Aerial righting reflexes in flightless animals},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • L. Kong and Others, “The genome of the green anole lizard and a comparative analysis with birds and mammals,” Nature, vol. 477, p. 587591, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kong:,
    author = {Kong, L. and {Others}},
    journal = {Nature},
    pages = {587591},
    title = {The genome of the green anole lizard and a comparative analysis with birds and mammals},
    volume = {477},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. B. Losos and R. M. Pringle, “Competition, predation and natural selection in island lizards,” Nature, vol. 475, iss. 7355, p. E1–E2, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Losos:s,
    author = {Losos, Jonathan B. and Pringle, Robert M.},
    journal = {Nature},
    number = {7355},
    pages = {E1--E2},
    title = {Competition, predation and natural selection in island lizards},
    volume = {475},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. F. Moore and M. Menaker, “The effect of light on melatonin secretion in the cultured pineal glands of anolis lizards,” Comparative biochemistry and physiology part a: molecular & integrative physiology, vol. 160, iss. 2, pp. 301-308, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Moore:a,
    author = {Moore, Ashli F. and Menaker, Michael},
    journal = {Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular \& Integrative Physiology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {301--308},
    title = {The effect of light on melatonin secretion in the cultured pineal glands of Anolis lizards},
    volume = {160},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • L. Dalla Valle, A. Nardi, G. Bonazza, C. Zucal, D. Emera, and L. Alibardi, “Forty keratin-associated beta-proteins (beta-keratins) form the hard layers of scales, claws, and adhesive pads in the green anole lizard, anolis carolinensis (vol 314B, pg 11, 2010),” Journal of experimental zoology part b-molecular and developmental evolution, vol. 316, iss. 6, p. 465, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Dalla-Valle:,
    author = {Dalla Valle, L. and Nardi, A. and Bonazza, G. and Zucal, C. and Emera, D. and Alibardi, L.},
    journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY PART B-MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL EVOLUTION},
    number = {6},
    pages = {465},
    title = {Forty keratin-associated beta-proteins (beta-keratins) form the hard layers of scales, claws, and adhesive pads in the green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis (vol {314B}, pg 11, 2010)},
    volume = {316},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • C. Wordley, J. Slate, and J. Stapley, “Mining online genomic resources in anolis carolinensis facilitates rapid and inexpensive development of cross-species microsatellite markers for the anolis lizard genus,” Molecular ecology resources, vol. 11, iss. 1, pp. 126-133, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Wordley:,
    author = {Wordley, Claire and Slate, Jon and Stapley, Jessica},
    journal = {Molecular ecology resources},
    number = {1},
    pages = {126--133},
    title = {Mining online genomic resources in Anolis carolinensis facilitates rapid and inexpensive development of cross-species microsatellite markers for the Anolis lizard genus},
    volume = {11},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. E. Glor and D. Warren, “Testing ecological explanations for biogeographic boundaries,” Evolution, vol. 65, iss. 3, pp. 673-683, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Glor:,
    author = {Glor, Richard E. and Warren, Dan},
    journal = {Evolution},
    number = {3},
    pages = {673--683},
    title = {Testing ecological explanations for biogeographic boundaries},
    volume = {65},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. Stapley, C. Wordley, and J. Slate, “No evidence of genetic differentiation between anoles with different dewlap color patterns,” Journal of heredity, vol. 102, iss. 1, pp. 118-124, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Stapley:,
    author = {Stapley, Jessica and Wordley, Claire and Slate, Jon},
    journal = {Journal of Heredity},
    number = {1},
    pages = {118--124},
    title = {No evidence of genetic differentiation between anoles with different dewlap color patterns},
    volume = {102},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. R. Gunderson, J. Siegel, and M. Leal, “Tests of the contribution of acclimation to geographic variation in water loss rates of the west indian lizard anolis cristatellus,” Journal of comparative physiology b, vol. 181, iss. 7, pp. 965-972, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Gunderson:a,
    author = {Gunderson, Alex R. and Siegel, Jeremy and Leal, Manuel},
    journal = {Journal of Comparative Physiology B},
    number = {7},
    pages = {965--972},
    title = {Tests of the contribution of acclimation to geographic variation in water loss rates of the West Indian lizard Anolis cristatellus},
    volume = {181},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. N. Sparks, C. M. Lewis, and M. A. Johnson, “Ectoparasite load and territorial behavior in green anole lizards (anolis carolinensis),” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2011, p. E130.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Sparks:,
    author = {Sparks, M. N. and Lewis, C. M. and Johnson, M. A.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E130},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Ectoparasite Load and Territorial Behavior in Green Anole Lizards (Anolis carolinensis)},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • L. Rubio, B. Bock, and V. Paez, “Continuous reproduction under a bimodal precipitation regime in a high elevation anole (anolis mariarum) from antioquia, colombia,” Caldasia, vol. 33, iss. 1, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Rubio:,
    author = {Rubio, Laura and Bock, Braian and Paez, Vivian},
    journal = {Caldasia},
    number = {1},
    title = {CONTINUOUS REPRODUCTION UNDER A BIMODAL PRECIPITATION REGIME IN A HIGH ELEVATION ANOLE (ANOLIS MARIARUM) FROM ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA},
    volume = {33},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. Christensen-Dalsgaard, “Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers,” Hearing research, vol. 273, iss. 1, pp. 37-45, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Christensen-Dalsgaard:,
    author = {Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob},
    journal = {Hearing research},
    number = {1},
    pages = {37--45},
    title = {Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers},
    volume = {273},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. R. Gunderson and M. Leal, “A test of a model of visual signal efficacy under natural conditions using anolis,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2011, p. E51.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Gunderson:,
    author = {Gunderson, Alex R. and Leal, Manuel},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E51},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {A test of a model of visual signal efficacy under natural conditions using Anolis},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. Leal and B. J. Powell, “On the flexibility of lizards’ cognition: a response to vasconcelos et al.,” Biology letters, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Leal:,
    author = {Leal, Manuel and Powell, Brian J.},
    journal = {Biology letters},
    title = {On the flexibility of lizards' cognition: a response to Vasconcelos et al.},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. F. Moore and M. Menaker, “Photosensitivity of the circadian clock is correlated with photic niche in anolis lizards,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2011, p. E95.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Moore:,
    author = {Moore, A. F. and Menaker, M.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E95},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Photosensitivity of the circadian clock is correlated with photic niche in Anolis lizards},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • W. L. Eckalbar, C. Infante, D. Denardo, J. Losos, A. Rawls, J. Wilson-Rawls, and K. Kusumi, “Different ways to build a backbone: notch regulation of somitogenesis in the lizard anolis carolinensis is highly divergent from birds and mammals,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2011, p. E39.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Eckalbar:,
    author = {Eckalbar, W. L. and Infante, C. and Denardo, D. and Losos, J. and Rawls, A. and Wilson-Rawls, J. and Kusumi, K.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E39},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Different ways to build a backbone: Notch regulation of somitogenesis in the lizard Anolis carolinensis is highly divergent from birds and mammals},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • L. Dalla Valle, F. Benato, C. Rossi, L. Alibardi, E. Tschachler, and L. Eckhart, “Deleterious mutations of a claw keratin in multiple taxa of reptiles,” Journal of molecular evolution, vol. 72, iss. 3, pp. 265-273, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Dalla-Valle:b,
    author = {Dalla Valle, Luisa and Benato, Francesca and Rossi, Chiara and Alibardi, Lorenzo and Tschachler, Erwin and Eckhart, Leopold},
    journal = {Journal of molecular evolution},
    number = {3},
    pages = {265--273},
    title = {Deleterious mutations of a claw keratin in multiple taxa of reptiles},
    volume = {72},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • C. A. Gilman and D. J. Irschick, “The effects of perch stability on jumping performance and kinematics in green anole lizards (anolis carolinensis),” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2011, p. E48.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Gilman:,
    author = {Gilman, C. A. and Irschick, D. J.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E48},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {The effects of perch stability on jumping performance and kinematics in green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis)},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. Robinson, “After 40 years, retina reveals it uses positive feedback, as well as negative,” Plos biol, vol. 9, iss. 5, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Robinson:,
    author = {Robinson, Richard},
    journal = {PLOS Biol},
    number = {5},
    title = {After 40 Years, Retina Reveals It Uses Positive Feedback, as Well as Negative},
    volume = {9},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • D. A. Warner and M. B. Lovern, “Maternal diet affects offspring quality via its effect on egg investment in the lizard anolis sagrei,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2011, p. E264.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Warner:,
    author = {Warner, D. A. and Lovern, M. B.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E264},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Maternal Diet Affects Offspring Quality via its Effect on Egg Investment in the Lizard Anolis sagrei},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • L. B. Veludo, “Ecologia de anolis meridionalis (squamata, polychrotidae) no cerrado brasileiro,” , 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Veludo:,
    author = {Veludo, La{\'{\i}}s B.},
    title = {Ecologia de Anolis meridionalis (Squamata, Polychrotidae) no Cerrado brasileiro},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • K. Hodge, R. Powell, and E. J. Censky, “Conserving the herpetofauna of anguilla,” Conservation of caribbean island herpetofaunas, vol. 2, pp. 3-15, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Hodge:,
    author = {Hodge, Karim and Powell, Robert and Censky, Ellen J.},
    journal = {Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas},
    pages = {3--15},
    title = {Conserving the herpetofauna of Anguilla},
    volume = {2},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • S. Milius, “Learnin’lizards underappreciated reptiles can cope when the old rules change,” A+ a, vol. 180, iss. 4, p. 11, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Milius:,
    author = {Milius, Susan},
    journal = {A+ A},
    number = {4},
    pages = {11},
    title = {Learnin'lizards Underappreciated reptiles can cope when the old rules change},
    volume = {180},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • B. J. Camposano, Morphological species verification and geographic distribution of anolis (sauria: polychrotidae) in florida, University of Florida, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @book{Camposano:,
    author = {Camposano, Brian J.},
    publisher = {University of Florida},
    title = {Morphological Species Verification and Geographic Distribution of Anolis (Sauria: Polychrotidae) in Florida},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • {. {ANGETTER}, {. {LOeTTERS}, and {. {ROeDDER}, “Climate niche shift in invasive species: the case of the brown anole,” Biological journal of the linnean society, vol. 104, iss. 4, pp. 943-954, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{ANGETTER:,
    author = {{ANGETTER}, {LEA}-{SU} and {LOeTTERS}, {STEFAN} and {ROeDDER}, {DENNIS}},
    journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society},
    number = {4},
    pages = {943--954},
    title = {Climate niche shift in invasive species: the case of the brown anole},
    volume = {104},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. A. Johnson, R. E. Cohen, J. R. Vandecar, and J. Wade, “Relationships among reproductive morphology, behavior, and testosterone in a natural population of green anole lizards,” Physiology & behavior, vol. 104, iss. 3, pp. 437-445, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Johnson:f,
    author = {Johnson, Michele A. and Cohen, Rachel E. and Vandecar, Joseph R. and Wade, Juli},
    journal = {Physiology \& behavior},
    number = {3},
    pages = {437--445},
    title = {Relationships among reproductive morphology, behavior, and testosterone in a natural population of green anole lizards},
    volume = {104},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. Daudin and M. de Silva, “An annotated checklist of the amphibians and terrestrial reptiles of the grenadines with notes on their local natural history and conservation,” Conservation of caribbean island herpetofaunas, vol. 2, pp. 259-271, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Daudin:,
    author = {Daudin, Jacques and de Silva, Mark},
    journal = {Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas},
    pages = {259--271},
    title = {An annotated checklist of the amphibians and terrestrial reptiles of the Grenadines with notes on their local natural history and conservation},
    volume = {2},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • S. Yabuta and A. Suzuki-Watanabe, “Function of body coloration in green anoles (anolis carolinensis) at the beginning of the breeding season: advertisement signaling and thermoregulation,” Current herpetology, vol. 30, iss. 2, pp. 155-158, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Yabuta:,
    author = {Yabuta, Shinji and Suzuki-Watanabe, Akiko},
    journal = {Current Herpetology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {155--158},
    title = {Function of Body Coloration in Green Anoles (Anolis carolinensis) at the Beginning of the Breeding Season: Advertisement Signaling and Thermoregulation},
    volume = {30},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. B. D’angiolella, T. Gamble, T. Avila-Pires, G. R. Colli, B. P. Noonan, and L. J. Vitt, “Anolis chrysolepis duméril and bibron, 1837 (squamata: iguanidae), revisited: molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the anolis chrysolepis species group,” Bulletin of the museum of comparative zoology, vol. 160, iss. 2, pp. 35-63, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Dangiolella:a,
    author = {D'angiolella, Annelise B. and Gamble, Tony and Avila-Pires, Teresa and Colli, Guarino R. and Noonan, Brice P. and Vitt, Laurie J.},
    journal = {Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {35--63},
    title = {Anolis chrysolepis Dum\'{e}ril and Bibron, 1837 (Squamata: Iguanidae), revisited: molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the Anolis chrysolepis species group},
    volume = {160},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • L. Alibardi, K. Jaeger, L. D. Valle, and L. Eckhart, “Ultrastructural localization of hair keratin homologs in the claw of the lizard anolis carolinensis,” Journal of morphology, vol. 272, iss. 3, pp. 363-370, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Alibardi:h,
    author = {Alibardi, Lorenzo and Jaeger, Karin and Valle, Luisa D. and Eckhart, Leopold},
    journal = {Journal of morphology},
    number = {3},
    pages = {363--370},
    title = {Ultrastructural localization of hair keratin homologs in the claw of the lizard Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {272},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. Herrel, M. Cottam, K. Godbeer, T. Sanger, and J. B. Losos, “An ecomorphological analysis of native and introduced populations of the endemic lizard anolis maynardi of the cayman islands,” Breviora, pp. 1-10, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Herrel:,
    author = {Herrel, Anthony and Cottam, Matt and Godbeer, Kristan and Sanger, Thomas and Losos, Jonathan B.},
    journal = {Breviora},
    pages = {1--10},
    title = {An ecomorphological analysis of native and introduced populations of the endemic lizard Anolis maynardi of the Cayman Islands},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • T. M. Farrell, M. A. Pilgrim, P. G. May, and B. W. Blihovde, “The herpetofauna of lake woodruff national wildlife refuge, florida,” Southeastern naturalist, pp. 647-658, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Farrell:,
    author = {Farrell, Terence M. and Pilgrim, Melissa A. and May, Peter G. and Blihovde, W. Boyd},
    journal = {Southeastern Naturalist},
    pages = {647--658},
    title = {The Herpetofauna of Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, Florida},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • F. Ayala-Varela, S. Poe, A. Carvajal-Campos, L. Gray, J. Davis, and A. Almendáriz, “Anolis soinii poe and Yañez-Miranda, 2008 (squamata: iguanidae: polychrotinae): distribution extension, first records for ecuador and notes on geographic variation.,” Checklist, vol. 7, iss. 5, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Ayala-Varela:,
    author = {Ayala-Varela, Fernando and Poe, Steven and Carvajal-Campos, Amaranta and Gray, Levi and Davis, Julian and Almend{\'{a}}riz, Ana},
    journal = {CheckList},
    number = {5},
    title = {Anolis soinii Poe and {Ya\~{n}ez-Miranda}, 2008 (Squamata: Iguanidae: Polychrotinae): Distribution extension, first records for Ecuador and notes on geographic variation.},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • T. K. Whittle, A. C. Battles, and M. A. Johnson, “At which scale? macrohabitat, not microhabitat, influences parasite load in green anole lizards (anolis carolinensis),” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2011, p. E149.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Whittle:,
    author = {Whittle, T. K. and Battles, A. C. and Johnson, M. A.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E149},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {At which scale? Macrohabitat, not microhabitat, influences parasite load in green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis)},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. D. Bartlett, P. P. Bartlett, and Others, Florida’s turtles, lizards, and crocodilians, University Press of Florida, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @book{Bartlett:,
    author = {Bartlett, Richard D. and Bartlett, Patricia P. and {Others}},
    publisher = {University Press of Florida},
    title = {Florida's turtles, lizards, and crocodilians},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. L. {McTaggart}, D. P. Quinn, J. S. Parmerlee, R. W. Henderson, and R. Powell, “A rapid assessment of reptilian diversity on union island, st. vincent and the grenadines,” South american journal of herpetology, vol. 6, iss. 1, pp. 59-65, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{McTaggart:,
    author = {{McTaggart}, Audrey L. and Quinn, Daniel P. and Parmerlee, John S. and Henderson, Robert W. and Powell, Robert},
    journal = {South American Journal of Herpetology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {59--65},
    title = {A Rapid Assessment of Reptilian Diversity on Union Island, St. Vincent and the Grenadines},
    volume = {6},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • Wash, “Gastrointestinal helminths of three introduced anoles: anolis bimaculatus leachi, anolis grahami, andAnolis roquet (polychridae) from bermuda,” , 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Wash:,
    author = {Wash},
    title = {Gastrointestinal Helminths of Three Introduced Anoles: Anolis bimaculatus leachi, Anolis grahami, {andAnolis} roquet (Polychridae) from Bermuda},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. K. Fujita, S. V. Edwards, and C. P. Ponting, “The anolis lizard genome: an amniote genome without isochores,” Genome biology and evolution, vol. 3, pp. 974-984, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Fujita:,
    author = {Fujita, Matthew K. and Edwards, Scott V. and Ponting, Chris P.},
    journal = {Genome biology and evolution},
    pages = {974--984},
    title = {The Anolis lizard genome: an amniote genome without isochores},
    volume = {3},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. C. Botello, P. A. Herrón, and M. López Victoria, “Notes on the ecology of the lizards from malpelo island, colombia,” , 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Botello:,
    author = {Botello, Juan C. and Herr{\'{o}}n, Pilar A. and L{\'{o}}pez Victoria, Mateo},
    title = {Notes on the ecology of the lizards from Malpelo island, Colombia},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • G. Norval, C. R. Bursey, S. R. Goldberg, J. Mao, and K. Slater, “Origin of the helminth community of an exotic invasive lizard, the brown anole, anolis sagrei (squamata: polychrotidae), in southwestern taiwan,” Pacific science, vol. 65, iss. 3, pp. 383-390, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Norval:,
    author = {Norval, Gerrut and Bursey, Charles R. and Goldberg, Stephen R. and Mao, Jean-Jay and Slater, Kerry},
    journal = {Pacific Science},
    number = {3},
    pages = {383--390},
    title = {Origin of the helminth community of an exotic invasive lizard, the brown anole, Anolis sagrei (Squamata: Polychrotidae), in southwestern Taiwan},
    volume = {65},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • E. Marnocha, J. Pollinger, and T. B. Smith, “Human-induced morphological shifts in an island lizard,” Evolutionary applications, vol. 4, iss. 2, pp. 388-396, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Marnocha:,
    author = {Marnocha, Erin and Pollinger, John and Smith, Thomas B.},
    journal = {Evolutionary Applications},
    number = {2},
    pages = {388--396},
    title = {Human-induced morphological shifts in an island lizard},
    volume = {4},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. Singleton, Color vision and color discrimination in anolis sagrei, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @misc{Singleton:,
    author = {Singleton, Rachael},
    title = {Color Vision and Color Discrimination in Anolis sagrei},
    type = {phdthesis},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • B. Huang, K. Lubarsky, T. Teng, and D. T. Blumstein, “Take only pictures, leave only… fear? the effects of photography on the west indian anole anolis cristatellus,” Curr. zool, vol. 57, pp. 77-82, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Huang:a,
    author = {Huang, Brian and Lubarsky, Katie and Teng, Tiffany and Blumstein, Daniel T.},
    journal = {Curr. Zool},
    pages = {77--82},
    title = {Take only pictures, leave only... fear? The effects of photography on the West Indian anole Anolis cristatellus},
    volume = {57},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • P. A. Herrón, M. López Victoria, and J. C. Botello, “Notes on the ecology of the lizards from malpelo island, colombia,” , 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Herron:,
    author = {Herr{\'{o}}n, Pilar A. and L{\'{o}}pez Victoria, Mateo and Botello, Juan C.},
    title = {Notes on the ecology of the lizards from Malpelo island, Colombia},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. C. Algar and J. B. Losos, “Evolutionary assembly of island faunas reverses the classic island–mainland richness difference in anolis lizards,” Journal of biogeography, vol. 38, iss. 6, pp. 1125-1137, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Algar:,
    author = {Algar, Adam C. and Losos, Jonathan B.},
    journal = {Journal of Biogeography},
    number = {6},
    pages = {1125--1137},
    title = {Evolutionary assembly of island faunas reverses the classic island--mainland richness difference in Anolis lizards},
    volume = {38},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. N. Griffin and B. R. Silliman, “Resource partitioning and why it matters,” Nature education knowledge, vol. 3, iss. 10, p. 49, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Griffin:,
    author = {Griffin, J. N. and Silliman, B. R.},
    journal = {Nature Education Knowledge},
    number = {10},
    pages = {49},
    title = {Resource partitioning and why it matters},
    volume = {3},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. Heynen, Food, fear and Defence-Behavioral and morphological adaptation of juvenile perch under the risk of predation, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @misc{Heynen:,
    author = {Heynen, Martina},
    institution = {Universit\"{a}t zu K\"{o}ln},
    title = {Food, Fear and {Defence-Behavioral} and morphological adaptation of juvenile perch under the risk of predation},
    type = {phdthesis},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • P. W. Bateman and P. A. Fleming, “Frequency of tail loss reflects variation in predation levels, predator efficiency, and the behaviour of three populations of brown anoles,” Biological journal of the linnean society, vol. 103, iss. 3, pp. 648-656, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Bateman:,
    author = {Bateman, Philip W. and Fleming, Patricia A.},
    journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society},
    number = {3},
    pages = {648--656},
    title = {Frequency of tail loss reflects variation in predation levels, predator efficiency, and the behaviour of three populations of brown anoles},
    volume = {103},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • C. Koch, P. J. Venegas, A. Garcia-Bravo, and W. Böhme, “A new bush anole (iguanidae, polychrotinae, polychrus) from the upper marañon basin, peru, with a redescription of polychrus peruvianus (noble, 1924) and additional information on polychrus gutturosus berthold, 1845,” Zookeys, iss. 141, p. 79, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Koch:,
    author = {Koch, Claudia and Venegas, Pablo J. and Garcia-Bravo, Antonio and B{\"{o}}hme, Wolfgang},
    journal = {ZooKeys},
    number = {141},
    pages = {79},
    title = {A new bush anole (Iguanidae, Polychrotinae, Polychrus) from the upper Mara\~{n}on basin, Peru, with a redescription of Polychrus peruvianus (Noble, 1924) and additional information on Polychrus gutturosus Berthold, 1845},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • {. {JULIENNE} and E. {Richard}, “GLOR, genetic differentiation among populations of a hispaniolan trunk anole that exhibit geographical variation in dewlap colour,” Molecular ecology, vol. 20, iss. 20, p. 4302, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{JULIENNE:,
    author = {{JULIENNE}, {NG} and {Richard}, E.},
    journal = {Molecular Ecology},
    number = {20},
    pages = {4302},
    title = {{GLOR}, Genetic differentiation among populations of a Hispaniolan trunk anole that exhibit geographical variation in dewlap colour},
    volume = {20},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • C. H. Lim, T. Hamazaki, E. L. Braun, J. Wade, and N. Terada, “Evolutionary genomics implies a specific function of ant4 in mammalian and anole lizard male germ cells,” Plos one, vol. 6, iss. 8, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Lim:,
    author = {Lim, Chae H. and Hamazaki, Takashi and Braun, Edward L. and Wade, Juli and Terada, Naohiro},
    journal = {PloS one},
    number = {8},
    title = {Evolutionary genomics implies a specific function of Ant4 in mammalian and anole lizard male germ cells},
    volume = {6},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. M. Munoz and J. Hewlett, “Ecological consequences of continual volcanic activity on the lizard, anolis lividus, from montserrat,” Herpetological review, vol. 42, iss. 2, p. 160, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Munoz:,
    author = {Munoz, M. M. and Hewlett, J.},
    journal = {Herpetological Review},
    number = {2},
    pages = {160},
    title = {Ecological consequences of continual volcanic activity on the lizard, Anolis lividus, from Montserrat},
    volume = {42},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • L. C. Rubio-Rocha, B. C. Bock, and V. P. Páez, “Continuous reproduction under a bimodal precipitation regime in a high elevation anole (anolis mariarum) from antioquia, colombia,” Caldasia, vol. 33, iss. 1, pp. 91-104, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Rubio-Rocha:,
    author = {Rubio-Rocha, Laura C. and Bock, Brian C. and P{\'{a}}ez, Vivian P.},
    journal = {Caldasia},
    number = {1},
    pages = {91--104},
    title = {CONTINUOUS REPRODUCTION UNDER A BIMODAL PRECIPITATION REGIME IN A HIGH ELEVATION ANOLE (ANOLIS MARIARUM) FROM ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA},
    volume = {33},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • T. J. Ord, G. K. Charles, and R. K. Hofer, “The evolution of alternative adaptive strategies for effective communication in noisy environments,” The american naturalist, vol. 177, iss. 1, pp. 54-64, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Ord:b,
    author = {Ord, Terry J. and Charles, Grace K. and Hofer, Rebecca K.},
    journal = {The American Naturalist},
    number = {1},
    pages = {54--64},
    title = {The evolution of alternative adaptive strategies for effective communication in noisy environments},
    volume = {177},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. J. Garcia and R. L. Earley, “Mechanisms driving winner and loser effects in the green anole lizard (anolis carolinensis),” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2011, p. E45.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Garcia:,
    author = {Garcia, Mark J. and Earley, Ryan L.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E45},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Mechanisms driving winner and loser effects in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis)},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. E. Cohen and J. Wade, “Aromatase mRNA in the brain of adult green anole lizards: effects of sex and season,” Journal of neuroendocrinology, vol. 23, iss. 3, pp. 254-260, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Cohen:c,
    author = {Cohen, Rachel E. and Wade, Juli},
    journal = {Journal of neuroendocrinology},
    number = {3},
    pages = {254--260},
    title = {Aromatase {mRNA} in the brain of adult green anole lizards: effects of sex and season},
    volume = {23},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • F. Bolaños, J. M. Savage, and G. Chaves, “Amphibians and reptiles of costa rica,” Listas zoológica actualizadas ucr, museo de zoologia ucr. san pedro, costa rica. available from: http://museo. biologia. ucr. ac. cr/listas/lzapublicaciones. htm (accessed 20 december 2013), 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Bolanos:,
    author = {Bola{\~{n}}os, Federico and Savage, Jay M. and Chaves, Gerardo},
    journal = {Listas Zool\'{o}gica Actualizadas UCR, Museo de Zoologia UCR. San Pedro, Costa Rica. Available from: http://museo. biologia. ucr. ac. cr/listas/LZAPublicaciones. htm (accessed 20 December 2013)},
    title = {Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. Alföldi, F. Di Palma, M. Grabherr, C. Williams, L. Kong, E. Mauceli, P. Russell, C. B. Lowe, R. E. Glor, J. D. Jaffe, and Others, “The genome of the green anole lizard and a comparative analysis with birds and mammals,” Nature, vol. 477, iss. 7366, pp. 587-591, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Alfoldi:,
    author = {Alf{\"{o}}ldi, Jessica and Di Palma, Federica and Grabherr, Manfred and Williams, Christina and Kong, Lesheng and Mauceli, Evan and Russell, Pamela and Lowe, Craig B. and Glor, Richard E. and Jaffe, Jacob D. and {Others}},
    journal = {Nature},
    number = {7366},
    pages = {587--591},
    title = {The genome of the green anole lizard and a comparative analysis with birds and mammals},
    volume = {477},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • L. J. Fleishman, E. R. Loew, and M. J. Whiting, “High sensitivity to short wavelengths in a lizard and implications for understanding the evolution of visual systems in lizards,” Proceedings of the royal society of london b: biological sciences, vol. 278, iss. 1720, pp. 2891-2899, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Fleishman:d,
    author = {Fleishman, Leo J. and Loew, Ellis R. and Whiting, Martin J.},
    journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences},
    number = {1720},
    pages = {2891--2899},
    title = {High sensitivity to short wavelengths in a lizard and implications for understanding the evolution of visual systems in lizards},
    volume = {278},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. W. Ávila, M. W. Cardoso, F. H. Oda, and R. J. Da Silva, “Helminths from lizards (reptilia: squamata) at the cerrado of goiás state, brazil,” Comparative parasitology, vol. 78, iss. 1, pp. 120-128, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Avila:a,
    author = {{\'{A}}vila, Robson W. and Cardoso, Manoela W. and Oda, Fabr{\'{\i}}cio H. and Da Silva, Reinaldo J.},
    journal = {Comparative Parasitology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {120--128},
    title = {Helminths from lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) at the Cerrado of Goi\'{a}s state, Brazil},
    volume = {78},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • D. A. Warner and M. N. Chapman, “Does solitary incubation enhance egg water uptake and offspring quality in a lizard that produces single-egg clutches?,” Journal of experimental zoology part a: ecological genetics and physiology, vol. 315, iss. 3, pp. 149-155, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Warner:b,
    author = {Warner, Daniel A. and Chapman, Michelle N.},
    journal = {Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology},
    number = {3},
    pages = {149--155},
    title = {Does solitary incubation enhance egg water uptake and offspring quality in a lizard that produces single-egg clutches?},
    volume = {315},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • S. R. Partan, P. Otovic, and V. L. Price, “Assessing display variability in wild brown anoles anolis sagrei using a mechanical lizard model,” Current zoology, vol. 57, iss. 2, pp. 140-153, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Partan:,
    author = {Partan, Sarah R. and Otovic, Peter and Price, Virginia L.},
    journal = {Current Zoology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {140--153},
    title = {Assessing display variability in wild brown anoles Anolis sagrei using a mechanical lizard model},
    volume = {57},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • P. Legreneur, M. Laurin, K. M. Monteil, and V. Bels, “Convergent exaptation of leap up for escape in distantly related arboreal amniotes,” Adaptive behavior, p. 1059712311426797, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Legreneur:,
    author = {Legreneur, Pierre and Laurin, Michel and Monteil, Karine M. and Bels, Vincent},
    journal = {Adaptive Behavior},
    pages = {1059712311426797},
    title = {Convergent exaptation of leap up for escape in distantly related arboreal amniotes},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • F. Ayala-Varela, S. Poe, A. Carvajal-Campos, L. Gray, J. Davis, and A. Almendáriz, “Iguanidae: polychrotinae): distribution extension, first records for ecuador and notes on geographic variation,” Check list, vol. 7, iss. 5, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Ayala-Varela:d,
    author = {Ayala-Varela, Fernando and Poe, Steven and Carvajal-Campos, Amaranta and Gray, Levi and Davis, Julian and Almend{\'{a}}riz, Ana},
    journal = {Check List},
    number = {5},
    title = {Iguanidae: Polychrotinae): Distribution extension, first records for Ecuador and notes on geographic variation},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. L. Calderón-Espinosa and B. A. Forero, “Morphological diversification in solitary endeMic anoles: anolis concolor and anolis pinchoti froM san andrés and providence islands, coloMbia,” South american journal of herpetology, vol. 6, iss. 3, pp. 205-210, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Calderon-Espinosa:,
    author = {Calder{\'{o}}n-Espinosa, M. L. and Forero, A. Barrag{\'{a}}n},
    journal = {south American Journal of herpetology},
    number = {3},
    pages = {205--210},
    title = {Morphological diversification in solitary {endeMic} anoles: Anolis concolor and Anolis pinchoti {froM} san andr\'{e}s and providence islands, {coloMbia}},
    volume = {6},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • C. A. Smithers and S. T. Hsieh, “Sexually-dimorphic niche and character displacement of the green anole (anolis carolinensis) in the presence of the invasive cuban brown anole (anolis sagrei),” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2011, p. E252.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Smithers:,
    author = {Smithers, C. A. and Hsieh, S. T.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E252},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Sexually-dimorphic niche and character displacement of the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) in the presence of the invasive Cuban brown anole (Anolis sagrei)},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. Buchtova, O. Zahradnícek, E. Janecková, E. Matalova, and A. S. Tucker, “Morphology and regression of the dental lamina,” Developmental biology, vol. 356, iss. 1, pp. 254-255, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Buchtova:,
    author = {Buchtova, Marcela and Zahradn{\'{\i}}cek, Oldrich and Janeckov{\'{a}}, Eva and Matalova, Eva and Tucker, Abigail S.},
    journal = {Developmental Biology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {254--255},
    title = {Morphology and regression of the dental lamina},
    volume = {356},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • S. P. Flanagan, “Do male physiological condition and territory quality affect female choice in the brown anole, anolis sagrei?,” , 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Flanagan:,
    author = {Flanagan, Sarah P.},
    title = {Do male physiological condition and territory quality affect female choice in the Brown Anole, Anolis sagrei?},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. Boistel, A. Herrel, R. Lebrun, G. Daghfous, P. Tafforeau, J. B. Losos, and B. Vanhooydonck, “Shake rattle and roll: the bony labyrinth and aerial descent in squamates,” Integrative and comparative biology, vol. 51, iss. 6, pp. 957-968, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Boistel:,
    author = {Boistel, Renaud and Herrel, Anthony and Lebrun, Renaud and Daghfous, Gheylen and Tafforeau, Paul and Losos, Jonathan B. and Vanhooydonck, Bieke},
    journal = {Integrative and comparative biology},
    number = {6},
    pages = {957--968},
    title = {Shake rattle and roll: the bony labyrinth and aerial descent in squamates},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • G. N. Burcham, M. A. Miller, and T. S. Hickok, “Pathology in practice,” Journal of the american veterinary medical association, vol. 239, iss. 10, pp. 1305-1307, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Burcham:,
    author = {Burcham, Grant N. and Miller, Margaret A. and Hickok, Tamantha S.},
    journal = {Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association},
    number = {10},
    pages = {1305--1307},
    title = {Pathology in practice},
    volume = {239},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. J. Kolbe, L. J. Revell, B. Szekely, E. D. Brodie {III}, and J. B. Losos, “Convergent evolution of phenotypic integration and its alignment with morphological diversification in caribbean anolis ecomorphs,” Evolution, vol. 65, iss. 12, pp. 3608-3624, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kolbe:,
    author = {Kolbe, Jason J. and Revell, Liam J. and Szekely, Brian and Brodie {III}, Edmund D. and Losos, Jonathan B.},
    journal = {Evolution},
    number = {12},
    pages = {3608--3624},
    title = {Convergent evolution of phenotypic integration and its alignment with morphological diversification in Caribbean Anolis ecomorphs},
    volume = {65},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • V. L. Kilburn, R. Ibáñez, and D. M. Green, “Reptiles as potential vectors and hosts of the amphibian pathogen batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in panama,” Diseases of aquatic organisms, vol. 97, iss. 2, p. 127, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kilburn:,
    author = {Kilburn, Vanessa L. and Ib{\'{a}}{\~{n}}ez, Roberto and Green, David M.},
    journal = {Diseases of aquatic organisms},
    number = {2},
    pages = {127},
    title = {Reptiles as potential vectors and hosts of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Panama},
    volume = {97},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • W. E. Meshaka and Others, A runaway train in the making: the exotic amphibians, reptiles, turtles, and crocodilians of florida. monograph 1. herpetological conservation and biology 6: 1-101, malcolm mcallum, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @book{Meshaka:,
    author = {Meshaka, Walter E. and {Others}},
    publisher = {malcolm mcallum},
    title = {A Runaway Train in the Making: The Exotic Amphibians, Reptiles, Turtles, and Crocodilians of Florida. Monograph 1. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6: 1-101},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. Ng and R. E. Glor, “Genetic differentiation among populations of a hispaniolan trunk anole that exhibit geographical variation in dewlap colour,” Molecular ecology, vol. 20, iss. 20, pp. 4302-4317, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Ng:,
    author = {Ng, Julienne and Glor, Richard E.},
    journal = {Molecular ecology},
    number = {20},
    pages = {4302--4317},
    title = {Genetic differentiation among populations of a Hispaniolan trunk anole that exhibit geographical variation in dewlap colour},
    volume = {20},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. Vásquez, L. A. González, and A. Prieto, “Ecolog\\’\\ia térmica y patrón de actividad del lagarto anolis onca (squamata: polychrotidae) en la pen\\’\\insula de araya, venezuela,” , 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Vasquez:,
    author = {V{\'{a}}squez, Jenniffer and Gonz{\'{a}}lez, Luis A. and Prieto, Antulio},
    title = {Ecolog\\'\\ia t\'{e}rmica y patr\'{o}n de actividad del lagarto Anolis onca (Squamata: Polychrotidae) en la pen\\'\\insula de Araya, Venezuela},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • G. Norval, W. Hsiao, C. Lin, and S. Huang, “Ambushing the supply line: a report on anolis sagrei predation on ants in chiayi county, taiwan,” Russian journal of herpetology, vol. 18, iss. 1, pp. 39-46, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Norval:c,
    author = {Norval, Gerrut and Hsiao, Wen-Feng and Lin, Chung-Chi and Huang, Shao-Chang},
    journal = {Russian Journal of Herpetology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {39--46},
    title = {Ambushing the Supply Line: a Report on Anolis sagrei Predation on Ants in Chiayi County, Taiwan},
    volume = {18},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • N. Roberts and E. Walcott-Hackshaw, Border crossings: a trilingual anthology of caribbean women writers, , 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @book{Roberts:,
    author = {Roberts, Nicole and Walcott-Hackshaw, Elizabeth},
    title = {Border Crossings: A Trilingual Anthology of Caribbean Women Writers},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • G. Norval, P. K. Chiu, H. P. Chu, and J. J. Mao, “An instance of predation on the brown anole (anolis sagrei duméril & bibron, 1837) by a malay night heron (gorsakius melanolophus swinhoe, 1865),” Herpetology notes, vol. 4, pp. 5-7, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Norval:b,
    author = {Norval, G. and Chiu, P. K. and Chu, H. P. and Mao, J. J.},
    journal = {Herpetology Notes},
    pages = {05--07},
    title = {An instance of predation on the brown anole (Anolis sagrei Dum\'{e}ril \& Bibron, 1837) by a Malay night heron (Gorsakius melanolophus Swinhoe, 1865)},
    volume = {4},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • T. J. Pinto, R. Bernhard, R. C. Vogt, R. C. Campos, and R. S. García, “A collection of amphibians and reptiles of the national institute of research of the amazon,” Revista colombiana de ciencia animal, vol. 3, iss. 2, pp. 238-252, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Pinto:,
    author = {Pinto, Tel{\^{e}}maco J. and Bernhard, Rafael and Vogt, Richard C. and Campos, Ronnezza C. and Garc{\'{\i}}a, Rauber S.},
    journal = {Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal},
    number = {2},
    pages = {238--252},
    title = {A collection of amphibians and reptiles of the national institute of research of the Amazon},
    volume = {3},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • V. B. Simon, “Communication signal rates predict interaction outcome in the brown anole lizard, anolis sagrei,” Copeia, vol. 2011, iss. 1, pp. 38-45, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Simon:,
    author = {Simon, Valerie B.},
    journal = {Copeia},
    number = {1},
    pages = {38--45},
    title = {Communication signal rates predict interaction outcome in the brown anole lizard, Anolis sagrei},
    volume = {2011},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • C. García-De la Peña, “Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (acari: trombiculidae): new host records from four species of lizards in the sierra de jimulco, coahuila, mexico,” The southwestern naturalist, vol. 56, iss. 1, pp. 131-133, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Garcia-De-la-Pena:,
    author = {Garc{\'{\i}}a-De la Pe{\~{n}}a, Cristina},
    journal = {The Southwestern Naturalist},
    number = {1},
    pages = {131--133},
    title = {Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (Acari: Trombiculidae): New host records from four species of lizards in the Sierra de Jimulco, Coahuila, Mexico},
    volume = {56},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • C. Kuo, G. B. Gillis, and D. J. Irschick, “Loading effects on jump performance in green anole lizards, anolis carolinensis,” Journal of experimental biology, vol. 214, iss. 12, pp. 2073-2079, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kuo:a,
    author = {Kuo, Chi-Yun and Gillis, Gary B. and Irschick, Duncan J.},
    journal = {Journal of Experimental Biology},
    number = {12},
    pages = {2073--2079},
    title = {Loading effects on jump performance in green anole lizards, Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {214},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • C. E. Montgomery, E. J. Griffith Rodriquez, H. L. Ross, and K. R. Lips, “Communal nesting in the anoline lizard norops lionotus (polychrotidae) in central panama,” The southwestern naturalist, vol. 56, iss. 1, pp. 83-88, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Montgomery:,
    author = {Montgomery, Chad E. and Griffith Rodriquez, Edgardo J. and Ross, Heidi L. and Lips, Karen R.},
    journal = {The Southwestern Naturalist},
    number = {1},
    pages = {83--88},
    title = {Communal nesting in the anoline lizard Norops lionotus (Polychrotidae) in central Panama},
    volume = {56},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • C. de Oliveira Araujo, “Squamata, polychrotidae, anolis chrysolepis duméril and bibron, 1837: distribution extension,” Check list, vol. 7, iss. 3, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Oliveira-Araujo:,
    author = {de Oliveira Araujo, Cybele},
    journal = {Check List},
    number = {3},
    title = {Squamata, Polychrotidae, Anolis chrysolepis Dum\'{e}ril and Bibron, 1837: Distribution extension},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • B. Tapley, R. A. Griffiths, and I. Bride, “Dynamics of the trade in reptiles and amphibians within the united kingdom over a ten-year period,” The herpetological journal, vol. 21, iss. 1, pp. 27-34, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Tapley:,
    author = {Tapley, Benjamin and Griffiths, Richard A. and Bride, Ian},
    journal = {The Herpetological Journal},
    number = {1},
    pages = {27--34},
    title = {Dynamics of the trade in reptiles and amphibians within the United Kingdom over a ten-year period},
    volume = {21},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • G. Koehler, “A new species of anole related to anolis altae from volcán tenorio, costa rica (reptilia, squamata, polychrotidae). una nueva especie de lagartija relacionada con anolis altae del volcán tenorio, costa rica (reptilia, squamata, polychrotidae).,” Zootaxa., iss. 3120, pp. 29-42, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Koehler:a,
    author = {Koehler, Gunther},
    journal = {Zootaxa.},
    number = {3120},
    pages = {29--42},
    title = {A new species of anole related to Anolis altae from Volc\'{a}n Tenorio, Costa Rica (Reptilia, Squamata, Polychrotidae). Una nueva especie de lagartija relacionada con Anolis altae del Volc\'{a}n Tenorio, Costa Rica (Reptilia, Squamata, Polychrotidae).},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. F. Storz, F. G. Hoffmann, J. C. Opazo, T. J. Sanger, and H. Moriyama, “Developmental regulation of hemoglobin synthesis in the green anole lizard anolis carolinensis,” The journal of experimental biology, vol. 214, iss. 4, pp. 575-581, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Storz:,
    author = {Storz, Jay F. and Hoffmann, Federico G. and Opazo, Juan C. and Sanger, Thomas J. and Moriyama, Hideaki},
    journal = {The Journal of experimental biology},
    number = {4},
    pages = {575--581},
    title = {Developmental regulation of hemoglobin synthesis in the green anole lizard Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {214},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. Köhler, M. Hahn, and G. Köhler, “1Genital morphology in two species of anolis,” , 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kohler:b,
    author = {K{\"{o}}hler, Johannes and Hahn, Martin and K{\"{o}}hler, Gunther},
    title = {{1Genital} morphology in two species of Anolis},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • D. A. Warner, M. A. Moody, and R. S. Telemeco, “Is water uptake by reptilian eggs regulated by physiological processes of embryos or a passive hydraulic response to developmental environments?,” Comparative biochemistry and physiology part a: molecular & integrative physiology, vol. 160, iss. 3, pp. 421-425, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Warner:a,
    author = {Warner, Daniel A. and Moody, Melissa A. and Telemeco, Rory S.},
    journal = {Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular \& Integrative Physiology},
    number = {3},
    pages = {421--425},
    title = {Is water uptake by reptilian eggs regulated by physiological processes of embryos or a passive hydraulic response to developmental environments?},
    volume = {160},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. V. Rataj, R. Lindtner-Knific, K. Vlahović, U. Mavri, and A. Dov{v c}, “Parasites in pet reptiles,” Acta veterinaria scandinavica, vol. 53, iss. 1, p. 1, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Rataj:,
    author = {Rataj, Aleksandra V. and Lindtner-Knific, Renata and Vlahovi{\'{c}}, Ksenija and Mavri, Ur{v} and Dov{v c}, Alenka},
    journal = {Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica},
    number = {1},
    pages = {1},
    title = {Parasites in pet reptiles},
    volume = {53},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. del Rosario Castañeda and K. de Queiroz, “Phylogenetic relationships of the dactyloa clade of anolis lizards based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data,” Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, vol. 61, iss. 3, pp. 784-800, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Rosario-Castaneda:,
    author = {del Rosario Casta{\~{n}}eda, Mar{\'{\i}}a and de Queiroz, Kevin},
    journal = {Molecular phylogenetics and evolution},
    number = {3},
    pages = {784--800},
    title = {Phylogenetic relationships of the Dactyloa clade of Anolis lizards based on nuclear and mitochondrial {DNA} sequence data},
    volume = {61},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • K. Kusumi, R. J. Kulathinal, A. Abzhanov, S. Boissinot, N. G. Crawford, B. C. Faircloth, T. C. Glenn, D. E. Janes, J. B. Losos, D. B. Menke, and Others, “Developing a community-based genetic nomenclature for anole lizards,” Bmc genomics, vol. 12, iss. 1, p. 1, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kusumi:,
    author = {Kusumi, Kenro and Kulathinal, Rob J. and Abzhanov, Arhat and Boissinot, Stephane and Crawford, Nicholas G. and Faircloth, Brant C. and Glenn, Travis C. and Janes, Daniel E. and Losos, Jonathan B. and Menke, Douglas B. and {Others}},
    journal = {BMC genomics},
    number = {1},
    pages = {1},
    title = {Developing a community-based genetic nomenclature for anole lizards},
    volume = {12},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • G. F. Medina-Rangel, “[alfa and beta diversity of reptilian assemblages in zapatosa wetland complex, colombia].,” Revista de biologia tropical, vol. 59, iss. 2, pp. 935-968, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Medina-Rangel:,
    author = {Medina-Rangel, G. F.},
    journal = {Revista de biologia tropical},
    number = {2},
    pages = {935--968},
    title = {[Alfa and beta diversity of reptilian assemblages in Zapatosa wetland complex, Colombia].},
    volume = {59},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • Z. M. Jones, Perch diameter and secondary branching have interactive effects on the locomotion and path choice of anole lizards, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @misc{Jones:,
    author = {Jones, Zachary M.},
    institution = {University of Cincinnati},
    title = {Perch Diameter and Secondary Branching Have Interactive Effects on the Locomotion and Path Choice of Anole Lizards},
    type = {phdthesis},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • E. Paemelaere, C. Guyer, and S. F. Dobson, “Survival of alternative dorsal-pattern morphs in females of the anole norops humilis,” Herpetologica, vol. 67, iss. 4, pp. 420-427, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Paemelaere:a,
    author = {Paemelaere, Evi and Guyer, Craig and Dobson, F. Stephen},
    journal = {Herpetologica},
    number = {4},
    pages = {420--427},
    title = {Survival of alternative dorsal-pattern morphs in females of the anole Norops humilis},
    volume = {67},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. A. Johnson, V. M. Lopez, T. K. Whittle, and J. Wade, “Reproductive morphology and behavior in anolis lizards: a comparative analysis,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2011, p. E65.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Johnson:,
    author = {Johnson, Michele A. and Lopez, M. Veronica and Whittle, Tara K. and Wade, Juli},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E65},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Reproductive Morphology and Behavior in Anolis Lizards: A Comparative Analysis},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. N. Morton and C. A. Cox, “Cuban brown anoles (anolis sagrei) in saint lucia,” Reptiles & amphibians, vol. 18, pp. 52-53, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Morton:,
    author = {Morton, M. N. and Cox, C. A.},
    journal = {Reptiles \& Amphibians},
    pages = {52--53},
    title = {Cuban brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) in Saint Lucia},
    volume = {18},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • T. M. Farrell, M. A. Pilgrim, P. G. May, and B. W. Blihovde, “Eagle hill institute,” Southeastern naturalist, vol. 10, iss. 4, pp. 647-658, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Farrell:b,
    author = {Farrell, Terence M. and Pilgrim, Melissa A. and May, Peter G. and Blihovde, W. Boyd},
    journal = {Southeastern Naturalist},
    number = {4},
    pages = {647--658},
    title = {Eagle Hill Institute},
    volume = {10},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. López-Victoria, P. A. Herrón, and J. C. Botello, “Notes on the ecology of the lizards from malpelo island, colombia*,” Bolet\\’\\in de investigaciones marinas y costeras-invemar, vol. 40, pp. 79-89, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Lopez-Victoria:,
    author = {L{\'{o}}pez-Victoria, Mateo and Herr{\'{o}}n, Pilar A. and Botello, Juan C.},
    journal = {Bolet\\'\\in de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras-INVEMAR},
    pages = {79--89},
    title = {NOTES ON THE ECOLOGY OF THE LIZARDS FROM MALPELO ISLAND, COLOMBIA*},
    volume = {40},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. K. Dill and M. A. Johnson, “Plasticity in limb development in the green anole lizard, anolis carolinensis,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2011, p. E184.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Dill:,
    author = {Dill, A. K. and Johnson, M. A.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E184},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Plasticity in Limb Development in the Green Anole Lizard, Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • C. M. Lewis, A. C. Battles, M. N. Sparks, and M. A. Johnson, “Food supply affects territory size, but not social display behavior in green anole lizards (anolis carolinensis),” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2011, p. E219.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Lewis:,
    author = {Lewis, C. M. and Battles, A. C. and Sparks, M. N. and Johnson, M. A.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E219},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Food Supply Affects Territory Size, but not Social Display Behavior in Green Anole Lizards (Anolis carolinensis)},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • C. Y. Kuo and D. J. Irschick, “The effect of physical perturbation on behavior: an example from yellow-chinned anole (anolis gundlachi),” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2011, p. E74.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Kuo:b,
    author = {Kuo, C. Y. and Irschick, D. J.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E74},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {The effect of physical perturbation on behavior: an example from yellow-chinned anole (Anolis gundlachi)},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • J. Dröge and W. Maka{{textbackslash}textbackslash}lowski, “Phylogenetic analysis reveals wide distribution of globin x,” Biol direct, vol. 6, p. 54, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Droge:,
    author = {Dr{\"{o}}ge, Jasmin and Maka{{textbackslash}textbackslash}lowski, Wojciech},
    journal = {Biol Direct},
    pages = {54},
    title = {Phylogenetic analysis reveals wide distribution of globin X},
    volume = {6},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • S. Lailvaux and R. Gilbert, “Effects of dietary restriction on dewlap size and bite force development in anolis carolinensis,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2011, p. E75.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Lailvaux:,
    author = {Lailvaux, Simon and Gilbert, Rebecca},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E75},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Effects of dietary restriction on dewlap size and bite force development in Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • A. Reisch, Antipredatory mechanisms in two species of anoline lizards, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @misc{Reisch:,
    author = {Reisch, Angie},
    institution = {Oklahoma State University},
    title = {Antipredatory mechanisms in two species of anoline lizards},
    type = {phdthesis},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. A. Ribeiro-Júnior, R. V. Rossi, C. L. Miranda, and T. {. Ávila-Pires, “Influence of pitfall trap size and design on herpetofauna and small mammal studies in a neotropical forest,” Zoologia (curitiba), vol. 28, iss. 1, pp. 80-91, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Ribeiro-Junior:,
    author = {Ribeiro-J{\'{u}}nior, Marco A. and Rossi, Rog{\'{e}}rio V. and Miranda, Cleuton L. and {\'{A}}vila-Pires, Teresa {CS}},
    journal = {Zoologia (Curitiba)},
    number = {1},
    pages = {80--91},
    title = {Influence of pitfall trap size and design on herpetofauna and small mammal studies in a Neotropical Forest},
    volume = {28},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • R. L. Rosier and T. Langkilde, “Behavior under risk: how animals avoid becoming dinner,” Nature education knowledge, vol. 2, iss. 8, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Rosier:,
    author = {Rosier, R. L. and Langkilde, T.},
    journal = {Nature Education Knowledge},
    number = {8},
    title = {Behavior under risk: how animals avoid becoming dinner},
    volume = {2},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • T. J. Sanger, L. J. Revell, J. J. Gibson-Brown, and J. B. Losos, “Repeated modification of early limb morphogenesis programmes underlies the convergence of relative limb length in anolis lizards,” Proceedings of the royal society of london b: biological sciences, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Sanger:,
    author = {Sanger, Thomas J. and Revell, Liam J. and Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J. and Losos, Jonathan B.},
    journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences},
    title = {Repeated modification of early limb morphogenesis programmes underlies the convergence of relative limb length in Anolis lizards},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • P. A. Novick, J. D. Smith, M. Floumanhaft, D. A. Ray, and S. Boissinot, “The evolution and diversity of DNA transposons in the genome of the lizard anolis carolinensis,” Genome biology and evolution, vol. 3, pp. 1-14, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Novick:a,
    author = {Novick, Peter A. and Smith, Jeremy D. and Floumanhaft, Mark and Ray, David A. and Boissinot, St{\'{e}}phane},
    journal = {Genome biology and evolution},
    pages = {1--14},
    title = {The evolution and diversity of {DNA} transposons in the genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {3},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • D. S. Lewis, R. van Veen, and B. S. Wilson, “Conservation implications of small indian mongoose (herpestes auropunctatus) predation in a hotspot within a hotspot: the hellshire hills, jamaica,” Biological invasions, vol. 13, iss. 1, pp. 25-33, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Lewis:c,
    author = {Lewis, Delano S. and van Veen, Rick and Wilson, Byron S.},
    journal = {Biological invasions},
    number = {1},
    pages = {25--33},
    title = {Conservation implications of small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) predation in a hotspot within a hotspot: the Hellshire Hills, Jamaica},
    volume = {13},
    year = {2011}
    }

  • M. Tollis and S. Boissinot, “The transposable element profile of the anolis genome: how a lizard can provide insights into the evolution of vertebrate genome size and structure,” Mobile genetic elements, vol. 1, iss. 2, pp. 107-111, 2011.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Tollis:,
    author = {Tollis, Marc and Boissinot, St{\'{e}}phane},
    journal = {Mobile genetic elements},
    number = {2},
    pages = {107--111},
    title = {The transposable element profile of the Anolis genome: How a lizard can provide insights into the evolution of vertebrate genome size and structure},
    volume = {1},
    year = {2011}
    }

2010

  • E. Cabrera-Guzmán and V. Hugo Reynoso, “Uso de perchas para dormir por la lagartija anolis uniformis (squamata: polychrotidae) en el bosque tropical fragmentado de los tuxtlas, méxico,” Revista mexicana de biodiversidad, vol. 81, iss. 3, pp. 921-924, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Cabrera-Guzman:,
    author = {Cabrera-Guzm{\'{a}}n, Elisa and Hugo Reynoso, V{\'{\i}}ctor},
    journal = {Revista mexicana de biodiversidad},
    number = {3},
    pages = {921--924},
    title = {Uso de perchas para dormir por la lagartija Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae) en el bosque tropical fragmentado de Los Tuxtlas, M\'{e}xico},
    volume = {81},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • K. R. Lovely, L. D. Mahler, and L. J. Revell, “The rate and pattern of tail autotomy in five species of puerto rican anoles,” Evolutionary ecology research, vol. 12, iss. 1, pp. 67-88, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Lovely:,
    author = {Lovely, Karen R. and Mahler, D. Luke and Revell, Liam J.},
    journal = {Evolutionary Ecology Research},
    number = {1},
    pages = {67--88},
    title = {The rate and pattern of tail autotomy in five species of Puerto Rican anoles},
    volume = {12},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • C. Bergevin, D. S. Velenovsky, and K. E. Bonine, “Tectorial membrane morphological variation: effects upon stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions,” Biophysical journal, vol. 99, iss. 4, pp. 1064-1072, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Bergevin:,
    author = {Bergevin, Christopher and Velenovsky, David S. and Bonine, Kevin E.},
    journal = {Biophysical journal},
    number = {4},
    pages = {1064--1072},
    title = {Tectorial membrane morphological variation: effects upon stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions},
    volume = {99},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • E. S. Kilpatrick, T. A. Waldrop, J. D. Lanham, C. H. Greenberg, and T. H. Contreras, “Short-term effects of fuel reduction treatments on herpetofauna from the southeastern united states,” Forest science, vol. 56, iss. 1, pp. 122-130, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kilpatrick:,
    author = {Kilpatrick, Eran S. and Waldrop, Thomas A. and Lanham, Joseph D. and Greenberg, Cathryn H. and Contreras, Tom H.},
    journal = {Forest Science},
    number = {1},
    pages = {122--130},
    title = {Short-term effects of fuel reduction treatments on herpetofauna from the southeastern United States},
    volume = {56},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • R. M. Cox and R. Calsbeek, “Sex-specific selection and intraspecific variation in sexual size dimorphism,” Evolution, vol. 64, iss. 3, pp. 798-809, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Cox:i,
    author = {Cox, Robert M. and Calsbeek, Ryan},
    journal = {Evolution},
    number = {3},
    pages = {798--809},
    title = {SEX-SPECIFIC SELECTION AND INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION IN SEXUAL SIZE DIMORPHISM},
    volume = {64},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • P. A. de Sousa and E. M. Freire, “Reptilia, squamata, polychrotidae, anolis fuscoauratus DOrbigny, 1837: distribution extension for the state of rio grande do norte, brazil,” Check list, vol. 6, iss. 4, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Sousa:,
    author = {de Sousa, Pablo A. and Freire, Eliza M.},
    journal = {Check List},
    number = {4},
    title = {Reptilia, Squamata, Polychrotidae, Anolis fuscoauratus {DOrbigny}, 1837: Distribution extension for the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil},
    volume = {6},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • F. G. Fran{c c}a and N. M. Venâncio, “Reptiles and amphibians of a poorly known region in southwest amazonia,” Biotemas, vol. 23, iss. 3, pp. 71-84, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Franca:,
    author = {Fran{c c}a, Frederico G. and Ven{\^{a}}ncio, Nathocley M.},
    journal = {Biotemas},
    number = {3},
    pages = {71--84},
    title = {Reptiles and amphibians of a poorly known region in southwest Amazonia},
    volume = {23},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • R. Salles and T. Silva-Soares, “Répteis do munic\\’\\ipio de duque de caxias, baixada fluminense, rio de janeiro, sudeste do brasil,” Biotemas, vol. 23, iss. 2, pp. 135-144, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Salles:,
    author = {Salles, Rodrigo and Silva-Soares, Thiago},
    journal = {Biotemas},
    number = {2},
    pages = {135--144},
    title = {R\'{e}pteis do munic\\'\\ipio de Duque de Caxias, Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil},
    volume = {23},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • J. C. Daltry, D. Anthonyson, and M. N. Morton, “Re-introduction of the antiguan racer to offshore islands of antigua, west indies,” Global re-introduction perspectives: additional case-studies from around the globe, p. 98, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Daltry:,
    author = {Daltry, Jennifer C. and Anthonyson, Donald and Morton, Matthew N.},
    journal = {GLOBAL RE-INTRODUCTION PERSPECTIVES: Additional case-studies from around the globe},
    pages = {98},
    title = {Re-introduction of the Antiguan racer to offshore islands of Antigua, West Indies},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • M. Gesemann, A. Lesslauer, C. M. Maurer, H. B. Schönthaler, and S. Neuhauss, “Phylogenetic analysis of the vertebrate excitatory/neutral amino acid transporter (SLC1/EAAT) family reveals lineage specific subfamilies,” Bmc evolutionary biology, vol. 10, iss. 1, p. 117, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Gesemann:,
    author = {Gesemann, Matthias and Lesslauer, Annegret and Maurer, Colette M. and Sch{\"{o}}nthaler, Helia B. and Neuhauss, Stephan},
    journal = {BMC evolutionary biology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {117},
    title = {Phylogenetic analysis of the vertebrate excitatory/neutral amino acid transporter ({SLC1}/{EAAT}) family reveals lineage specific subfamilies},
    volume = {10},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • F. Henkel and W. Schmidt, Pequeño atlas de reptiles, Editorial HISPANO EUROPEA, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @book{Henkel:,
    author = {Henkel, Friedrich-Wilhelm and Schmidt, Wolfgang},
    publisher = {Editorial HISPANO EUROPEA},
    title = {Peque\~{n}o atlas de reptiles},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • R. G. Bowker, C. L. Wright, and G. E. Bowker, “Patterns of body temperatures: is lizard thermoregulation chaotic?,” Journal of thermal biology, vol. 35, iss. 1, pp. 1-5, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Bowker:,
    author = {Bowker, Richard G. and Wright, Chadwick L. and Bowker, George E.},
    journal = {Journal of Thermal Biology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {1--5},
    title = {Patterns of body temperatures: Is lizard thermoregulation chaotic?},
    volume = {35},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • T. J. Ling, C. H. Summers, K. J. Renner, and M. J. Watt, “Opponent recognition and social status differentiate rapid neuroendocrine responses to social challenge,” Physiology & behavior, vol. 99, iss. 5, pp. 571-578, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Ling:,
    author = {Ling, Travis J. and Summers, Cliff H. and Renner, Kenneth J. and Watt, Michael J.},
    journal = {Physiology \& behavior},
    number = {5},
    pages = {571--578},
    title = {Opponent recognition and social status differentiate rapid neuroendocrine responses to social challenge},
    volume = {99},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • R. Lovich and R. Colleagues, “New herpetofaunal records from southern honduras,” Herpetological review, vol. 41, iss. 1, p. 112, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Lovich:,
    author = {Lovich, R. and Colleagues, R.},
    journal = {Herpetological Review},
    number = {1},
    pages = {112},
    title = {New Herpetofaunal records from southern Honduras},
    volume = {41},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • W. Chun, “Miscellaneous notes on some rare and unusual anoles,” Anolis newsletter vi. museum of comparative zoology at harvard university, cambridge, usa, pp. 14-22, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Chun:,
    author = {Chun, W.},
    journal = {Anolis Newsletter VI. Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, Cambridge, USA},
    pages = {14--22},
    title = {Miscellaneous notes on some rare and unusual anoles},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • S. Lotzkat and A. Hertz, “La herpetofauna (amphibia: anura, caudata; reptilia: crocodylia, squamata, testunides) de los algarrobos, chiriqu\\’\\i, occidente de panamá,” Puente biológico, vol. 3, pp. 89-99, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Lotzkat:,
    author = {Lotzkat, Sebastian and Hertz, Andreas},
    journal = {Puente Biol\'{o}gico},
    pages = {89--99},
    title = {La herpetofauna (Amphibia: Anura, Caudata; Reptilia: Crocodylia, Squamata, Testunides) de Los Algarrobos, Chiriqu\\'\\i, occidente de Panam\'{a}},
    volume = {3},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • J. Hernández-Guzmán, “La comunidad herpetofaun\\’\\istica y las actividades antrópicas en dos biotopos de nacajuca, SE méxico,” Evolution, vol. 21, pp. 524-530, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Hernandez-Guzman:,
    author = {Hern{\'{a}}ndez-Guzm{\'{a}}n, Javier},
    journal = {Evolution},
    pages = {524--530},
    title = {La comunidad herpetofaun\\'\\istica y las actividades antr\'{o}picas en dos biotopos de Nacajuca, {SE} M\'{e}xico},
    volume = {21},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • W. B. Sutton, Y. Wang, and C. J. Schweitzer, “Habitat relationships of reptiles in pine beetle disturbed forests of alabama, USA, with guidelines for a modified drift-fence sampling method,” , 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Sutton:,
    author = {Sutton, William B. and Wang, Yong and Schweitzer, Callie J.},
    title = {Habitat relationships of reptiles in pine beetle disturbed forests of Alabama, {USA}, with guidelines for a modified drift-fence sampling method},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • I. Marín, “GIN transposons: genetic elements linking retrotransposons and genes,” Molecular biology and evolution, vol. 27, iss. 8, pp. 1903-1911, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Marin:,
    author = {Mar{\'{\i}}n, Ignacio},
    journal = {Molecular biology and evolution},
    number = {8},
    pages = {1903--1911},
    title = {{GIN} transposons: genetic elements linking retrotransposons and genes},
    volume = {27},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • R. Calsbeek, L. Bonvini, and R. M. Cox, “Geographic variation, frequency-dependent selection, and the maintenance of a female-limited polymorphism,” Evolution, vol. 64, iss. 1, pp. 116-125, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Calsbeek:,
    author = {Calsbeek, Ryan and Bonvini, Lauren and Cox, Robert M.},
    journal = {Evolution},
    number = {1},
    pages = {116--125},
    title = {GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION, FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT SELECTION, AND THE MAINTENANCE OF A FEMALE-LIMITED POLYMORPHISM},
    volume = {64},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • A. B. D'{Angiolella}, “Filogenia molecular e taxonomia do grupo anolis chrysolepis duméril & bibron, 1837 (squamata, polychrotidae),” , 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{DANGIOLELLA:,
    author = {D'{Angiolella}, Annelise B.},
    title = {Filogenia molecular e taxonomia do grupo Anolis chrysolepis Dum\'{e}ril \& Bibron, 1837 (Squamata, Polychrotidae)},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • L. D. Mahler, L. J. Revell, R. E. Glor, and J. B. Losos, “Ecological opportunity and the rate of morphological evolution in the diversification of greater antillean anoles,” Evolution, vol. 64, iss. 9, pp. 2731-2745, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Mahler:,
    author = {Mahler, D. Luke and Revell, Liam J. and Glor, Richard E. and Losos, Jonathan B.},
    journal = {Evolution},
    number = {9},
    pages = {2731--2745},
    title = {Ecological opportunity and the rate of morphological evolution in the diversification of Greater Antillean anoles},
    volume = {64},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • J. B. Yoder, E. Clancey, S. Des Roches, J. M. Eastman, L. Gentry, W. Godsoe, T. J. Hagey, D. Jochimsen, B. P. Oswald, J. Robertson, Sarver, J. J. Schenk, S. F. Spear, and L. J. Harmon, “Ecological opportunity and the origin of adaptive radiations,” Journal of evolutionary biology, vol. 23, iss. 8, pp. 1581-1596, 2010.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    Ecological opportunity — through entry into a new environment, the origin of a key innovation or extinction of antagonists — is widely thought to link ecological population dynamics to evolutionary diversification. The population-level processes arising from ecological opportunity are well documented under the concept of ecological release. However, there is little consensus as to how these processes promote phenotypic diversification, rapid speciation and adaptive radiation. We propose that ecological opportunity could promote adaptive radiation by generating specific changes to the selective regimes acting on natural populations, both by relaxing effective stabilizing selection and by creating conditions that ultimately generate diversifying selection. We assess theoretical and empirical evidence for these effects of ecological opportunity and review emerging phylogenetic approaches that attempt to detect the signature of ecological opportunity across geological time. Finally, we evaluate the evidence for the evolutionary effects of ecological opportunity in the diversification of Caribbean Anolis lizards. Some of the processes that could link ecological opportunity to adaptive radiation are well documented, but others remain unsupported. We suggest that more study is required to characterize the form of natural selection acting on natural populations and to better describe the relationship between ecological opportunity and speciation rates.

    @article{Yoder:,
    abstract = {Ecological opportunity -- through entry into a new environment, the origin of a key innovation or extinction of antagonists -- is widely thought to link ecological population dynamics to evolutionary diversification. The population-level processes arising from ecological opportunity are well documented under the concept of ecological release. However, there is little consensus as to how these processes promote phenotypic diversification, rapid speciation and adaptive radiation. We propose that ecological opportunity could promote adaptive radiation by generating specific changes to the selective regimes acting on natural populations, both by relaxing effective stabilizing selection and by creating conditions that ultimately generate diversifying selection. We assess theoretical and empirical evidence for these effects of ecological opportunity and review emerging phylogenetic approaches that attempt to detect the signature of ecological opportunity across geological time. Finally, we evaluate the evidence for the evolutionary effects of ecological opportunity in the diversification of Caribbean Anolis lizards. Some of the processes that could link ecological opportunity to adaptive radiation are well documented, but others remain unsupported. We suggest that more study is required to characterize the form of natural selection acting on natural populations and to better describe the relationship between ecological opportunity and speciation rates.},
    author = {Yoder, J. B. and Clancey, E. and Des Roches, S. and Eastman, J. M. and Gentry, L. and Godsoe, W. and Hagey, T. J. and Jochimsen, D. and Oswald, B. P. and Robertson, J. and Sarver and Schenk, J. J. and Spear, S. F. and Harmon, L. J.},
    journal = {Journal of Evolutionary Biology},
    number = {8},
    pages = {1581--1596},
    title = {Ecological opportunity and the origin of adaptive radiations},
    volume = {23},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • A. Herrera-Montes and N. Brokaw, “Conservation value of tropical secondary forest: a herpetofaunal perspective,” Biological conservation, vol. 143, iss. 6, pp. 1414-1422, 2010.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    In some areas of the tropics forests are recovering on abandoned cattle pastures. These secondary forests may be important habitats for conserving biodiversity, but we know little about their species composition over the long term. We studied herpetofaunal community changes in a 40 years chronosequence of forest succession on abandoned pastures in Puerto Rico. Twelve submontane sites (100–250 masl) represented four forest recovery stages: pasture, young (1–5 years after abandonment), intermediate (10–20 years), and advanced (40 years). Among these stages we analyzed the relationship of forest structure, microclimate, and herpetofaunal community structure. During succession total forest height increased, new strata of vegetation appeared in the understory, and the forest gained heterogeneity and complexity. Microclimate changed with changes in the physiognomy and structure of the vegetation. Microclimatic shifts were more dramatic in forest &lt;20 years since abandonment. During 1 year we observed 7991 individuals of thirteen reptilian species (60\% of observations) and six anuran species. Herpetofaunal richness was similar among stages, but the total abundance increased through succession. Relative abundance of anurans and reptiles was similar between stages, but species dominance changed with succession. Forest &gt;20 years old resembles mature forest in some structural characteristics important to herpetofauna and can provide habitat for forest herpetofauna in disturbed areas.

    @article{Herrera-Montes:,
    abstract = {In some areas of the tropics forests are recovering on abandoned cattle pastures. These secondary forests may be important habitats for conserving biodiversity, but we know little about their species composition over the long term. We studied herpetofaunal community changes in a 40 years chronosequence of forest succession on abandoned pastures in Puerto Rico. Twelve submontane sites (100--250 masl) represented four forest recovery stages: pasture, young (1--5 years after abandonment), intermediate (10--20 years), and advanced (40 years). Among these stages we analyzed the relationship of forest structure, microclimate, and herpetofaunal community structure. During succession total forest height increased, new strata of vegetation appeared in the understory, and the forest gained heterogeneity and complexity. Microclimate changed with changes in the physiognomy and structure of the vegetation. Microclimatic shifts were more dramatic in forest \&lt;20 years since abandonment. During 1 year we observed 7991 individuals of thirteen reptilian species (60\% of observations) and six anuran species. Herpetofaunal richness was similar among stages, but the total abundance increased through succession. Relative abundance of anurans and reptiles was similar between stages, but species dominance changed with succession. Forest \&gt;20 years old resembles mature forest in some structural characteristics important to herpetofauna and can provide habitat for forest herpetofauna in disturbed areas.},
    author = {Herrera-Montes, Adriana and Brokaw, Nicholas},
    journal = {Biological Conservation},
    number = {6},
    pages = {1414--1422},
    title = {Conservation value of tropical secondary forest: A herpetofaunal perspective},
    volume = {143},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • J. Eales, R. S. Thorpe, and A. Malhotra, “Colonization history and genetic diversity: adaptive potential in early stage invasions,” Molecular ecology, vol. 19, iss. 14, pp. 2858-2869, 2010.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]
    The introduction of Anolis cristatellus from the multiple species anole community of Puerto Rico in the Greater Antilles to the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles, with its solitary endemic anole, provides an example of a very recent, timed, single colonization. We investigate the geographic origin and adaptive potential of the Dominican population using a range of methods including {mtDNA} phylogeography, nuclear microsatellite variation and multiple paternity studies, as well as heritability estimates, common garden experiments and comparative geographic studies of quantitative scalation traits. Phylogeographic analysis of {NADH2} and microsatellite studies suggests that the Dominican population arose from a set of individuals from the central west area of Puerto Rico within their endemic range. The multiple-individual inoculation, together with sperm storage and evidence of multiple paternity indicate genetic variability and suggest the potential for adaptation by natural selection. Estimates of heritability, common garden experiments and broad sense {QST}/{FST} ratios, linked to replicated comparisons along elevational transects go some way to suggesting that the invasive populations may be adapting by natural selection, in parallel with the endemic anole, in the brief period since their introduction.

    @article{Eales:,
    abstract = {The introduction of Anolis cristatellus from the multiple species anole community of Puerto Rico in the Greater Antilles to the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles, with its solitary endemic anole, provides an example of a very recent, timed, single colonization. We investigate the geographic origin and adaptive potential of the Dominican population using a range of methods including {mtDNA} phylogeography, nuclear microsatellite variation and multiple paternity studies, as well as heritability estimates, common garden experiments and comparative geographic studies of quantitative scalation traits. Phylogeographic analysis of {NADH2} and microsatellite studies suggests that the Dominican population arose from a set of individuals from the central west area of Puerto Rico within their endemic range. The multiple-individual inoculation, together with sperm storage and evidence of multiple paternity indicate genetic variability and suggest the potential for adaptation by natural selection. Estimates of heritability, common garden experiments and broad sense {QST}/{FST} ratios, linked to replicated comparisons along elevational transects go some way to suggesting that the invasive populations may be adapting by natural selection, in parallel with the endemic anole, in the brief period since their introduction.},
    author = {Eales, J. and Thorpe, R. S. and Malhotra, A.},
    journal = {Molecular Ecology},
    number = {14},
    pages = {2858--2869},
    title = {Colonization history and genetic diversity: adaptive potential in early stage invasions},
    volume = {19},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • C. L. Weldon and S. P. Mackessy, “Biological and proteomic analysis of venom from the puerto rican racer (alsophis portoricensis: dipsadidae),” Toxicon, vol. 55, iss. 2, pp. 558-569, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Weldon:,
    author = {Weldon, Caroline L. and Mackessy, Stephen P.},
    journal = {Toxicon},
    number = {2},
    pages = {558--569},
    title = {Biological and proteomic analysis of venom from the Puerto Rican Racer (Alsophis portoricensis: Dipsadidae)},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • {. E. {Ramírez}-{Chaves}, {. A. {Pérez}, {. {MEJÍA}-{EGAS}, {. F. {Tobar}-{Tosse}, {. {MUÑOZ}, and {. {TRUJILLO} {LOZADA}, “Biodiversity at the universidad del cauca campus, popayan, colombia,” Biotecnolog\\’\\ia en el sector agropecuario y agroindustrial, vol. 8, iss. 2, pp. 104-117, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{RAMIREZ-CHAVES:,
    author = {{Ram{\'{\i}}rez}-{Chaves}, {H{\'{e}}ctor} E. and {P{\'{e}}rez}, {Weimar} A. and {MEJ{\'{I}}A}-{EGAS}, {OFELIA} and {Tobar}-{Tosse}, {Henry} F. and {MU{\~{N}}OZ}, {ANDERSON} and {TRUJILLO} {LOZADA}, {ADALBERTO}},
    journal = {Biotecnolog\\'\\ia en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial},
    number = {2},
    pages = {104--117},
    title = {BIODIVERSITY AT THE UNIVERSIDAD DEL CAUCA CAMPUS, POPAYAN, COLOMBIA},
    volume = {8},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • L. Alibardi, “Autoradiographic observations on developing and growing claws of reptiles,” Acta zoologica, vol. 91, iss. 2, pp. 233-241, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Alibardi:,
    author = {Alibardi, Lorenzo},
    journal = {Acta Zoologica},
    number = {2},
    pages = {233--241},
    title = {Autoradiographic observations on developing and growing claws of reptiles},
    volume = {91},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • {. E. Dorcas, {. M. Domske, and {. E. Vaughan, “A herpetofaunal inventory of lake keowee and lake jocassee, south carolina,” Journal of the north carolina academy of science, vol. 126, pp. 88-97, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Dorcas:,
    author = {Dorcas, {Michael} E. and Domske, {Adrien} M. and Vaughan, {Gene} E.},
    journal = {Journal of the North Carolina Academy of Science},
    pages = {88--97},
    title = {A herpetofaunal inventory of Lake Keowee and Lake Jocassee, South Carolina},
    volume = {126},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • T. J. Ord, J. A. Stamps, and J. B. Losos, “Adaptation and plasticity of animal communication in fluctuating environments,” Evolution, vol. 64, iss. 11, pp. 3134-3148, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Ord:,
    author = {Ord, Terry J. and Stamps, Judy A. and Losos, Jonathan B.},
    journal = {Evolution},
    number = {11},
    pages = {3134--3148},
    title = {Adaptation and plasticity of animal communication in fluctuating environments},
    volume = {64},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • P. A. Novick, The diversity and evolution of transposable elements in the genome of the lizard anolis carolinensis, CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @book{Novick:,
    author = {Novick, Peter A.},
    publisher = {CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK},
    title = {The diversity and evolution of transposable elements in the genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • C. Luskin, Evaluating nature’s 2009 `15 evolutionary gems’ Darwin-Evangelism kit, , 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @book{Luskin:,
    author = {Luskin, Casey},
    title = {Evaluating nature's 2009 `15 evolutionary gems' {Darwin-Evangelism} kit},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • O. Isamu, Y. Mayumi, A. Tetsuto, and S. Hajime, “High population densities of an exotic lizard, anolis carolinensisand its possible role as a pollinator in the ogasawara islands.,” in Restoring the oceanic island ecosystem, Springer, 2010, pp. 71-74.
    [BibTeX]
    @incollection{Isamu:,
    author = {Isamu, Okochi and Mayumi, Yoshimura and Tetsuto, Abe and Hajime, Suzuki},
    booktitle = {Restoring the Oceanic Island Ecosystem},
    pages = {71--74},
    publisher = {Springer},
    title = {High population densities of an exotic lizard, Anolis carolinensisand its possible role as a pollinator in the Ogasawara Islands.},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • L. Rodríguez, “Dieta de anolis homolechis (cope, 1864) en el jard\\’\\in botánico nacional de cuba,” Revista colombiana de ciencia animal, vol. 2, iss. 1, pp. 147-152, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Rodriguez:,
    author = {Rodr{\'{\i}}guez, Lourdes},
    journal = {Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal},
    number = {1},
    pages = {147--152},
    title = {Dieta de Anolis homolechis (cope, 1864) en el jard\\'\\in bot\'{a}nico nacional de Cuba},
    volume = {2},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • M. H. Yánez-Muñoz, M. A. Urgilés, M. Altamirano, and S. R. Cáceres, “Redescripción de anolis proboscis peters & orcés (reptilia: polychrotidae), con el descubrimiento de las hembras de la especie y comentarios sobre su distribución y taxonom\\’\\ia,” Avances cienc. ing, vol. 2, p. B7–B15, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Yanez-Munoz:a,
    author = {Y{\'{a}}nez-Mu{\~{n}}oz, Mario H. and Urgil{\'{e}}s, Miguel A. and Altamirano, Marco and C{\'{a}}ceres, Stalin R.},
    journal = {Avances Cienc. Ing},
    pages = {B7--B15},
    title = {Redescripci\'{o}n de Anolis proboscis Peters \& Orc\'{e}s (Reptilia: Polychrotidae), con el descubrimiento de las hembras de la especie y comentarios sobre su distribuci\'{o}n y taxonom\\'\\ia},
    volume = {2},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • W. L. Eckalbar, C. Infante, N. Emmert, J. Losos, A. Rawls, J. Wilson-Rawls, and K. Kusumi, “Identification of a divergent notch pathway delta ligand in the segmentation clock of the reptile, anolis carolinensis,” Developmental biology, vol. 344, iss. 1, p. 528, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Eckalbar:a,
    author = {Eckalbar, Walter L. and Infante, Carlos and Emmert, Nataliya and Losos, Jonathan and Rawls, Alan and Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne and Kusumi, Kenro},
    journal = {Developmental Biology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {528},
    title = {Identification of a divergent notch pathway delta ligand in the segmentation clock of the reptile, Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {344},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • F. Shirakura, K. Sasaki, J. R. Arevalo, and M. W. Palmer, “Use of habitat by the semiaquatic lizard, norops aquaticus,” The southwestern naturalist, vol. 55, iss. 3, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Shirakura:,
    author = {Shirakura, F. and Sasaki, K. and Arevalo, J. R. and Palmer, M. W.},
    journal = {The Southwestern Naturalist},
    number = {3},
    title = {USE OF HABITAT BY THE SEMIAQUATIC LIZARD, NOROPS AQUATICUS},
    volume = {55},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • S. T. Hsieh and C. Smithers, “Adaptive divergence in green anole lizards due to species invasions,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2010, p. E78.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Hsieh:,
    author = {Hsieh, S. T. and Smithers, C.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E78},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Adaptive divergence in green anole lizards due to species invasions},
    volume = {50},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • J. E. Steffen, “Perch height differences among female anolis polylepis exhibiting dorsal pattern polymorphism,” Reptiles and amphibians: conservation and natural history, vol. 17, pp. 89-94, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Steffen:b,
    author = {Steffen, J. E.},
    journal = {Reptiles and Amphibians: Conservation and Natural History},
    pages = {89--94},
    title = {Perch height differences among female Anolis polylepis exhibiting dorsal pattern polymorphism},
    volume = {17},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • S. Makino, “Management of invasive alien species in the bonin islands,” in Restoring the oceanic island ecosystem, Springer, 2010, pp. 113-116.
    [BibTeX]
    @incollection{Makino:,
    author = {Makino, Shu{\'{n}}ichi},
    booktitle = {Restoring the Oceanic Island Ecosystem},
    pages = {113--116},
    publisher = {Springer},
    title = {Management of Invasive Alien Species in the Bonin Islands},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • J. A. Velasco, P. D. Gutiérrez-Cárdenas, and A. Quintero-Angel, “A new species of anolis of the aequatorialis group (squamata: iguania) from the central andes of colombia,” The herpetological journal, vol. 20, iss. 4, pp. 231-236, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Velasco:,
    author = {Velasco, Juli{\'{a}}n A. and Guti{\'{e}}rrez-C{\'{a}}rdenas, Paul D. and Quintero-Angel, Andr{\'{e}}s},
    journal = {The Herpetological Journal},
    number = {4},
    pages = {231--236},
    title = {A new species of Anolis of the aequatorialis group (Squamata: Iguania) from the central Andes of Colombia},
    volume = {20},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • J. B. Losos, “A tale of two radiations: similarities and differences in the evolutionary diversification of darwin’s finches and greater antillean anolis lizards,” Search of the causes of evolution from field observations to mechanisms (eds pr grant, br grant), pp. 309-331, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Losos:r,
    author = {Losos, J. B.},
    journal = {Search of the causes of evolution from field observations to mechanisms (eds PR Grant, BR Grant)},
    pages = {309--331},
    title = {A tale of two radiations: similarities and differences in the evolutionary diversification of Darwin's finches and Greater Antillean Anolis lizards},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • W. E. Cooper, “Risk factors affecting escape behavior by the jamaican lizard anolis lineatopus (polychrotidae, squamata),” Caribbean journal of science, vol. 46, iss. 2, pp. 216-227, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Cooper-Jr:,
    author = {Cooper, William E.},
    journal = {Caribbean Journal of Science},
    number = {2},
    pages = {216--227},
    title = {Risk factors affecting escape behavior by the Jamaican lizard Anolis lineatopus (Polychrotidae, Squamata)},
    volume = {46},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • N. Kachi, “Impacts of invasive alien species on native ecosystems on the bonin islands,” in Restoring the oceanic island ecosystem, Springer, 2010, pp. 11-14.
    [BibTeX]
    @incollection{Kachi:,
    author = {Kachi, Naoki},
    booktitle = {Restoring the Oceanic Island Ecosystem},
    pages = {11--14},
    publisher = {Springer},
    title = {Impacts of Invasive Alien Species on Native Ecosystems on the Bonin Islands},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • K. L. Krysko, K. M. Enge, E. M. Donlan, E. A. Golden, J. P. Burgess, and K. W. Larsen, “The non-marine herpetofauna of key biscayne, florida,” Herpetological conservation and biology, vol. 5, iss. 1, pp. 132-142, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Krysko:,
    author = {Krysko, Kenneth L. and Enge, Kevin M. and Donlan, Ellen M. and Golden, Elizabeth A. and Burgess, Joseph P. and Larsen, K. W.},
    journal = {Herpetological Conservation and Biology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {132--142},
    title = {The non-marine herpetofauna of Key Biscayne, Florida},
    volume = {5},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • S. Lotzkat, J. J. Köhler, A. Hertz, and G. Köhler, “Morphology and colouration of male anolis datzorum (squamata: polychrotidae),” Salamandra, vol. 46, iss. 1, pp. 48-52, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Lotzkat:a,
    author = {Lotzkat, Sebastian and K{\"{o}}hler, J. J. and Hertz, Andreas and K{\"{o}}hler, Gunther},
    journal = {Salamandra},
    number = {1},
    pages = {48--52},
    title = {Morphology and colouration of male Anolis datzorum (Squamata: Polychrotidae)},
    volume = {46},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • J. Eales and R. S. Thorpe, “Revealing the geographic origin of an invasive lizard: the problem of native population genetic diversity,” Biological invasions, vol. 12, iss. 1, pp. 77-86, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Eales:a,
    author = {Eales, J. and Thorpe, R. S.},
    journal = {Biological Invasions},
    number = {1},
    pages = {77--86},
    title = {Revealing the geographic origin of an invasive lizard: the problem of native population genetic diversity},
    volume = {12},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • L. J. Revell, D. L. Mahler, J. R. Sweeney, M. Sobotka, V. E. Fancher, and J. B. Losos, “Nonlinear selection and the evolution of variances and covariances for continuous characters in an anole,” Journal of evolutionary biology, vol. 23, iss. 2, pp. 407-421, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Revell:a,
    author = {Revell, L. J. and Mahler, D. L. and Sweeney, J. R. and Sobotka, M. and Fancher, V. E. and Losos, J. B.},
    journal = {Journal of evolutionary biology},
    number = {2},
    pages = {407--421},
    title = {Nonlinear selection and the evolution of variances and covariances for continuous characters in an anole},
    volume = {23},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • G. R. Reynolds and C. Deal, “Where do all the babies go,” Understanding the biology of juvenile rainbow boas. times of the islands, winter, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Reynolds:b,
    author = {Reynolds, R. Graham and Deal, Cory},
    journal = {Understanding the biology of juvenile Rainbow Boas. Times of the Islands, Winter},
    title = {Where do all the babies go},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • B. D. Jolley, S. S. Ditchkoff, B. D. Sparklin, L. B. Hanson, M. S. Mitchell, and J. B. Grand, “Estimate of herpetofauna depredation by a population of wild pigs,” Journal of mammalogy, vol. 91, iss. 2, pp. 519-524, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Jolley:,
    author = {Jolley, D. Buck and Ditchkoff, Stephen S. and Sparklin, Bill D. and Hanson, Laura B. and Mitchell, Michael S. and Grand, James B.},
    journal = {Journal of Mammalogy},
    number = {2},
    pages = {519--524},
    title = {Estimate of herpetofauna depredation by a population of wild pigs},
    volume = {91},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • M. Murakami and T. Hirao, “Lizard predation alters the effect of habitat area on the species richness of insect assemblages on bahamian isles,” Diversity and distributions, vol. 16, iss. 6, pp. 952-958, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Murakami:,
    author = {Murakami, Masashi and Hirao, Toshihide},
    journal = {Diversity and Distributions},
    number = {6},
    pages = {952--958},
    title = {Lizard predation alters the effect of habitat area on the species richness of insect assemblages on Bahamian isles},
    volume = {16},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • A. Gasc, M. C. Duryea, R. M. Cox, A. Kern, and R. Calsbeek, “Invasive predators deplete genetic diversity of island lizards,” Plos one, vol. 5, iss. 8, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Gasc:,
    author = {Gasc, Amandine and Duryea, M. C. and Cox, Robert M. and Kern, Andrew and Calsbeek, Ryan},
    journal = {PloS one},
    number = {8},
    title = {Invasive predators deplete genetic diversity of island lizards},
    volume = {5},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • G. Köhler and M. Vesely, “A revision of the anolis sericeus complex with the resurrection of a. wellbornae and the description of a new species (squamata: polychrotidae),” Herpetologica, vol. 66, iss. 2, pp. 207-228, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kohler:,
    author = {K{\"{o}}hler, Gunther and Vesely, Milan},
    journal = {Herpetologica},
    number = {2},
    pages = {207--228},
    title = {A revision of the Anolis sericeus complex with the resurrection of A. wellbornae and the description of a new species (Squamata: Polychrotidae)},
    volume = {66},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • K. Kawakami, “What’s the bonin islands?,” in Restoring the oceanic island ecosystem, Springer, 2010, pp. 3-7.
    [BibTeX]
    @incollection{Kawakami:,
    author = {Kawakami, Kazuto},
    booktitle = {Restoring the oceanic island ecosystem},
    pages = {3--7},
    publisher = {Springer},
    title = {What's the Bonin Islands?},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • D. L. Warren, R. E. Glor, and M. Turelli, “ENMTools: a toolbox for comparative studies of environmental niche models,” Ecography, vol. 33, iss. 3, pp. 607-611, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Warren:,
    author = {Warren, Dan L. and Glor, Richard E. and Turelli, Michael},
    journal = {Ecography},
    number = {3},
    pages = {607--611},
    title = {{ENMTools}: a toolbox for comparative studies of environmental niche models},
    volume = {33},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • L. J. Fleishman and A. C. Pallus, “Motion perception and visual signal design in anolis lizards,” Proceedings of the royal society of london b: biological sciences, vol. 277, iss. 1700, pp. 3547-3554, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Fleishman:e,
    author = {Fleishman, Leo J. and Pallus, Adam C.},
    journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences},
    number = {1700},
    pages = {3547--3554},
    title = {Motion perception and visual signal design in Anolis lizards},
    volume = {277},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • R. W. Avila, F. L. Souza, and R. J. da Silva, “Helminths from seven species of lizards (reptilia: squamata) at the cerrado of mato grosso do sul state, brazil,” Comparative parasitology, vol. 77, iss. 1, pp. 67-71, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Avila:b,
    author = {Avila, Robson W. and Souza, Franco L. and da Silva, Reinaldo J.},
    journal = {Comparative Parasitology},
    number = {1},
    pages = {67--71},
    title = {Helminths from seven species of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) at the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil},
    volume = {77},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • G. C. Boorse and J. Libbon, “Genomic characterization of two leptin genes and a leptin receptor gene in the green anole, anolis carolinensis,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2010, p. E207.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Boorse:,
    author = {Boorse, G. C. and Libbon, J.},
    booktitle = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
    pages = {E207},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Genomic characterization of two leptin genes and a leptin receptor gene in the Green Anole, Anolis carolinensis},
    volume = {50},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • R. M. Cox, E. U. Parker, D. M. Cheney, A. L. Liebl, L. B. Martin, and R. Calsbeek, “Experimental evidence for physiological costs underlying the trade-off between reproduction and survival,” Functional ecology, vol. 24, iss. 6, pp. 1262-1269, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Cox:f,
    author = {Cox, Robert M. and Parker, Elizabeth U. and Cheney, Diane M. and Liebl, Andrea L. and Martin, Lynn B. and Calsbeek, Ryan},
    journal = {Functional Ecology},
    number = {6},
    pages = {1262--1269},
    title = {Experimental evidence for physiological costs underlying the trade-off between reproduction and survival},
    volume = {24},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • G. Köhler and J. Vargas, “Anolis datzorum köhler, ponce, sunyer & batista, 2007, an addition to the known herpetofauna of costa rica. anolis datzorum köhler, ponce, sunyer y batista, 2007, una adición a la herpetofaunaconocida de costa rica.,” Herpetozoa., vol. 23, iss. 1, pp. 95-98, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Kohler:c,
    author = {K{\"{o}}hler, Gunther and Vargas, Joseph},
    journal = {Herpetozoa.},
    number = {1},
    pages = {95--98},
    title = {Anolis datzorum K\"{o}hler, Ponce, Sunyer \& Batista, 2007, an addition to the known herpetofauna of Costa Rica. Anolis datzorum K\"{o}hler, Ponce, Sunyer y Batista, 2007, una adici\'{o}n a la herpetofaunaconocida de Costa Rica.},
    volume = {23},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • O. Torres-Carvajal, F. Ayala, and A. Carvajal-Campos, “Reptilia, squamata, iguanidae, anolis heterodermus duméril, 1851: distribution extension, first record for ecuador and notes on color variation,” Check list, vol. 6, iss. 1, pp. 189-190, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Torres-Carvajal:,
    author = {Torres-Carvajal, Omar and Ayala, Fernando and Carvajal-Campos, Amaranta},
    journal = {Check List},
    number = {1},
    pages = {189--190},
    title = {Reptilia, Squamata, Iguanidae, Anolis heterodermus Dum\'{e}ril, 1851: Distribution extension, first record for Ecuador and notes on color variation},
    volume = {6},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • R. S. Thorpe, Y. Surget-Groba, and H. Johansson, “Genetic tests for ecological and allopatric speciation in anoles on an island archipelago,” Plos genet, vol. 6, iss. 4, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Thorpe:,
    author = {Thorpe, Roger S. and Surget-Groba, Yann and Johansson, Helena},
    journal = {PLoS Genet},
    number = {4},
    title = {Genetic tests for ecological and allopatric speciation in anoles on an island archipelago},
    volume = {6},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • R. E. Cohen and J. Wade, “Newly deposited maternal hormones can be detected in the yolks of oviductal eggs in the green anole lizard,” Journal of experimental zoology part a: ecological genetics and physiology, vol. 313, iss. 6, pp. 352-358, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Cohen:,
    author = {Cohen, Rachel E. and Wade, Juli},
    journal = {Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology},
    number = {6},
    pages = {352--358},
    title = {Newly deposited maternal hormones can be detected in the yolks of oviductal eggs in the green anole lizard},
    volume = {313},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • E. Cabrera-Guzmán, V. H. Reynoso, and Others, “Use of sleeping perches by the lizard anolis uniformis (squamata: polychrotidae) in the fragmented tropical rainforest at los tuxtlas, mexico,” Revista mexicana de biodiversidad, vol. 81, iss. 3, pp. 921-924, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Cabrera-Guzman:a,
    author = {Cabrera-Guzm{\'{a}}n, Elisa and Reynoso, V{\'{\i}}ctor H. and {Others}},
    journal = {Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad},
    number = {3},
    pages = {921--924},
    title = {Use of sleeping perches by the lizard Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae) in the fragmented tropical rainforest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico},
    volume = {81},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • W. B. Sutton, Y. Wang, and C. J. Schweitzer, “Amphibian and reptile response to prescribed burning and thinning in pine-hardwood forests: pre-treatment results,” , 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Sutton:a,
    author = {Sutton, William B. and Wang, Yong and Schweitzer, Callie J.},
    title = {Amphibian and reptile response to prescribed burning and thinning in pine-hardwood forests: pre-treatment results},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • M. P. Black, S. J. Salem, C. B. Ezeoke, M. J. Sabula, and W. Wilczynski, “Anolis carolinensis male-male agonistic encounters: a three year study of the best predictors for determining dominant/subordinate status,” in Front. neurosci. conference abstract, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Black:,
    author = {Black, M. P. and Salem, Scarlett J. and Ezeoke, C. B. and Sabula, M. J. and Wilczynski, Walter},
    booktitle = {Front. Neurosci. Conference Abstract},
    title = {Anolis carolinensis male-male agonistic encounters: a three year study of the best predictors for determining dominant/subordinate status},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • {. A. {Rodríguez}-{Robles}, T. Jezkova, and M. Leal, “Climatic stability and genetic divergence in the tropical insular lizard anolis krugi, the puerto rican `lagartijo jardinero de la montaña’,” Molecular ecology, vol. 19, iss. 9, pp. 1860-1876, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{RODRIGUEZ-ROBLES:,
    author = {{Rodr{\'{\i}}guez}-{Robles}, {Javier} A. and Jezkova, Tereza and Leal, Manuel},
    journal = {Molecular Ecology},
    number = {9},
    pages = {1860--1876},
    title = {Climatic stability and genetic divergence in the tropical insular lizard Anolis krugi, the Puerto Rican `Lagartijo Jardinero de la Monta\~{n}a'},
    volume = {19},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • J. R. Edwards and S. P. Lailvaux, “Display behavior and habitat use in single and mixed populations of anolis carolinensis and anolis sagrei lizards,” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2010, p. E48.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Edwards:,
    author = {Edwards, J. R. and Lailvaux, S. P.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E48},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Display Behavior and Habitat Use in Single and Mixed Populations of Anolis carolinensis and Anolis sagrei Lizards},
    volume = {50},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • J. B. Losos, “Leaping lizards,” , 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Losos:q,
    author = {Losos, Jonathan B.},
    title = {Leaping Lizards},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • N. Di-Po{"i}, J. I. Montoya-Burgos, H. Miller, O. Pourquié, M. C. Milinkovitch, and D. Duboule, “Changes in hox genes’ structure and function during the evolution of the squamate body plan,” Nature, vol. 464, iss. 7285, pp. 99-103, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Di-Poi:,
    author = {Di-Po{"i}, Nicolas and Montoya-Burgos, Juan I. and Miller, Hilary and Pourqui{\'{e}}, Olivier and Milinkovitch, Michel C. and Duboule, Denis},
    journal = {Nature},
    number = {7285},
    pages = {99--103},
    title = {Changes in Hox genes' structure and function during the evolution of the squamate body plan},
    volume = {464},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • P. J. Bergmann and S. Foldi, “Ecol 483/583–Herpetology lab 6: reptile diversity 1: lizards,” , 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Bergmann:,
    author = {Bergmann, P. J. and Foldi, S.},
    title = {Ecol {483/583--Herpetology} Lab 6: Reptile Diversity 1: Lizards},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • C. Kuo and D. J. Irschick, “Loading effects on jumping and running in green anole lizards (anolis carolinensis),” in Integrative and comparative biology, 2010, p. E95.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{Kuo:,
    author = {Kuo, Chi-Yun and Irschick, D. J.},
    booktitle = {INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY},
    pages = {E95},
    publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC JOURNALS DEPT, 2001 EVANS RD, CARY, NC 27513 USA},
    title = {Loading effects on jumping and running in green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis)},
    volume = {50},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • W. H. Smith and L. J. Rissler, “Quantifying disturbance in terrestrial communities: abundance–biomass comparisons of herpetofauna closely track forest succession,” Restoration ecology, vol. 18, pp. 195-204, 2010.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Smith:z,
    author = {Smith, Walter H. and Rissler, Leslie J.},
    journal = {Restoration Ecology},
    pages = {195--204},
    title = {Quantifying disturbance in terrestrial communities: abundance--biomass comparisons of herpetofauna closely track forest succession},
    volume = {18},
    year = {2010}
    }

  • K. E. Crandell, A. Herrel, K. Autumn, and J. B. Losos, &#